Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

MGT 321

ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOR
GROUPS
PN. INTAN LIANA SUHAIME

Chapter 9: GROUPS

Types
Sources

Groups

Group norms &


cohesiveness

How group make


decision?

Consequences
Asset &
Liabilities
Techniques

What is GROUP?
Two or more individuals,
interacting and
interdependent, who come
together to achieve some
common goals or objectives.

Types of Group
Formal group

Informal group

Command
group

Interest
group

Task group

Friendship

1. FORMAL
Command group

Task group

Determined by
organization chart
Group member
formally assigned &
working together
permanently
E.g. department
finance etc.

Determined by
organization to complete
certain job
Made up from different
dept & disciplines
After task complete task
disbanded

CEO
Fin
Exec 1
Exec 2
Ass

Prod

Mktg

CEO
Fin

Prod

Mktg

Exec 1

Exec 1

Exec 1

Exec 2

Exec 2

Exec 2

Ass

Ass

Ass

2. INFORMAL
Interest group

Friendship group

Work together to
attain a specific &
common objective
Temporary- disband
once objectives is
accomplish
E.g. fishing trip,
vacation trip

Members share one


@ more common
characteristics
Social relation extend
outside the formal
organization.
Permanent, even if
project finish.

WHY DO PEOPLE JOINT GROUPS?

Security

Goal
achievement

Status

Power

Self-esteem

Affiliation

Group Norms
Shared group
expectations about
acceptable standards of
behavior among group
members
not only provide
guidelines that indicate
how members should
behave, but they also
help to keep the group
unified by providing
common beliefs,
opinions and behavior

Group
Cohesiveness
The degree to which member
attracted to and motivated to
remain as part of a group.
considered vital in group
decision-making, goal
attainment, identity, and
member satisfaction.
Highly cohesive groups are
able to enforce group norms
more effectively than less
cohesive groups

All group members will All group members will be


remain in the meeting
punctual. Meetings will start
until (a) all tasks for that
five minutes after the agreed
meeting are completed,
start time and everyone should
or (b) there is unanimous
be there and ready by then.
adjournment.

Aggressive and
dominating behaviour is
not acceptable.

The group will actively seek a


consensus of opinion based on
the opinions of every member.

Example of group norms

Group formation
factors
Stability of
membership

Difficulty of
entry

Reward
systems

Group size

Previous
successes

Threat

SOURCES OF COHESIVENESS

CONSEQUENCES OF COHESIVENESS

Increased
Interaction

Co
Operative
Behavior

Success

Satisfaction

High
productivity

Contributors to
cohesiveness
COHESIVENESS

Attractiveness
Opportunity to interact
Common goals
Group maturity
Difficulty of entry
Status congruence
Rewards equity
Success
Stable membership
External threat
Small size

Effects of cohesiveness
Increased interaction
Co-operation behavior
Increased influence
Evaluation distortion
Satisfaction
Success
High or low productivity

HOW TO ENCOURAGE GROUP


COHESIVENESS

Make the group smaller


Encourage agreement with group goals
Increase the time members spend together
Increase the status of the group and the
perceived difficulty of attaining membership in
the group
Stimulate competition with other group
Give reward to the group rather that to individual
members
Physically isolate the group

1.

Decision by lack of response

Decision by authority rule

3.

Decision by minority

4.

Decision by majority rule

5.

Decision by consensus

6.

Decision by unanimity

How groups make decisions (by Edgar


Schein)

Decision By Lack Of Response


Ideas being bypassed without any discussion
take place because lack of response

Decision By Authority Rule


The person have authority in the group
makes the decision on behalf of the whole
group.

How groups make decisions (cont..)

Decision By Minority
One or two person in the group dominate the
scene and influence/ force other to agree

Decision By Majority Rule


Decision made by the group by voting. Majority
vote will win.
Problem- tendency of coalition between winners
and loser.

How groups make decisions (cont..)

Decision By Consensus
Most members accept an idea even those who
oppose the idea get along with the idea because
they have given a chance to put forward their
reasons for not accepting the idea in the first
place

Decision By Unanimity
Everyone of the group members agree on the
course of action to be taken- theory is possible
but practice difficult to attain

INDIVIDUAL vs. GROUP DECISION MAKING

Effective : Group
Accurate : Group
Speed: Individual
Creativity: Group
Acceptance: Group

Group Decision Making


Advantage
More complete
information&
knowledge
Increased diversity of
views
Higher quality of views
Increase the
acceptance of solution

Disadvantage
Time consuming
Conformity
pressure in groups
Dominated by one
or a few members
Ambiguous
responsibility

ASSETS & LIABILITY OF GROUP DECISION

Potential
Advantage

Greater knowledge & Information


Greater Alternatives approach to a problem
Better Understanding and acceptance of
final decision

Potential
Disadvantage

Social pressure to conform


Minority domination
Time spend

Group Decision Technique

Brainstorming

Nominal
Delphi
Technique

Brainstorming
Group members meet for the sole
purpose of generating ideas.
All criticism is ruled out. Discussion or judgment
withheld until process complete.
Quantity is the main target
Freewheeling is welcomed. Radical & wild
ideas are welcomed
Combination and improvement are sought. Each
participants are expected to give suggestion to
combine & convert to better ideas.

Nominal Group Technique

Differences ideas among group members


can be utilized.
Individual members meet face to face to
put their ideas but its operate
independently.
Use one or more small groups to generate
ideas and evaluate alternative solutions.

Nominal Group Technique

Form a group 4
or 5 peoples

Problem is
defined from
group view

Each member
silently write
down the
solution :
creativity

Ideas rank
order within
group, compare
result. Chose
the best
solution

Group discuss,
expand, clarify
& evaluate the
ideas

Leader
conducts a
round-robin
collection &
record ideas

Delphi Technique

Decision making process carried out


without the members having to meet face
to face.
Use fax, mail, email
Sometimes use expert service

Delphi Technique step

Problem &
questions
developed by
Delphi Leader

Responses are
compile and
form additional
questionnaire

Sample of interested
and knowledgeable
people & requested to
participate

Ask participants to react


the responses. Ask
further evaluation &
choices reaction

Questionnaire
are developed
are sent out

Replies are
complied,
summarized &
reproduced

Cycle stop when


reach to
consensus

Solution is
defined and
developed if
possible

Delphi Technique

1. Explain the meaning of group why group


is important to organization?
2. Describe the type of group.
3. What are assets and liabilities of group
decision making?
4. Explain various ways on how groups
make decision according to Edgar Schein.