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Chemistry Notes

Acids
An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions
when dissolved in water.
All acids contain hydrogen. But not all substances with
hydrogen contains acids (Water).
The hydrogen ions produced are responsible for the
properties of an acid.
A strong acid is one that is completely ionized in water
(eg HCl) whereas a weak acid is only partially ionized in
water
Strong acids: Sulphuric acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric
acid, Carbonic acid, Sulphurous acid, Phosphoric acid
o Weak acids: Ethanoic acid, Methanoic acid, Lactic acid,
Citric acid
o

Properties of Acids
Acids have a sour taste eg vinegar
Acids are electrolytes because they dissolve in
water to form ions which conduct electricity.
Acids turn blue litmus paper red.
pH value < 7.
If concentrated they can be corrosive

Some common acids


Artificial
o
o
o

Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)


Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4)
Nitric Acid (HNO3)

Natural
o

Ethanoic Acid (Found in vinegar)

Chemical Properties of
Acids
1.Acids react with reactive metals to form
hydrogen gas and a salt.

Formula: Metal + Acid Salt + Hydrogen


Reactive metals give out electrons easily to form positive
ions.
Example: Magnesium Ribbon with Dilute sulphuric acid.
Equation:
o

Mg (s) + (H2SO4) (aq) MgSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)

Chemical Properties of
Acids

To test for hydrogen, place a lighted splint at the test


tube and a pop sound will be heard.
Some acid and metal reactions which do not give
hydrogen:
o
o
o

Unreactive metals (copper and silver)


Concentrated nitric acid reacts with metals but it does
not give hydrogen (gives nitrogen dioxide)
Lead does not react as a coating is formed once lead is
placed inside the acid.

Chemical Properties of
Acids
2. Acids react with carbonates to form a salt,

carbon dioxide and water.

Equation: Acid + Carbonate Salt + Carbon Dioxide


+ Water
Example: Sodium Carbonate + Dilute hydrochloric
acid Sodium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Bubble the gas through limewater to test for carbon
dioxide.

Chemical Properties of
Acids
1.Acids react with metal oxides and
hydroxides (Insoluble bases) to form salt
and water.
General Equations:
Metal Oxide + Acid Salt and Water.
Metal Hydroxide + Acid Salt and Water

Acidity and Water


Acids only react when placed into water.
This is because water can break apart the acid into
hydrogen ions and a salt.
Therefore, an acid dissociate in water to produce
hydrogen ions which are responsible for the acidic
properties.
Acids only show their properties when dissolved in water.
The hydrogen ions produced are not hydrogen gas.
They react with metals like magnesium to produce
hydrogen gas and magnesium ions.
A few drops of water is enough to allow an acid to
dissociate.

Uses of acids
Sulphuric Acid:
o
o

Detergents
Car Batteries

Ethanoic Acid:
o
o

Vinegar to preserve food


Adhesives (glue)

Hydrochloric acid
o
o

Cleaning metals
Leather processing

Uses of Sulphuric acid &


Sulphur dioxide
Sulphuric acid used to
o Electrolyte in lead-acid batteries
o Production of fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate,
potassium sulphate, and calcium sulphate
o Manufacture non-soapy detergents
o Make artificial silks like rayon
o Remove oxide from iron and steel before galvanising or
electroplating
Sulphur dioxide used to
o Manufacture sulphurous acid H2SO3
o Manufacture sulphuric acid H2SO4
o Use as preservative
o Used to sterilize things
o Used to bleach wood pulp before making paper

Sulphur
Sulphur exists as S8 molecule in which 8 atoms of sulphur join
together by covalent bonding
o

Weak van der Wals forces between sulphur molecules so sulphur


has low melting and boiling point

Sources of sulphur

Volcanic regions
Natural gas and crude oil
Minerals

Oxides of sulphur

Sulphur dioxide SO2


S (s) + O2 (g) -- > SO2 (g)
An acidic gas with choking smell
o Sulphur trioxide SO3
2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) < --- > 2SO3 (g)
o

Manufacture of Sulphuric
acid by Contact Process
The Contact Process is the current method of
producing sulphuric acid in high concentrations
needed for industrial processes
o

Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide

Contact Process Steps


1. Sulphur dioxide produced by burning sulphur
o S (s) + O2 (g) -- > SO2 (g)
2. Sulphur dioxide is purified
3. Sulphur dioxide reacted with oxygen over vanadium(V) oxide catalyst
o 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) < ---- > 2SO3 (g)
o Reaction is exothermic so it favors a low temperature for high yield of
SO2
o But if temperature lowered, rate of reaction slows down so average
temperature of 450oC used
o Pressure kept at 2ATM
4. Sulphur trioxide dissolved in concentrates sulphuric acid to form oleum
1. SO3 (g) + H2SO4 (l) -- > H2S2O7 (l)
5. Oleum diluted with water to form sulphuric acid
1. H2SO4 (l) + H2O (l) -- > 2H2SO4 (l)

Bases
Bases are metal oxides and hydroxides
Soluble bases are known as alkalis
A base is a substance that reacts with an acid to
give salt and water only --- neutralization reaction
Acid + Base Salt and Water
Similar to: Acid + Metal Oxide/Hydroxide Salt and
Water.
Ionic Equation for this is always:
OH- + H+ H2O (l)

Common Bases

Sodium Oxide
Zinc Oxide
Copper (II) Oxide
Magnesium Hydroxide
Aluminum Hydroxide

Family of Bases

Alkalis
An alkali is a base that is soluble in water.
Some examples include:
o
o
o
o
o

Sodium Hydroxide
Potassium Hydroxide
Calcium Hydroxide
Barium Hydroxide
Aqueous Ammonia

Properties of Alkalis
Alkalis have a bitter taste and soapy feel.
Alkalis turn red litmus paper blue.
pH value > 7.

Chemical Properties of
Alkalis
All alkalis produce hydroxide ions when
dissolved in water.
Example: Sodium Hydroxide + Water Sodium
Ion + Hydroxide ion.

Neutralization
All alkalis react with acids to form salt and water
only.
o

This is also known as neutralization.

In neutralization, the hydrogen ions from the acid


react with the hydroxide ions of the alkali
o

Neutralization reactions are exothermic

The salt depends on the acid used.


o
o

Sulphuric Acid Sulphate


Hydrochloric Acid Chloride

The ionic equation for this is standardized.


o

H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) H2O (l).

Applications of
Neutralization
1. Soil treatment farming

Most plants grow best at pH 7. If the soil is acidic or


alkaline the plant may grow badly.
Therefore, chemicals can be added to the soil to
change its pH.
If the soil is too acidic - the most common complaint - it
is treated with a base (chemicals opposite to an acid) in
order to neutralize it.
Common treatments use quicklime (calcium oxide) or
chalk (calcium carbonate).

Applications of
Neutralization
2. Indigestion

We all have hydrochloric acid in our stomach - it


helps breakdown food
However, too much acid leads to indigestion.
Therefore, to cure this ailment we need to neutralize
the acid with a base such as, sodium hydrogen
carbonate (baking soda), or an indigestion tablet.

Applications of
Neutralization
3. Insect stings

A bee sting contains acid.


To relieve the painful symptoms of the sting we need to
neutralize the acid. By rubbing on calamine lotion (zinc
carbonate) or baking soda the acid can be neutralized.
Wasp stings are alkaline, hence acid is needed to
neutralize and remove the painful sting.
Vinegar (ethanoic acid) is used.

Chemical properties of
alkalis
1. Alkalis heated with ammonium salts gives
off ammonia gas.
General Equation: Alkali + Ammonium Salt
Ammonia + Water + Salt.
Ammonia has a strong smell and turn red litmus
paper blue.
Example: Calcium hydroxide + Ammonium chloride
-- > Calcium Chloride + Water + Ammonia.

Chemical properties of
alkalis
2. Alkalis can react with the solution of 1 metal
salt to give metal hydroxide and another metal
salt.
General Equation: Alkali + Salt (of metal A) --> Metal
Hydroxide + Salt (of metal B)
Example: Sodium Hydroxide + Iron (II) Sulphate -->
Iron (II) Hydroxide + Sodium Sulphate.

Some common alkalis and


bases
Type

Common name Chemical name Formula

Alkalis

Caustic soda

Bases

Sodium hydroxide NaOH

Caustic potash

Potassium
hydroxide

KOH

Ammonia
solution

Aqueous
ammonia

NH3 (aq)

Slaked lime

Calcium
hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

Milk of magnesia Magnesium oxide MgO


Verdigris
Copper(II) oxide CuO
Rust

Iron(III) oxide

Fe2O3

Uses of alkalis
Ammonia Solution:
o

Window cleaning solutions

Calcium Oxide:
o

To make iron, concrete, cement

Magnesium Hydroxide:
o
o

Toothpaste to neutralise acid o teeth


In antacids to relieve indigestion.

Sodium Hydroxide:
o

In making soaps and detergents.

Uses of Ammonia
Ammonia is important in
o
o

Manufacture nitric acid which is made by the


catalytic oxidation of ammonia over heated platinum
Producing fertilizers to supply nitrogen that is
essential for plant growth
Eg ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, urea
To reduce acidity of soil, better not to add calcium
hydroxide to soil as it can cause the loss of nitrogen
from nitrogenous fertilisers

Haber Process
Haber Process mass produces ammonia by passing nitrogen gas and
hydrogen gas through iron catalyst
Reversible reaction:
o

N2 + 3H2 < ------ > 2NH3

Exothermic reaction
Increase in pressure will increase
o
o

the yield of ammonia because in forward reaction, less number of moles


are formed
Rate of reaction because of more effective collisions so pressure is kept
high at 200 ATM

Temperature
o
o
o

Raising temperature of the system will favor the backward reaction


Lowering temperature will favor ammonia production
However, at low temperature, the reaction will be very slow which is not
economical, so temperature is kept optimum at 540oC

Concentration
Concentration tells us how much of a substance is
dissolved in 1dm3 of a solution.
It can be changed by either adding more solute or more
solvent.

Strength of acid/alkali
Strength refers to how easily an acid or alkali dissociates when
dissolved in water.
A strong acid like hydrochloric acid dissociates easily in water
(almost 100% of the acid dissociates)
A weak acid like ethanoic acid does not fully dissociate when
dissolved in water.
The strength of an acid cannot be changed.
No matter how concentrated ethanoic acid is, it is still a weak
acid.
The strength of an acid of an alkali can be shown using the pH
scale.

Oxides
4 types of oxides
Acidic oxides

Oxides of non-metals
Dissolve in water to give acids
React with bases to give a salt and water
Eg. carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, phosphorus(V) oxide

Amphoteric
oxides

Oxides of metals react with both acids and alkalis to form salt
and water
Eg zinc oxide, aluminium oxide, lead(II) oxide

Basic oxides

Oxides of metals
Some dissolve in water to give alkalis
React with acids to give a salt and water
Eg. ammonia, calcium oxide, sodium oxide, potassium oxide

Neutral
oxides

Oxides of non-metals
Do not react with acids or bases
Eg carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, water

pH indicators
Indicators are substances that turn to different colors in
acidic and alkali solutions
The pH of a solution is a number that shows how acidic or
alkaline a solution is
o
o
o

A neutral solution like ethanol has a pH of 7


An acidic solution like HCl has a pH of 2
An alkaline solution like NaOH has a pH of 14

The lower the pH, the more acidic; the higher the pH, the
more alkaline the substance is
Farmers neutralize excess acidity in the soil by adding
calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) to the soil

pH indicators

Indicator

Color in acid

Color in Alkali

Litmus paper

red

blue

Universal

red

violet

Methyl orange

red

yellow

Screened methyl
orange

red

green

Phenolphthalein

colorless

pink

Salts
A salt is obtained from an acid when the
hydrogen ion of an acid is replaced by a metal or
ammonium ion
Solubility of salts
Soluble salts

Insoluble salts

Oxides
Carbonates
Hydroxides

Group I metals,
Ammonium

All the rest

Chlorides

All the rest

Lead(II), Silver

Nitrates

All

None

Sulphates

All the rest

Barium, Calcium,
Lead(II)

Preparation of Salts
1. Insoluble salts are prepared using the
precipitation method
o

Mixing 2 soluble salts and obtain insoluble salt


through filtration

2. Soluble salts are prepared using acid + excess


metal/insoluble metal oxide/carbonate (if reacting
with insoluble substance) or titration (acid + alkali
reaction)
3. After getting the salt solution, saturate it and then
let it crystallize to get the salt

Preparation of salts summary

Titration
Preparation of NaCl
Titrate NaOH against HCl
o
o
o

Pipette 25.0cm3 of HCl into a conical flask


Add a few drops of indicator (phenolphthalein)
Add NaOH dropwise to the conical flask until end
point (when 1 drop of NaOH turns permanent pink)

Heat the resulting solution to dryness


o

NaCl is stable to heat

Metal oxide/carbonates &


Acids
Preparation of Copper(II) Sulphate
To 25.0cm3 of sulphuric acid, add CaO or CaCO3 until it
is in excess
o Some excess solid will remain at the bottom
Filter the mixture
For the filtrate, warm the solution to half its solution
o Concentration of solution increases
After crystals form, wash with distilled water and dry it
o Do not heat to dryness as copper sulphate is not
stable to heating

Precipitation
Preparation of Barium Sulphate
Mix two soluble salt to obtain the insoluble salt
o

Barium nitrate with sodium sulphate

Filter the mixture


Wash the precipitate with distilled water
Dry using filter paper

Identification of cations
Aqueous
cation

Addition of dilute NaOH


Few drops Excess

Addition of dilute NH3

Al3+

White
precipitate

Precipitate dissolves
Colorless solution

Few drops Excess


White
Precipitate insoluble
precipitate

Pb2+

White
precipitate

Precipitate dissolves
Colorless solution

White
precipitate

White precipitate

Zn2+

White
precipitate

Precipitate dissolves
Colorless solution

White
precipitate

Precipitate dissolves
Colorless solution

Ca2+

White
precipitate

Precipitate insoluble

No reaction

No reaction

Cu3+

Blue
precipitate

Precipitate insoluble

Blue
precipitate

Precipitate dissolves

Fe2+

Green
precipitate

Precipitate insoluble

Green
precipitate

Precipitate insoluble

Fe3+

Brown
precipitate

Precipitate insoluble

Brown
precipitate

Precipitate insoluble

NH4+

Ammonia gas produced on warming with


No reaction
dilute NaOH. Gas has a pungent smell
and turns damp red litmus blue

No reaction

Identification of cations
Aqueous Anion Test

Observation

NO3-

Add dilute NaOH and a


little aluminium power

Ammonia gas produced

CO32-

Add dilute HCl

Effervescence occurs

Cl-

Add dilute nitric acid and


then silver nitrate

A white precipitate of silver


chloride is formed

I-

Add dilute nitric acid and


then lead(II) nitrate
solution

A yellow precipitate of
lead(II) iodide is formed

SO42-

Add dilute nitric acid and


then barium nitrate
solution

A white precipitate of
barium sulphate is formed