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READING QUIZInstructional

Design
Ronen Cohen
EdTech503
Spring 2013

Table of Contents
History of ID

The Bergman and Moore


Model

21

Definition of ID

Constructivism

23

"Systematic

Empiricism

25

Guiding Models

Behaviorism

27

The Common Model

1
1

Information Processing
Theory

29

The ADDIE Model

1
3

Educational Technology

31

The Garlach and Ely


Model

1
5

ID & Educational
Technology

32

The ASSURE Model

1
7

References

33

The History of Instructional Design

The History of Instructional Design


The history of instructional design can be traced to World War II, when
researchers, psychologists, and educators were called to develop efficient and
effective training materials for military personnel. Those materials were based
mostly on instructional principles from research and theory on instruction,
learning, and human behavior.

The image shows a person in front of a board. He points a finger at something


else. It implies application and adaptation of material.

Image Reference:
http://heyithinkthisway.wordpress.com/tag/school-days/

Instructional Design

Definition of Instructional Design


Instructional design is a process by which something is developed or a plan is
executed in order to solve a problem. It requires precision, care, and expertise to be
invested in the planning, development, and evaluation process.
Instructional design addresses three questions- "Where are we going?" (requires
analysis), "How will we get there?" (requires strategy), and "How will we know when
we've arrived?" (requires evaluation).
The image depicts a person with a clear view ahead and he is guiding the rest. It
implies careful planning and a clear direction.

Picture reference:
http://www.pm-primer.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/leader.gif

Definition of Systematic

Definition of Systematic
"Systematic" would be defined as carefully planned, a methodical and step-by-step
approach to something.

Implementing a systematic approach to Instructional design offers the following


advantages:
it encourages advocacy of the learner.
It supports effective, efficient, and appealing.
It supports coordination among all those involved.
It can be easily reproduced to match differing needs.
It supports development of alternative delivery systems.
It provides a systematic framework for dealing with learning problems.

The image shows a disorganized room and a confused cleaner. The X over the
image implies that systematic means organized and having a plan.

Image Reference: http://thenextrightchoice.blogspot.in/

Instructional Design: Guiding Models

Instructional Design: Guiding Models


In order to properly answer the questions "Where are we going?" (analysis),
"How will we get there?" (strategy), and "How will we know when we've arrived?
(evaluation), an instructional designer should use a model which will assist in
conceptualizing representations of reality. ID Models are "visualized depictions
of ID process, emphasizing main elements and their relationships" (Ch. 1 p.10)

The image implies that many elements in a whole are interrelated, and can be
conceptualized visually.

Image Reference: http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?VisualizeTheWiki

1. "A Common Model of Instructional


Design"

1. "A Common Model of Instructional


Design"
This is a sequential model (although can be adapted to match specific needs)
which includes:
Analysis of learning contexts, learners, and the learning task;
Strategy Development (organizational, delivery, and management); and,
Formative Evaluation, which leads to revision of instruction.
Although appears linear, steps in this model can occur concurrently, or the
designer may need to go back to previous stages for more analysis.
This model is an adaptation of a few models, such as those by Dick and Carey
(1985, 2001).

Image Reference: My own

2. The ADDIE Model

2. The ADDIE Model


Synonymous for ISD (Instructional Systems Development), this term refers to different
models which share a common underlying structure. Acronym for: Analysis, Design,
Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

Designing instruction can be be more efficient and effective if the steps are followed in a
logical order and that the output of each step provides the input for the next.

Image Reference: http://www.csuchico.edu/idts/addie.php

3. The Gerlach and Ely Model

3. The Gerlach and Ely Model


This is a classroom-oriented model, which is composed of a mix of linear and
concurrent development activities. It is one of few models that recognizes that
teachers usually consider content before specifying objectives.

Image reference: http://brownemergingtech.com/EDG6255/Week6.htm

4. The ASSURE Model

4. The ASSURE Model


This model was created by Heinich, Molenda, Russell and Smaldino.
The ASSURE is a classroom-oriented instructional development model.
Although it may not be a complete or a formal instructional model, its strength
lies in its applicability to any K-12 classroom.

Image Reference: http://syafika22.wordpress.com/2012/10/12/mobile-tags/

5. The Morrison, Ross, and Kemp


Model

5. The Morrison, Ross, and Kemp


Model
This Instructional Design model focuses on curriculum planning from the
perspective of the learner rather than from the content. IT offers flexibility
in that materials and instructional strategies can be adapted to suit the
classroom environment.

The model has nine components that are part of a cycle of planning,
design, development and assessments. The parts are not necessarily
used in a sequential fashion. They are independent components that are
part of a system of design.

Image Reference: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/91419015/LearnerCharacteristics

6 .The Bergman and Moore


Model

6 .The Bergman and Moore


Model
This model was specifically designed to guide and manage production of
interactive multimedia products. Its uniqueness lies in its focus on managing
the process. Although it is a bit out-of-date, it can still be adapted to more
recent interactive instructional products.

The model includes six major activities: Analysis, Design, Develop, Produce,
Author, and Validate. Each activity specifies input, output, and evaluation
strategies.

Image Reference: http://hab.wikispaces.com/Models_Theories

Constructivism

Constructivism
An educational rationalist philosophy, which fundamentally asserts that
knowledge is not transmitted, but constructed by individuals in different ways
and at different rates.
Constructivist Educationalist: Jean Piaget.

The image is a construction image and it implies that individuals build/construct


things on their own.

Image Reference:
http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.in/2010/05/what-is-constructivism-in-met
aethics.html

Empiricism

Empiricism
Also called "objectivism", this theory asserts that knowledge is acquired
through sensory experiences, which create objective and singular realities as
they are experienced by individuals. Empiricists often attempt to reduce and
simplify complex entities, and relate ideas to different experiences.
Empiricist Philosopher: John Locke.

This image implies that knowing things is based on our individual experiences.

Image Reference: http


://www.halogensoftware.com/blog/six-perspectives-one-decision/

Behaviorism

Behaviorism
An "extreme empiricism" learning theory which focuses on observable
behavior rather than mental or unobservable activities. It emphasizes the
influence of the environment on learning.

Famous Behaviorists: Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner

This image implies that we learn behaviors, just as in Pavlovs ConditionedResponse experiments.

Image Reference:
http://www.trtrifilo.com/SoftChalk%20Lessons/Learning_styles/
Learning_styles_print.html

Information Processing
Theory

Information Processing
Theory
A cognitive learning theory (emphasises learning factors from within the
learner), this theory describes learning as a series of transformations of
information through a series of postulated structures within the brain.
Famous Information Processing Theorist: R. Gagne

This image shows how different parts of the brain work together to make sense
of information.

Image Reference:
http://scien.stanford.edu/pages/labsite/2008/psych221/projects/08/Minich/inde
x.htm

Educational Technology

Educational Technology
Educational Technology is both the tools and materials used to deliver instruction,
as well as the process of applying technological tools for educational.

Instructional Design relates to Educational Technology because the design process


is applied during the creation of the tools for educational needs. The instructional
design process should be used also when teachers use technology to deliver
instruction in a systematic way.

Instructional Design models help identify learner needs and goals, and provide a
systematic method to design instruction, which should be met and supported by
educational technology.

Image Reference: http://www.sikhnet.com/stories/audio/guru-nanak-and-flying-carpet

References
Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of instructional development models. (4th ed.).
Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology.
Instructional design & educational technology. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://ed-psych.utah.edu/instructional-design/
Molenda, Michael. (2003). The ADDIE Model. Draft. Indiana University.
Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part ii. Educational Technology
Research and Development, 49(2),
Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Foundations of instructional design. (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons,
Inc.