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THE CHANGING NATURE OF UN

PEACEKEEPING: CHANGES AND


CHOICES
BANGLADESH IN UN
PEACEKEEPING
Presented By:
Brigadier General SALEEM Ahmad Khan,
afwc, psc, te

Issues to discuss
Sovereignty issues
UN Mandate
Protection of Civilian (POC) vs Responsibility
to Protect (R2P)
Missions overview
Challenges in the UN missions
Bangladesh in UN Peacekeeping
Way ahead

What is the meaning of


sovereignty ?

History
Peace of Augsburg 1555
Cuius regio, eius religio

Treaty of Westphalia - 1648

Sovereignty Constituents
International
Recognition
Sovereignty

Territory
* Military

Regime
(Authority
)

Societal
(Population)

* Government

* Population

Notion of Sovereignty as shared


responsibility

UN Charter
Section 2 (4)
All members shall refrain in their international
relations from the threats or use of force
against the territorial integrity or political
independence of any state, or in any matter
inconsistent with he purpose of the UN

Section 2 (7)
Nothing contained in the Charter shall
authorise the United Nations to intervene in
matters, which are essentially within the
domestic jurisdiction of any state
7

Cause of State failure


Economic under development
Artificial political infrastructure /
structures
Lack of democracy
Maladministration

Failed states index


2013

Host Country Government and


the UN Mission
PKO mission can compromise or compete
with the sovereignty of the Host Country
government.
PKO collaboration with the Host Country
government can compromise legitimacy
and credibility of the PKO mission.

10

Key Messages
Sovereignty is the responsibility to :
prevent (root causes and direct causes)
react
rebuild
Democracy implies that people are sovereign and
governments serve the will of the population
Legitimacy of the Host Country government is
crucial to the PKO
PKO must maintain the balance between the
mission legitimacy and credibility and its support to
Host Country government

Mandate: what is it?

Legal basis for international action/intervention


Form: resolution
Defines objectives, tasks and lifespan of a
subsidiary body
Binding for all member states; all to contribute

Mandate
Mandates: categories of tasks

Mandate
Mandates: how are they adopted?
Pen holder: a Council member
Consulting interested states, groups of friends,
TCCs/PCCs
Decisions made in capitals
Process is eminently political

Protection of civilians
DPKO: three-tiered approach
Protection through political process (ceasefires, mediation)
Physical protection (civilians under imminent
threat of physical violence)
Enabling others (environment building)

Protection of civilians
R2P: three pillars, four crimes
P1: Primacy of State responsibility
P2: International assistance
P3: Timely and decisive response, including by UNSC
4C: Genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, crimes
against humanity

SOME EXAMPLES OF THE USE


OF R2P

Kenya 2007/2008
Cte dIvoire 2011
Libya 2011

But not used in Syria.


Russia is using R2P language for Crimea.
Undermining? Selective Application?

Profile of current missions


15 operations (8 Africa.)
Average age = 22 years (MENA = 40 , SubS Africa = 6 years)
Approx 100,000 uniformed + 17,000 civilian (5,000 intl)
$ 7.06 billion+ (2014-15)
Personnel: 2007-2008 levels

Current missions
Top 10 TCC/PCC

115 TCC
TCC10 = 56%
TCC20 = 77 %

Africa + Asia = 87%


Africa = 44%

Africa = 11 x TCC20
Asia = 7 x TCC20

Current missions
Top 10 FCC

193 FCC
FCC10 = 80.45%
RoW = 19.55%

Eu+US+CAN = 87%
RoW =13%
Africa = 0.24%

EU+US = 8 x FCC10

Current missions
TCCs / PCCs / FCCs
Africa + Asia provide bulk of troops (87%)
Eu +US + CAN bulk of funding (87%)
No country both TCC 10 + FCC 10 (China: best prospect)
Division - TCC & FCC persist
Europe specialized capacities
Africa rise, mostly infantry units
Asia relative decline, still key
LA small, mostly infantry
Expand Europe + LA + SE&E Asia (enablers)

Trends in missions
Overall trends
Peak point!

Time of consolidation

?
?
DPKO reform

?
?

Trends in missions
Funding

Shrinking defence budgets in Europe & US


Global financial crisis: austerity
2014-2015: nearing $8 billion (resilience)
More with less - Smaller footprint
Performance of contingents

Trends in missions
REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: Cooperation in the field

More organizations than ever / network


RO rise: EU/Europe; AU
Models of field cooperation:
Parallel: UN / NATO (Afghan); UN / EU; UN / AU (Somalia)
Hybrid: UNAMID (Darfur)
Sequential: first entry (AU/EU/coalition)
UN only integrated, multidimensional model

Missions: geography
Current missions
UNAMID
Sudan/Darfur

UNMISS
South Sudan

UNFICYP
Cyprus

UNMIK
Kosovo

UNMOGIP
India, Pakistan

UNAMA
Afghanistan

MINURSO
West. Sahara
UNIFIL
Lebanon

MINUSTAH
Haiti

UNDOF
Syria

UNMIL
Liberia
Multidimensional
Traditional

UNOCI
Cte dIvoire

MINUSMA
Mali

MONUSCO
D.R. Congo

UNISFA
Abyei

UNTSO
Middle East

Missions: geography
Geographic clusters

Missions: geography
Geographic clusters
Middle East cluster (1948-1980)

Chapter VI
Inter-state
Strong, formed states
Small missions, limited mandates

Africa cluster + Haiti (1990 - ?)

Chapter VII
Intra-state
Fragile / Failed / Nascent states
Large missions, multidimensional mandates

Missions: geography
State of missions: some expectations
MINURSO
UNAMID
West. Sahara Sudan/Darfur

UNMISS
South Sudan

UNOSY
Syria

UNFICYP
Cyprus

UNMOGIP
India, Pakistan

MINUSCA
CAR
Consolidating
(7)

Steady (7)

Expanding
Mature
(2+3)

UNMIK
Kosovo

UNAMA
Afghanistan
UNIFIL
Lebanon

MINUSTAH
Haiti

UNDOF
Syria

UNMIL
UNMIL
Liberia

UNTSO
Middle East
UNOCI
Cte dIvoire

MINUSMA
Mali

MONUSCO
D.R. Congo

UNISFA
Abyei

UNSMISOM
Somalia

Technologies
KEY AREAS OF OPPORTUNITY

Monitoring and reporting


TCC / PCC capabilities (force protection + POC)
Civilian mandate implementation
Support services
Environment

Technologies
Example: UAS / UAV

Drones = toxic term (negative connotations)


Member states concerns
Assessment ongoing in MONUSCO
Netherlands providing a package in MINUSMA
SIGINT unit.

Challenges to UN Peacekeeping
Creating clear, credible, and achievable mandates
Building, implementing, and sustaining
international political will
Peacekeeping doctrine & strategy
Deployment timelines
Credible, trained military forces
Police capabilities
Appropriate logistical support
Integrated mission planning

BANGLADESH IN UN PEACEKEEPING

Success Storie

Mission Army Navy


Air
Police Total
s
Force
Complet 10632 2883
4099 13231 126489
ed
6
Ongoing
6086
495
502
1758
8841
Total

112412

3378

4601

14989

135320

Success Stories

Rapid deployment capability


Always maintained deployment timeline
indicated by the UN Security Council
Resolution.

Success Stories

Rapid deployment capability


One infantry battalion was ready within
48 hours.
Deployed medical and engineer units in
Liberia within 2 to 3 weeks.
Three Air Force helicopters deployed
from DR Congo to South Sudan within
short notice.
Two Police units deployed from DR
Congo to South Sudan within 72 hours.

Success Stories

Rapid deployment capability


In Mali, first to deploy infantry unit
under blue helmet.
In Mali, Cambodia, Sierra Leone and DR
Congo, was the pioneer to negotiate,
enter into rebel held territory and
maintained safe and secured
environment.

Success Stories

Rapid deployment capability


Signed UN Standby Arrangement
System (UNSAS). (Govt approved a Force
Structure of 12,000 peacekeepers
deployment with equipment)
Signing of Rapid Deployment
Capability related MOU under process.

Success Stories

At UN Headquarters
Attended Contingent Owned Equipment
Working Groups Meetings, which deals with
technical issues and reimbursement of the
peacekeeping.
In 2014, took leadership role on, Rotation of
equipment under UN expense.
After a long two weeks brain storming
session, due to our tenacity, knowledge and
experience on peacekeeping, negotiation skill
and above all the trust and confidence of
majority member states, issue was adopted
through consensus.

Success Stories

Tasks performed in different mission


Verification of ceasefire.
Conduct election and referendum.
Specialized engineering tasks.
Disarmament, demobilization and
reintegration of ex-combatants.
Arrangement of surrendering of militias with
weapons, ammunition, and drugs.
Security and humanitarian assistance to
IDPs and refugees.

Success Stories

Achievements in different missions


Specialized role
Security Sector Reform (training of host
countries army, naval and police
personnel)

Success Stories

Achievements in different missions


Specialized role of Navy
Surveillance and maritime
interdiction operations
Protection of riverine route
Recovery of sunken vessel
Specialized role of Air
Force
CASEVAC / MEDEVAC
Transportation of personnel
and cargo.
Total flying hours 40,000 km

Success Stories

Achievements of BIPSOT
BIPSOT, a globally recognized
peacekeeping training institute.
Trained 7965 persons (1420 overseas
students from 38 countries).

Success Stories

Achievements of BIPSOT
A member of International Association
of Peace-keeping Training Centre (IAPTC)
and organized two meetings in 2011 and
2013.

Success Stories

Achievements of BIPSOT
BIPSOT is the secretariat of Association
of Asia Pacific Peace Operation Training
Centre (AAPTC).

Success Stories

Gender mainstreaming
Two Female Only units of Police
deployed in Haiti and DR Congo.
Mission Arm Nav
Air
Polic
s
y
y
Force
e
Complet
145
3
28
603
ed
Ongoing
20
8
190
Total
165
3
36
793

Total
779
218
997

Success Stories
Protection of Civilians (POC) and
Humanitarian Assistance

Proactive to address possible clash and


situation.
Robust patrolling showing strong
presence.
Engagement with key leaders.

Success Stories
Protection of Civilians (POC) and
Humanitarian Assistance
Through development works as part of
Civil-Military Coordination and community
outreach programs, mostly through own
expense.
Countries
Development Works
Undertaken
Sierra Leone,
Vocational Training Institute,
Liberia
Co-operative Bank.
Sudan, Sierra Construction of schools,
Leone, Liberia, offices, providing furniture,
Ivory Coast,
hospitals, health centre.
Cambodia, DR

Success Stories
Protection of Civilians (POC) and
Countries Humanitarian
Salient Assistance
Humanitarian Assistance
Sierra Leone, Liberia
Cambodia

Food for Education Project


Assistance to safe sanitation, agriculture,
tree plantation, milking of cows, safe
sanitation

All missions

Free medical treatment, providing medicine,


food to orphanage
Ruposhi Bangla Village
Bangladesh-Liberia Friendship Institute
(Vocational training)
Assistance to livelihood by providing tools,
equipment and training, assistance to
orphanage

Ivory Coast
Liberia
Sudan

Success Stories
Protection of Civilians (POC) and
Humanitarian Assistance
Countries
Salient Humanitarian
Assistance
Mali
Veterinary team provided with
contingent to assist in livelihood
program
Central African
Agriculture specialist provided in
Republic
the contingent considering 75%
populations dependency on
agriculture.

Success Stories
Military NGO Cooperation
Through initiative of Bangladesh Army, BRAC got its
footprint in South Sudan (2007).
A good number of projects in health, education and
agriculture sectors were jointly undertaken by
Bangladesh Army units and BRAC.
Thus sustainment and local ownership of the projects
have been ensured in absence of peacekeepers.
BRAC now runs 200 primary schools, a good number
of health facilities, etc.

Success Stories
Operating under high risk environment
Hostile and Volatile Environment
Pioneer blue helmets in the trouble prone conflict
zones in Eastern Congo, Sierra Leone, Liberia,
Cambodia, and Mali. (Recent incidents in Mali, CAR)
Acting against rebels, militias with different culture
and religion - through our professionalism, training and
experience, we step into such conflict areas and came
out successful in achieving UN mandate.

Success Stories
Operating under high risk environment
Health Hazard
Some countries do not participate due to health
hazard in the mission area.
Malaria, EBOLA, river blindness, deadly lassa fever,
etc are order of the day in Africa.
Our peacekeepers do take extra health care taking
life risk.
Assist host governments as well as WHO and
UNICEF to support local population in the health
sector.

Success Stories
Operating under high risk environment
Adverse Weather Condition
Desert in Africa, Kuwait and minus temperate in
Europe, under all these adverse and extreme weather
condition our peacekeepers are operating leaving
aside families at home. (Recent experience in Mali)

BD as a key actor !
BD is a tactical level player ?
BD is considered a key player due to quantity as
well quality
Gaps in operational and strategic level in terms of
coordination and persuasion, but decision making
takes less time
Follow up, sustainment is an issue
Diplomatic vs military lines of op
C34 (diplomats) vs 4th committee (diplomats) vs COE
Working group (military and police) vs 5th committee
(diplomat)

BD as a key actor !
Voice of BD has to be heard in different forum
expertise participation
Can we really bargain or happy with whatever we
get !
How much peacekeeping is used as a diplomatic
tool and how is military taken onboard in this
aspect? PMBNY DA , a militaryAFDServices
HQ..where is MOFA in ?
Draft Foreign Policy maritime has more portion
than peacekeeping

BD as a key actor !
Experience of peacekeeping are we trying to
utilize?
What happens after military comes backs from
mission?
South Sudan recognition took time
Military was deployed for 8 years thereafter
thanks
Sierra Leone .. Peace building is there any
role? Who should play the role?
Liberia is drawing down are we giving focus?
Achievements, lessons,. are we taking on board?

Way forward

The Changing Nature of UN


Peacekeeping
Transition from Traditional peacekeeping to Robust
peacekeeping
Peacekeepers are facing Asymmetric threat
Peacekeeping has become more competitive.
New countries are emerging.
Manpower is being reduced giving importance to use
of technology. (Medic cum Driver cum Clerk)
Equipment like Unarmed Aerial System, SIGINT, etc
needs to be in the inventory.

Way forward
Way Forward to Face Challenges of the 21st
Century and 4th Generation Peacekeeping
Asymmetric Threat
To face asymmetric threat in the 4th generation
peacekeeping. (e.g., MALI).
Asymmetric threat is multidimensional, where
identifying friends and foes is difficult in foreign soil.
Training system in BIPSOT and pre-deployment
training is being restructured to face asymmetric
threat.

Way forward
Way Forward to Face Challenges of the 21st
Century and 4th Generation Peacekeeping
Coordinated and Integrated Approach
Different stakeholders need to work as a team.
While developing national strategy on peacekeeping
diplomacy and military to be well coordinated and
linked for achieving national interest as well as the UN
objectives.
Civil and military resources need to be shared for
contribution in the peacekeeping operations.

Way forward
Way Forward to Face Challenges of the 21st
Century and 4th Generation Peacekeeping
Utilizing Experience of Peacekeeping
Our 26 years of experience need to be valued.
To look for capacity building of rising troop and police
contributing countries.
Bilateral agreements for military training cooperation,
business opportunity in the mission areas, peacebuilding initiatives, etc.
Need to closely work with AU, ASEAN, and other
similar entities to get more dividend.

Way forward
Coordination mechanism
BIPSOT as a national institute
Capacity building of new TCCs (e.g., Indonesia)
Bilateral agreement between militaries like Kuwait (BD
participation in Kuwait was an initiative of a diplomat)
Effective engagement with AU UN undertaking capacity
building of AU for 10 years
Younger generation should be taken onboard
Coordinated approach to accept offer SIGINT units, UAV,
Helicopter, etc
Technology driven units
RDL capacity
MINDSET and NATIONAL INTEREST. for better dividend

Thanks for kind attention