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BUS-BARS FORM A LINK BETWEEN THE INCOMING AND

OUTGOING CIRCUITS AT THE GENERATING STATIONS OR SUB


STATIONS. IF A FAULT DEVELOPS IN THIS PART OF THE
POWER SYSTEM, CONSIDERABLE DAMAGE AND DISRUPTION
OF SUPPLY WILL OCCUR. TO REDUCE THE EFFECT OF FAULT,
VARIOUS BUS-BAR ARRANGEMENTS ARE EMPLOYED.
STILL PROPER PROTECTION SCHEME HAS TO BE ADOPTED

TO IMPROVE THE RELIABILITY OF SUPPLY. ALTHOUGH, THE


VARIOUS

SCHEMES

PROTECTION

OF

HAVE

BEEN

BUS-BARS

BUT

DEVELOPED
THE

SCHEME IS DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

MOST

FOR

THE

COMMON

THE

SCHEMATIC

DIAGRAM

OF

CURRENT

DIFFERENTIAL

PROTECTION SCHEME EMPLOYED FOR THE PROTECTION OF


SUB- STATION BUS-BARS IS SHOWN IN PREVIOUS SLIDE.

THE

SECONDARY'S

INCOMING

&

OF

OUTGOING

ALL

THE

FEEDERS

CTS

CONNECTED

IN

ARE

CONNECTED

IN

PARALLEL AS BEFORE. THE CTS DESIGNED IN SUCH A WAY THAT


UNDER

NORMAL

CONDITION

THE

EMFS

INDUCED

IN

SECONDARYS OF THE CTS PLACED ON OUTGOING FEEDER.


THEN NO CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH THE OPERATING COIL OF
THE RELAY WHICH IS CONNECTED ACROSS THE CONNECTING
WIRES.

OPEARTION
UNDER

NORMAL

CONDITIONAL

OR

EXTERNAL

FAULT

CONDITIONS, THE SUM OF THE CURRENT ENTERING THE BUS BAR


IS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF CURRENT LEAVING IT. THEREFORE, NO
CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH THE OPERATING COIL. HOWEVER,
WHEN FAULTS OCCURS WITHIN THE PROTECTED ZONE ( BUSBAR), THE CURRENT ENTERING THE BUS-BAR WILL NO LONGER
BE EQUAL TO THOSE LEAVING IT. THUS, A DIFFERENTIAL
CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH THE OPERATING COIL OF THE RELAY
WHICH CLOSES THE TRIP CIRCUIT.

HIGH BUS FAULT CURRENTS DUE TO LARGE NUMBER OF CIRCUITS


CONNECTED:

CT SATURATION OFTEN BECOMES A PROBLEM AS CTS MAY NOT


BE SUFFICIENTLY RATED FOR WORST FAULT CONDITION CASE

LARGE DYNAMIC
REQUIRE

FAST

FORCES
CLEARING

ASSOCIATED
TIMES

IN

WITH BUS FAULTS


ORDER

TO

REDUCE

EQUIPMENT DAMAGE
FALSE TRIP BY BUS PROTECTION MAY CREATE SERIOUS PROBLEMS:

SERVICE INTERRUPTION TO A LARGE NUMBER OF CIRCUITS

SYSTEM-WIDE STABILITY PROBLEMS

WITH

BOTH

DEPENDABILITY

AND

SECURITY

PREFERENCE IS ALWAYS GIVEN TO SECURITY.

IMPORTANT,

INTERLOCKING SCHEMES

OVER-CURRENT

(UNRESTRAINED

OR

UNBIASED) DIFFERENTIAL

OVER-CURRENT

PERCENT

(RESTRAINED

BIASED) DIFFERENTIAL
LINEAR COUPLERS
HIGH-IMPEDANCE BUS DIFFERENTIAL SCHEMES
LOW-IMPEDANCE BUS DIFFERENTIAL SCHEMES

OR

BLOCKING

SCHEME TYPICALLY

USED.
SHORT

COORDINATION

TIME

REQUIRED .

BLO C K

50

50

50

50

50

50

CARE

MUST BE TAKEN WITH

POSSIBLE

SATURATION

OF

FEEDER CTS.
BLOCKING

SENT

OVER

SIGNAL COULD BE
COMMUNICATIONS

PORTS.
TECHNIQUE

SIMPLE

IS

LIMITED

TO

ONE-INCOMER

DISTRIBUTION BUSES.

DIFFERENTIAL

SIGNAL

FORMED BY SUMMATION OF
ALL CURRENTS FEEDING BUS.
51

CT RATIO MATCHING MAY BE

REQUIRED.
ON

EXTERNAL

FAULTS,

SATURATED

CTS

YIELD

SPURIOUS

DIFFERENTIAL

CURRENT.
TIME DELAY USED TO COPE

WITH CT SATURATION.

ZC = 2 20 - typical coil impedance


(5V per 1000Amps => 0.005 @ 60Hz )

External
Fault

40 V

10 V

10 V

0V

20 V

If = 8000 A
2000
A

2000 A

0
A

4000
A

0V

59

ESEC= IPRIM*XM

- SECONDARY VOLTAGE ON RELAY

TERMINALS
IR= IPRIM*XM /(ZR+ZC)

MINIMUM OPERATING

CURRENT
WHERE,
IPRIM PRIMARY CURRENT IN EACH CIRCUIT
XMLINER COUPLER MUTUAL REACTANCE (5V PER
1000AMPS => 0.005 @ 60HZ ),
ZR RELAY TAP IMPEDANCE
ZC

SUM

IMPEDANCES

OF

ALL

LINEAR

COUPLER

SELF

If = 8000 A Internal Bus

Fault

40 V
0V

0A

10 V

2000 A

10 V

2000 A

0V

0A

20 V

4000 A

59

FAST, SECURE AND PROVEN.


REQUIRE DEDICATED AIR GAP CTS, WHICH MAY NOT BE

USED FOR ANY OTHER PROTECTION.


CANNOT

BE

EASILY

APPLIED

TO

RECONFIGURABLE

BUSES.
THE SCHEME USES A SIMPLE VOLTAGE DETECTOR IT

DOES NOT PROVIDE BENEFITS OF A MICROPROCESSORBASED RELAY .


(E.G. OSCILLOGRAPHY, BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION,

OTHER FUNCTIONS)

OPERATING SIGNAL CREATED BY

CONNECTING ALL CT SECONDARY'S


IN PARALLEL.
CTS MUST ALL HAVE SAME RATIO.
MUST HAVE DEDICATED CTS
OVERVOLTAGE
ELEMENT
OPERATES ON VOLTAGE DEVELOPED
ACROSS RESISTOR CONNECTED IN
SECONDARY CIRCUIT.
REQUIRES
VARISTORS OR AC
SHORTING
RELAYS
TO
LIMIT
ENERGY DURING FAULTS.
ACCURACY
DEPENDENT
ON
SECONDARY CIRCUIT RESISTANCE.
USUALLY REQUIRES LARGER CT
CABLES TO REDUCE ERRORS
HIGHER COST

59

CANNOT EASILY BE
APPLIED TO
RECONFIGURABLE
BUSES AND OFFERS NO
ADVANCED
FUNCTIONALITY

PERCENT

USED

TO

CHARACTERISTIC
COPE

SATURATION

AND

WITH

CT

OTHER

ERRORS.
87
51

RESTRAINING SIGNAL CAN BE

FORMED IN A NUMBER OF WAYS.


NO DEDICATED CTS NEEDED.
USED FOR PROTECTION OF RE-

I DIF I1 I 2 ... I n
I RES I1 I 2 ... I n

I RES max I1 , I 2 , ..., I n

CONFIGURABLE
POSSIBLE.

BUSES

INDIVIDUAL CURRENTS SAMPLED BY PROTECTION AND

SUMMATED DIGITALLY.
CT RATIO MATCHING DONE INTERNALLY (NO AUXILIARY

CTS).
DEDICATED CTS NOT NECESSARY.

ADDITIONAL

PERCENT

ALGORITHMS

DIFFERENTIAL

IMPROVE

SECURITY

OF

DURING

CT

APPLICATION

TO

CHARACTERISTIC

SATURATION.

DYNAMIC

BUS

REPLICA

RECONFIGURABLE BUSES.

ALLOWS

DONE DIGITALLY WITH LOGIC TO ADD/REMOVE

CURRENT INPUTS FROM DIFFERENTIAL COMPUTATION.

SWITCHING

OF

CT

SECONDARY

CIRCUITS

NOT

REQUIRED.
LOW SECONDARY BURDENS.
ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONALITY AVAILABLE.

DIGITAL OSCILLOGRAPHY AND MONITORING OF

EACH CIRCUIT CONNECTED TO BUS ZONE.


TIME-STAMPED EVENT RECORDING.
BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION.

IMPROVE THE MAIN DIFFERENTIAL ALGORITHM OPERATION.

A) BETTER FILTERING

B) FASTER RESPONSE

C) BETTER RESTRAINT TECHNIQUES

D)SWITCHING TRANSIENT

BLOCKING
PROVIDE DYNAMIC BUS REPLICA FOR RECONFIGURABLE BUS

BARS.
DEPENDABLY DETECT CT SATURATION IN A FAST AND RELIABLE

MANNER, ESPECIALLY FOR EXTERNAL FAULTS.

IMPLEMENT

ADDITIONAL

SECURITY

TO

THE

MAIN

DIFFERENTIAL ALGORITHM TO PREVENT INCORRECT OPERATION.


EXTERNAL FAULTS WITH CT SATURATION.
CT SECONDARY CIRCUIT TROUBLE (E.G. SHORT CIRCUITS).

DATA

ACQUISITION

UNITS

(DAUS) INSTALLED IN BAYS.


52

52
DAU

CPU

52
DAU

DAU

PROCESSES

ALL

DATA

FROM DAUS.
COMMUNICATIONS

BETWEEN

DAUS AND CPU OVER FIBRE


USING
CU
co pp er
fib e r

PROPRIETARY

PROTOCOL.
SAMPLING SYNCHRONISATION

BETWEEN DAUS IS REQUIRED.


PERCEIVED LESS RELIABLE.
DIFFICULT

TO

RETROFIT APP.

APPLY

IN

ALL CURRENTS APPLIED TO

A
52

52

52

SINGLE

CENTRAL

PROCESSOR
NO

COMMUNICATIONS,

EXTERNAL

SAMPLING

SYNCHRONISATION
NECESSARY
CU
co pp er

PERCEIVED MORE RELIABLE

(LESS HARDWARE NEEDED)


WELL SUITED TO BOTH NEW

AND RETROFIT APPLICATIONS.

THE CHANCES OF FAULTS OCCURING ON THE FEEDER

(TRANSMISSION LINE) IS MUCH MORE DUE TO THEIR


GREAT LENGTH AND EXPOSURE TO THE ATMOSPHERIC
CONDITIONS.

THEREFORE,

VARIOUS

PROTECTION

SCHEMES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED WHICH MAY BE


CLASSIFIED AS:

A) TIME-GRADED OVER CURRENT PROTECTION


B) DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
C) DISTANCE PROTECTION

IN

TIME

GRADED

OVER

CURRENT

PROTECTION

SCHEME, THE TIME SETTING OF RELAY IS SO GRADED


THAT IN THE EVENT OF FAULT, THE SMALLEST POSSIBLE
SECTION OF THE SYSTEM POSSIBLE SECTION OF THE
SYSTEM IS ISOLATED. THIS SCHEME IS APPLIED FOR
THE PROTECTION OF
(A) RADIAL FEEDERS
(B) PARALLEL FEEDERS
(C) RING MAINS

THE TIME-GRADED PROTECTION FEEDER IS OBTAINED BY


EMPLOYING

INVERSE

DEFINITE

MINIMUM

TIME

LAG

RELAYS. THE RELAYS ARE SO SET THAT THE MINIMUM TIME


OF OPERATION DECREASE FROM THE POWER STATION TO
THE REMOTE SUB-STATION AS SHOWN IN FIG. IN NEXT
SLIDE.

THE OPERATING TIME OF INVERSE DEFINITE MINIMUM


TIME LAG RELAYS IS INVERSELY PROPRTIONAL TO THE
OPERATING CURRENT, BUT IS NEVER LESS THAN THE
MINIMUM DEFINITE FOR WHICH IT IS SET.

IF A FAULT OCCURS BETWEEN STATION E AND F, IT


WILL BE CLEARED IN 0.1 SECOND BY THE RELAY AND
CIRCUIT BREAKER OF SUBSTATION E BECAUSE ALL
OTHER RELAYS HAVE HIGHER OPERATING TIME. IF THE
RELAY AT SUB STATION E FAILS TO TRIP, THE RELAY AT
D

WILL

SECONDS

OPERATE
I.E.

AFTER

AFTER

0.6

TIME

DELAY

SECONDS

OF

FROM

0.5
THE

WHERE

CONTINUITY

OF

SUPPLY

IS

ABSOLUTELY

NECESSARY, TWO FEEDERS ARE RUN IN PARALLEL. IF A


FAULT OCCURS ON ONE FEEDER, THE SUPPLY CAN BE
MAINTAINED FROM THE OTHER FEEDER, DISCONNECTING
THE FAULTY FEEDER. FOLLOWING FIG. SHOWS THE SYSTEM
WHERE

TWO

FEEDERS

ARE

CONNECTED

IN

PARALLEL

BETWEEN GENERATING STATION & SUB-STATION.

AT THE GENERATING STATION, NON-DIRECTIONAL OVER

CURRENT RELAYS ARE CONNECTED WHEREAS DIRECTIONAL


OVER CURRENT INSTANTANEOUS RELAYS ARE CONNECTED
AT SUB-STATION END.

IF

AN EARTH FAULT OCCURS ON FEEDERS AT POINT F AS

SHOWN IN FIG. THE FAULT IS FED;


(A) DIRECTLY FROM FEEDER 2 VIA RELAY B.
(B) FROM FEEDER I VIA A , P AND SUB-STATION Q AS SHOWN
IN FIG. BY THE DOTTED ARROWS.
THIS CLEARLY SHOWS THAT DIRECTIONAL RELAY P CARRIES
THE CURRENT IN NORMAL DIRECTION WHERE AS DIRECTIONAL
RELAY Q CARRIES THE CURRENT IN REVERSE DIRECTION
MOMENTARILY.
INTANTANEOUSLY.

THIS
THE

OPEARATES
RELAY

THE

HAVING

RELAY
INVERSE

Q
TIME

CHARACTERISTICS ALSO OPERATES BECAUSE OF HEAVY FLOW


OF CURRENT .

THE SYSTEM IN WHICH VARIOUS POWER STATIONS OR

SUB-STATIONS ARE INTER-CONNECTED BY THE NUMBER OF


FEEDERS FORMING A CLOSED CIRCUIT IS CALLED A RINGMAIN SYSTEM.

IN THIS SYSTEM OF PROTECTION, NON-DIRECTIONAL

OVER

CURRENT

RELAYS

HAVING

INVERSE

TIME

CHARACTERISTIC ARE EMPLOYED. WHEREAS DIRECTIONAL


OR REVERSE POWER ARE EMPLOYED ON BOTH THE SIDES
OF EACH SUBSTATION. THE MINIMUM DEFINITE TIME OF ALL
THE RELAY ARE SET PROPERLY AS SHOWN IN FIG.

WHENEVER

THE

FAULT

OCCURS

ON

ANY

OF

THE

SECTION ONLY CORRESPONDING RELAYS WILL OPERATE


WITHOUT DISTURBING THE OTHER RELAYS OF THE
NETWORK, THUS, THE FAULTY SECTION IS ISOLATED
AND SUPPLY IS MAINTAIN.

THE TRANSLATION SCHEME IS BASICALLY A VOLTAGE

BALANCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION SCHEME. BUT IN


THIS SCHEME, VOLTAGES INDUCED IN THE SECONDARY
WINDINGS

WOUND

ON

THE

RELAY

MAGNETS

IS

COMPARED IN PLACE OF SECONDARY VOLTAGES OF THE


LINE CURRENT TRANSFORMERS.

THE SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A TRANLEY SCHEME FOR

THE PROTECTION OF 3-PHASE FEEDER IS SHOWN IN FIG .


ON NEXT SLIDE. THE RELAYS USED IN THE SCHEME ARE
ESSENTIALLY OVERCURRENT INDUCTION TYPE RELAYS.

THE CENTRAL LIMB OF THE UPPER MAGNET (U.M.)

CARRIES A WINDING (A OR A) WHICH IS ENERGISED BY


THE SUM OF SECONDARY CURRENTS OF CTS PLACED
ON FEEDER TO BE PROTECTED.

THE CENTRAL LIMBS OF UPPER MAGNET ALSO CARRIES A

SECONDARY WINDING (B OR B) WHICH IS CONNECTED IN


SERIES WITH THE OPERATING WINDING (C OR C) PLACED
ON THE LOWER MAGNETS (L.M). IN BETWEEN THE TWO
MAGNETS, AN ALUMINIUM DISC D

IS PLACED WHICH IS

FREE TO ROTATE. SPINDLE OF DISC CARRIES MOVING


CONTACT WHICH CLOSES TRIP CIRCUIT UNDER FAULT
CONDITIONS.

UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS, THE CURRENTS AT


TWO ENDS OF THE FEEDER ARE EQUAL SO THAT THE
SECONDARY CURRENT IN BOTH SETS OF CTS ARE
EQUAL. CONSEQUENTLY, THE E.M.FS INDUCED IN
THE SECONDARY WINDINGS C AND C ARE EQUAL
AND OPPOSITE AND NO CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH
THE CLOSED CIRCUITED SECONDARIES. HOWEVER,
WHEN FAULT OCCURS ON

FEEDER SYSTEM SAY AT

POINT F THE VOLTAGE INDUCED IN C AND C WILL


NO LONGER REMAIN EQUAL. THEREFORE, CURRENT