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Chapter 1.

Engineering
1.1 Definitions, classifications
Engineering discipline, art and profession allowing the accumulation, aggregation and
applying of scientific, technic and economic knowledge, along with practical experience
in order to perform the systematic design and respectively to implement some materials,
devices (products), systems and processes which satisfy the requirements imposed by
various users under well defined economic and security-related conditions.
System = collection of elements interacting to each other ;
Process = succesion of events ending with the obtaining of clearly defined results;
Product = a certain quantity from an artifact, resulting from human activities or as a
consequence of developing specific processes.
Engineer person practicing Engineering. He/she is able to use knowledge from
various domains of activity in order to solve real problems under
technical/natural/economical/social conditions.
Scientists :
- study the nature and natural phenomena
- establish principles, axioms , theorems or algorithms.
Engineers: applies the theoretic principles from various disciplines (Mathematics,
Physics, Chemistry, Economics etc.) to create a real product.

Professions for engineers:


- design;
- organization, managing and maintenance of technological processes from
industry, agriculture and/or administration;
- scientific researchers in many specialised areas.
Different legislations :
- In some European countries, you are considered Engineer only when
holding an Engineering diploma
- in Canada, Engineer only when being employed as one.
Artisan = a creative person, with special technical abilities, whose activity relies
only on experience and empirical knowledge (in France home made/
recognized engineers).
In Romania:
- engineer = after graduating a 4 years technical faculty.
- Ph.D. engineer = after graduating Master studies and Ph.D. studies.
- job as engineer only if holding an engineer diploma.
- jobs as specialist, consultant, assistant, technologist or technician can
be held by people with engineering-related abilites. Still these people cannot
have legal responsibilities and cannot provide any legal guarantees for their
products/services.
A company with no engineers must pay for services of an external company to

Controversy: a computer specialist can be considered an engineer?


(Some people see Computer Programming as having nothing to do with Engineering,
because an engineer is compulsory supposed to develop activities in order to manipulate
physical
systems).
Nowadays, almost all systems made/used by people are somehow related to software.
The border between physical and program is harder and harder to define, so it
becomes natural to consider the specialists realizing hybrid systems as engineers.
Distinct Romanian terms used for specialists in Computer Science:
- informatician (IT Specialist in English)- specialist in Programming, Information
Processing
and
Creation
of
Algorithms;
- Inginer calculatoare (Computer Engineer) specialist in hardware/software, holding
not only Programming-related knowledge, but also knowledge on architecture, structure
and
organization
of
computer
systems;
- inginer IT (inginer calculatorist) - (IT engineer) specialist in domains like Computer
Systems, Computer Networks, Intelligent Systems etc.

1.2. Computer (computing) SCIENCE


Computer science deals with the theoretical study of information and calculability, along
with the practical means to implement them in computer systems.
Main concern: study of algorithmic processes in order to describe and transform the
information.
computational geometry;
Main sub-branches:
mathematical logic;
automata theory;
computational complexity theory;
programming language theory;
human-computer interaction;

quantum computing theory;


symbolic computation
modeling of data and processes;
study of computer systems performances;
formal testing;
etc.

Main applications of Computer science:


operating systems;
computer networks;
computer graphics;
databases;
compilers;

human-computer interaction;
computer security;
artificial inteligence;
computer vision;
robotics;
ubiquitous/pervasive computing
etc.

1.3. Computers and Engineering


Ingineria calculatoarelor (Computer Engineering, Electronic and Computer Engineering ,
Computer Systems Engineering) is concerned with joint studies on Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science.
Software engineering deals with the applying of engineering-related principles in implementing,
exploiting and performing maintenance of software. It involves a systematic, disciplined,
measurable approach. Some people considers it to be a sub-domain of Computer Science.
Notice:
Having Programming-related
1.3.1. Computer
ENGINEERINGskills represents a compulsory, but not a sufficient condition
imposed to a software engineer.
Computer Engineering deals with acquiring knowledge and abilities in domains like:
Ingineria comunicaiilor de date (Data Communication Engineering) uses joint knowledge from
Computers
Arithmetics;
Computer Organization;
Physics, Electronics,
Criptografy, Telecommunications,
Hardware and Software in order to provide
the transmission
of data between the nodes of
a computer
under
well specified
Switching
functions;
Evaluation
ofnetwork
Computer
Systems
Performances;
requirements
related to quality, safeness and
security.
Logical Schematics;
Microprocessors/Microcomputers;

Electronic Circuits and Schematics;


Integrated digital circuits;
Digital Systems Design;
Computer Systems Architecture;
Computer Structure;

Input/Output Systems;
Real-time Systems;
Computer Systems Testing;
Embedded Systems

1.3.2. Software Engineering


Software Engineering deals with acquiring knowledge and abilities in domains like:
Programming;
Programming Techniques;
Numerical Calculation;
Data Structures;
Algorithms Complexity;
Object Oriented Programming;
Visual Programming;
Computer Graphics;
Operating Systems;
Theory of Programming Languages;

Automata Theory;
Compilers Design;
Developing Applications for
Various Domains;
Human-Computer Interface;
Programming Engineering ;
Projects Management;
Real Time Computing Systems;
Software Testing.

Common domains-related jobs for software engineers:


a) In Ecomonomy
analyst;
architect;
project manager;
database manager;
system administrator;
b) In Educations: teacher, professor, trainer etc.

developer;
computer programmer;
tester;
technical support
security officer.

1.3.3. Data Communications Engineering


Data Communications;
Architectura and Structure of
Computer Networks;
Designing/Implementation of
Computer Networks;
Computer Networks Exploting;
Maintenance of Computer
Networks;
Computer Networks Administering;

Distributed Applications Development;


Mobile Applications Development;
Testing/Fitting the performances of
Computer Networks;
Developing Quality Services in Computer
Networks;
Grid Systems;
Data Security;
Etc.

1.4. Informatics, Cybernetics


Informatics domain of scientific, technical and economic activities related to
acquiring, storing, processing and automated transmission of information by
means of artificial means (computers, games consoles, robots etc.)
Informatics=Information+Automatics
Cybernetics is concerned with interdisciplinary studies on the structure of control
systems in physical/economical/social systems, being related to the theory of
regulation and theory of systems.

1.5. Information technology (IT)


The definition from 1958, given by Harold Leavitt in Harvard Business Review relies on 3
concepts:
-Data processing techniques;
-Application of mathematical and statistical methods in decision making process;
-Simulation of high-level concepts through computer programs.
Nowadays the term refers to anything that is related to computers technology (e.g.
hardware, software, computer networks, Internet etc. ) and people working with these
technologies. Many companies have IT departments for the administration of computers,
networks, programs and various equipment involved in the developing of their activities.
A common definition for IT:
Technology involving the development, maintenance and using of computer systems, of
software and of computer networks in order to process, store and distribute data
Another definition:
Using the computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and
process data within a business or company.
The term IT is often used as synonym for computers and computer networks, but an
approach more and more common is in the context of TV or telephony.
Several industries are associated to IT. They are related to hardware and software for
computers, electronic and semiconducting equipment, Internet, teletransmission
equipment, e-commerce, e-learning etc.

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