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555 Timer

Digital Electronics

555 Timer
This presentation will
Introduce the 555 Timer.
Derive the characteristic equations for the charging and
discharging of a capacitor.

Present the equations for period, frequency, and duty cycle


for a 555 Timer Oscillator.

Going Further.
Detail the operation of a 555 Timer Oscillator.
Derive the equations for period, frequency, and duty cycle for
a 555 Timer Oscillator.
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What is a 555 Timer?


The 555 timer is an 8-pin IC that is
capable of producing accurate time delays
and/or oscillators.
In the time delay mode, the delay is
controlled by one external resistor and
capacitor.
In the oscillator mode, the frequency of
oscillation and duty cycle are both
controlled with two external resistors and
one capacitor.
This presentation will discuss how to use
a 555 timer in the oscillator mode.
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Capacitor
A capacitor is an electrical component that can
temporarily store a charge (voltage).
The rate that the capacitor charges/discharges is
a function of the capacitors value and its
resistance.
To understand how the capacitor is used in the
555 Timer oscillator circuit, you must understand
the basic charge and discharge cycles of the
capacitor.
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Capacitor Charge Cycle

Capacitor is initially discharged.


Switch is moved to position A.
Capacitor will charge to +12 v.
Capacitor will charge through
the 2 K resistor.

Equation for Charging Capacitor

VC VFinal VInitial 1 - e

-t/RC

Initial

Where :
VC The voltage across the capacitor
VFinal The voltage across the capacitor that is fully charged
VInitial Any initial voltage across the capacitor as it begins to charge
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Capacitor Discharge Cycle

Capacitor is initially charged.


Switch is moved to position B.
Capacitor will discharge to +0 v.
Capacitor will discharge through
the 3 K resistor.

Equation for Discharging Capacitor

VC VInitial VFinal e-t/RC


Where :
VC The voltage across the capacitor

VFinal The voltage across the capacitor that is fully discharged


VInitial Any initial voltage across the capacitor as it begins to discharge
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Capacitor Charge & Discharge

12 v
5V

VC

20 mSec

Time

0v

Switch has been at position B


for a long period of time. The
capacitor is completely
discharged.

Switch is moved to position


A. The capacitor charges
through the 2K resistor.

Switch is moved back to


position B. The capacitor
discharges through the
3K resistors.

Block Diagram for a 555 Timer


Discharge (7)

Vcc (8)

Control Voltage (5)

Threshold Voltage (6)

T1

Flip-Flop

RESET

SET

COMP2
Output (3)

Trigger Voltage (2)

COMP1

8
Ground (1)

Reset (4)

Schematic of a 555 Timer in Oscillator Mode


5 Volts

RA
N/C

3.333 V

Discharge

RB

Output

1.666 V

Threshold /
Trigger

C
Ground

N/C

555 Timer Design Equations


tHIGH : Calculations for the Oscillators HIGH Time
THE OUTPUT IS HIGH WHILE THE CAPACITOR
IS CHARGING THROUGH RA + RB.
5v
3.333 v

Vc

1.666 v
0v

tHIGH

HIGH

Output
LOW

tHIGH 0.693RA RB C

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555 Timer Design Equations


tLOW : Calculations for the Oscillators LOW Time
THE OUTPUT IS LOW WHILE THE CAPACITOR
IS DISCHARGING THROUGH RB.
5v
3.333 v

Vc

1.666 v
0v

tLOW

HIGH

Output
LOW

t LOW 0.693R BC

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555 Timer Period / Frequency / DC


Period:

Duty Cycle:

t HIGH 0.693 R A RB C

DC

t HIGH
100%
T

DC

0.693 R A RB C
100%
0.693 R A 2RB C

DC

R
R

t LOW 0.693 RBC


T t HIGH t LOW
T 0.693 R A RB C 0.693 RBC
T 0.693 R A 2RB C

RB
100%
2RB

Frequency:
F
F

1
T
1

0.693 R A 2RB C

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Example: 555 Oscillator


Example:
For the 555 Timer oscillator shown below, calculate the circuits,
period (T), frequency (F), and duty cycle (DC).

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Example: 555 Oscillator


Solution:

RA 390

RB 180

C 6.8 F

Period:

T 0.693 R A 2RB C

T 0.693 390 2 180 6.8 F


T 3.534 mSec
Frequency:

1
F
T
1
F
3.534 mSec
F 282.941 Hz

Duty Cycle:

R R 100%
R 2R
390 180 100%
DC
390 2 180
DC

DC 76%

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Example: 555 Oscillator


Example:
For the 555 Timer oscillator shown below, calculate the value for
RA & RB so that the oscillator has a frequency of 2.5 KHz @ 60%
duty cycle.

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Example: 555 Oscillator


Solution:
Frequency:

Duty Cycle:

1
1

400 Sec
f 2.5 kHz
T 0.693 R A 2RB C 400 Sec
T

T 0.693 R A 2RB 0.47 f 400 Sec


R A 2 RB

400 Sec
1228 .09
0.693 0.47 f

R A 2 RB 1228 .09

DC

R
R

R
R

RB
100% 60%
2RB

RB
0 .6
2RB

R A RB 0.6R A 2RB
R A R B 0 .6 R A 1 .2 R B
0 . 4 R A 0 .2 R B
R A 0 .5 R B

Two Equations & Two Unknowns!

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Example: 555 Oscillator


Solution:
Frequency:

Duty Cycle:

RA 2 RB 1228.09

RA 0.5 RB

Substitute and Solve for RB

R A 2 RB 1228 .09
0.5 RB 2 RB 1228 .09
2.5 RB 1228 .09
RB 491.23
Substitute and Solve for RA

R A 2 RB 1228 .09

R A 2 491.23 1228 .09


R A 982.472 1228 .09
R A 245.618

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Going Further
555 Oscillator
Detail Analysis

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Detail Analysis of a 555 Oscillator


5v

3.333
v

Vc

1.666
v
0v

RESET

SET

T1

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

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Detail Analysis of a 555 Oscillator


5v

3.333
v

Vc

1.666
v
0v

RESET

SET

T1

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

20

Detail Analysis of a 555 Oscillator


5v

3.333
v

Vc

1.666
v
0v

RESET

SET

T1

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

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Detail Analysis of a 555 Oscillator


5v

3.333
v

Vc

OUTPUT IS HIGH WHILE THE CAPACITOR IS


CHARGING THROUGH RA + RB.

1.666
v
0v

RESET

SET

T1

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

OUTPUT IS LOW WHILE THE CAPACITOR


IS DISCHARGING THROUGH RB.

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555 Timer Design Equations


tHIGH : Calculations for the Oscillators HIGH Time

VInitial 1 - e RC VInitial

VC VFinal

RC
2
1

1
e

31 VCC
3
3
CC
CC
CC

VCC VCC 1 - e RC 31 VCC

t
2
1

3 VCC 3 VCC

RC

1
e

2
V

3
CC
t

2
3

2
3

1 - e RC

1
2

1 - e RC

1
2

21 e

t
RC

1
ln 2 ln e RC

t
0.693
RC
t HIGH 0.693 R C
t

t HIGH 0.693R A RB C
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555 Timer Design Equations


tLOW: Calculations for the Oscillators LOW Time
VC VInitial

VFinal e RC

RC
1
2

3
3
CC
CC

RC
1
2

3
3
CC
CC

t
1

3 VCC

RC

2
V

3
CC
t

e RC

1
2

1
ln 2 ln e RC

t
0.693
RC
t LOW 0.693 R
t

t LOW 0.693 RBC

e RC

1
2

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555 Timer Period / Frequency / DC


Period:

Duty Cycle:

t HIGH 0.693 R A RB C

DC

t HIGH
100%
T

DC

0.693 R A RB C
100%
0.693 R A 2RB C

DC

R
R

t LOW 0.693 RBC


T t HIGH t LOW
T 0.693 R A RB C 0.693 RBC
T 0.693 R A 2RB C

RB
100%
2RB

Frequency:
F
F

1
T
1

0.693 R A 2RB C

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