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# 555 Timer

Digital Electronics

555 Timer
This presentation will
Introduce the 555 Timer.
Derive the characteristic equations for the charging and
discharging of a capacitor.

## Present the equations for period, frequency, and duty cycle

for a 555 Timer Oscillator.

Going Further.
Detail the operation of a 555 Timer Oscillator.
Derive the equations for period, frequency, and duty cycle for
a 555 Timer Oscillator.
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## What is a 555 Timer?

The 555 timer is an 8-pin IC that is
capable of producing accurate time delays
and/or oscillators.
In the time delay mode, the delay is
controlled by one external resistor and
capacitor.
In the oscillator mode, the frequency of
oscillation and duty cycle are both
controlled with two external resistors and
one capacitor.
This presentation will discuss how to use
a 555 timer in the oscillator mode.
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Capacitor
A capacitor is an electrical component that can
temporarily store a charge (voltage).
The rate that the capacitor charges/discharges is
a function of the capacitors value and its
resistance.
To understand how the capacitor is used in the
555 Timer oscillator circuit, you must understand
the basic charge and discharge cycles of the
capacitor.
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## Capacitor is initially discharged.

Switch is moved to position A.
Capacitor will charge to +12 v.
Capacitor will charge through
the 2 K resistor.

## Equation for Charging Capacitor

VC VFinal VInitial 1 - e

-t/RC

Initial

Where :
VC The voltage across the capacitor
VFinal The voltage across the capacitor that is fully charged
VInitial Any initial voltage across the capacitor as it begins to charge
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## Capacitor is initially charged.

Switch is moved to position B.
Capacitor will discharge to +0 v.
Capacitor will discharge through
the 3 K resistor.

## VC VInitial VFinal e-t/RC

Where :
VC The voltage across the capacitor

## VFinal The voltage across the capacitor that is fully discharged

VInitial Any initial voltage across the capacitor as it begins to discharge
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12 v
5V

VC

20 mSec

Time

0v

## Switch has been at position B

for a long period of time. The
capacitor is completely
discharged.

## Switch is moved to position

A. The capacitor charges
through the 2K resistor.

## Switch is moved back to

position B. The capacitor
discharges through the
3K resistors.

Discharge (7)

Vcc (8)

T1

Flip-Flop

RESET

SET

COMP2
Output (3)

COMP1

8
Ground (1)

Reset (4)

5 Volts

RA
N/C

3.333 V

Discharge

RB

Output

1.666 V

Threshold /
Trigger

C
Ground

N/C

## 555 Timer Design Equations

tHIGH : Calculations for the Oscillators HIGH Time
THE OUTPUT IS HIGH WHILE THE CAPACITOR
IS CHARGING THROUGH RA + RB.
5v
3.333 v

Vc

1.666 v
0v

tHIGH

HIGH

Output
LOW

tHIGH 0.693RA RB C

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## 555 Timer Design Equations

tLOW : Calculations for the Oscillators LOW Time
THE OUTPUT IS LOW WHILE THE CAPACITOR
IS DISCHARGING THROUGH RB.
5v
3.333 v

Vc

1.666 v
0v

tLOW

HIGH

Output
LOW

t LOW 0.693R BC

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## 555 Timer Period / Frequency / DC

Period:

Duty Cycle:

t HIGH 0.693 R A RB C

DC

t HIGH
100%
T

DC

0.693 R A RB C
100%
0.693 R A 2RB C

DC

R
R

## t LOW 0.693 RBC

T t HIGH t LOW
T 0.693 R A RB C 0.693 RBC
T 0.693 R A 2RB C

RB
100%
2RB

Frequency:
F
F

1
T
1

0.693 R A 2RB C

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## Example: 555 Oscillator

Example:
For the 555 Timer oscillator shown below, calculate the circuits,
period (T), frequency (F), and duty cycle (DC).

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## Example: 555 Oscillator

Solution:

RA 390

RB 180

C 6.8 F

Period:

T 0.693 R A 2RB C

T 3.534 mSec
Frequency:

1
F
T
1
F
3.534 mSec
F 282.941 Hz

Duty Cycle:

R R 100%
R 2R
390 180 100%
DC
390 2 180
DC

DC 76%

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## Example: 555 Oscillator

Example:
For the 555 Timer oscillator shown below, calculate the value for
RA & RB so that the oscillator has a frequency of 2.5 KHz @ 60%
duty cycle.

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## Example: 555 Oscillator

Solution:
Frequency:

Duty Cycle:

1
1

400 Sec
f 2.5 kHz
T 0.693 R A 2RB C 400 Sec
T

## T 0.693 R A 2RB 0.47 f 400 Sec

R A 2 RB

400 Sec
1228 .09
0.693 0.47 f

R A 2 RB 1228 .09

DC

R
R

R
R

RB
100% 60%
2RB

RB
0 .6
2RB

R A RB 0.6R A 2RB
R A R B 0 .6 R A 1 .2 R B
0 . 4 R A 0 .2 R B
R A 0 .5 R B

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Solution:
Frequency:

Duty Cycle:

RA 2 RB 1228.09

RA 0.5 RB

## Substitute and Solve for RB

R A 2 RB 1228 .09
0.5 RB 2 RB 1228 .09
2.5 RB 1228 .09
RB 491.23
Substitute and Solve for RA

R A 2 RB 1228 .09

## R A 2 491.23 1228 .09

R A 982.472 1228 .09
R A 245.618

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Going Further
555 Oscillator
Detail Analysis

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5v

3.333
v

Vc

1.666
v
0v

RESET

SET

T1

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

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5v

3.333
v

Vc

1.666
v
0v

RESET

SET

T1

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

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5v

3.333
v

Vc

1.666
v
0v

RESET

SET

T1

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

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5v

3.333
v

Vc

## OUTPUT IS HIGH WHILE THE CAPACITOR IS

CHARGING THROUGH RA + RB.

1.666
v
0v

RESET

SET

T1

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

## OUTPUT IS LOW WHILE THE CAPACITOR

IS DISCHARGING THROUGH RB.

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## 555 Timer Design Equations

tHIGH : Calculations for the Oscillators HIGH Time

VInitial 1 - e RC VInitial

VC VFinal

RC
2
1

1
e

31 VCC
3
3
CC
CC
CC

## VCC VCC 1 - e RC 31 VCC

t
2
1

3 VCC 3 VCC

RC

1
e

2
V

3
CC
t

2
3

2
3

1 - e RC

1
2

1 - e RC

1
2

21 e

t
RC

1
ln 2 ln e RC

t
0.693
RC
t HIGH 0.693 R C
t

t HIGH 0.693R A RB C
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## 555 Timer Design Equations

tLOW: Calculations for the Oscillators LOW Time
VC VInitial

VFinal e RC

RC
1
2

3
3
CC
CC

RC
1
2

3
3
CC
CC

t
1

3 VCC

RC

2
V

3
CC
t

e RC

1
2

1
ln 2 ln e RC

t
0.693
RC
t LOW 0.693 R
t

e RC

1
2

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## 555 Timer Period / Frequency / DC

Period:

Duty Cycle:

t HIGH 0.693 R A RB C

DC

t HIGH
100%
T

DC

0.693 R A RB C
100%
0.693 R A 2RB C

DC

R
R

## t LOW 0.693 RBC

T t HIGH t LOW
T 0.693 R A RB C 0.693 RBC
T 0.693 R A 2RB C

RB
100%
2RB

Frequency:
F
F

1
T
1

0.693 R A 2RB C

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