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# ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

## ECE 307 Lecture 1

DC Circuit Components, Connections,
and KCL

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

## Overview of DC Electric Circuits

Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source

Current Source
Switch
DC Lecture 1 DC Circuit Components,
Connections, and KCL

Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin Equivalent
Norton Equivalent
Similar
Electric Circuit

Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
oCurrents
oPower

Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Overview of Lecture
Introduce Six Elements Used in a DC Circuit
Constant Voltage Source
Constant Current Source
Resistor
Open Circuit, Short Circuit, Switch
Connect The Elements to Build a Circuit
Define Connection Terminology: Terminal, Node,
Branch, Loop, Mesh
Define Series and Parallel Connections
Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
Describes the currents at a connection

DC vs. AC

Thomas Edison

Nicola Tesla

## Constant Voltage Source

Examples of Constant Voltage Sources:
Car Battery supplies
constant 12V to power the
lights and accessories
Solar Cell used to convert
light into electricity to power
this toy robot creates 0.5V
constant voltage.

AA Battery used in a
flashlight to supply a
constant 1.5V.

Rechargeable Battery
supplies 3.7V to power
the cell phone

## Produces a constant voltage that

is not affected by connections to
other components
Mathematical Model:
Voltage is Constant
Current
o Current is determined by
connections to other
components
o Can supply any current

Voltage

Behavior:
Constant -> no change over time
Time

Symbol:

+
+
-

vS

or

vS

## Constant Voltage Source

What does it do when connected to other components?
Case 1:

Case 2:

## Does work to move electrons and

supply energy to the rest of the
electric circuit

## The electric circuit does work to

charge the battery

+
-

vS
-

Electric
Circuit

+
-

vS

Battery
Charging
Circuit

## Note: We will have to solve the entire circuit in order

to know the amount of current.

## Constant Current Source

Examples of Constant Current Sources:

## Welder supplies constant

current to create the heat
needed to fuse metal pieces.

## Cell Phone charger

supplies constant current at
the beginning of a fullcharge cycle.

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

10

Behavior:
Produces a constant current that is
not affected by connections to other
components
Mathematical Model:
Current is Constant
Voltage
o Voltage is determined by
connections to other
components
o Can supply any voltage

Current

Time

Symbol:

is

## Constant Current Source

What does it do when connected to other components?
Does work to move electrons and supply energy to the rest of the electric
circuit

A voltage can be
measured across +
v
the current
source as a result of this
connection

is

Electric
Circuit
-

## Note: We will have to solve the entire circuit in

order to know the amount of voltage.

11

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

12

Resistor
Examples of Resistors:
The Heating Element of a
toaster (the part that gets hot)
resists the flow of electrons and
gets hot.

## An extension cord is used

to connect appliances and
has very low resistance.

## The resistance of the extension cord is not zero and can be

significant depending on the application.

## The Filament in a light bulb

(the part that produces light)
resists the flow of electrons and
gets very hot to produce light.

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

13

Behavior:
Constant relationship between
voltage and current.

Current

Resistor

1
slope =
R
is constant.
Voltage

Mathematical Model:
Constant R summarizes material
properties, temperature, and size.
Ohms Law relates the voltage
and current using R:

v = iR

Symbol:

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Resistor
What does it do when connected to other components?
Resists the flow of electrons. A resistor removes energy from the circuit
and dissipates it as heat.
Current results from this connection
A voltage can be
measured across
the resistor as a
result of this
connection

+i
v

Electric
Circuit

## Note: We will have to solve the entire circuit in order to

know either the voltage or the current. We do know that
voltage and current are related by Ohms Law as v = iR

14

## Application of Ohms Law

R is a circuit model of a physical material that
has length, width, height, and property of
conductivity that constitute the resistance.
Examples (given same size):

+
v

R
-

## Nichrome wire (medium resistance)

Gold wire (low resistance)
Insulation on wire (high resistance)

v=iR

15

16

## Application of Ohms Law

Must adjust the sign (+/-) in Ohms law for other referenced directions,
i

+
v

v= - iR

v= iR

convention

17

## Example 1: Applying Ohms Law given fixed voltage and

current references

2A

2A

2A

+
v

10

v= iR
= 2A(10)
= 20V

10

v= - iR
= -(-2A)(10)
= 20V

10

+
v= iR
= (-2A)(10)
= -20V

These are all the same circuit. 2A goes into the resistor from the top and there is a
20 V drop from top to bottom.

18

Open Circuit:

Short Circuit:

## No resistance to current flow, ~ zero R

Current

No Current

+
v

Resistance is

Electric
Circuit

+
v

Resistance
is zero

NO voltage can be
measured across
the opening

NO voltage can be
measured across
the short

Electric
Circuit

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Switch
Examples of Switches:

## Switch on the wall turns

the lights on or off.

## Switch on the coffee

maker turns the appliance
on or off.

## Each button on the phone

or key on the keyboard is
a Switch.

19

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Switch

Behavior:
Can stop or allow the flow of current.

Mathematical Model:
No current flows when the switch
is open.
Current flows freely when switch
is closed.

Symbol:

20

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

21

Switch
What does it do when connected to other components?
Connects or disconnects part of the circuit
Open:
Closed:
Acts like an open circuit
Acts like a short circuit
Current

No Current

Electric
Circuit

v=0V

Electric
Circuit

NO voltage can be
measured across
the opening

NO voltage can be
measured across
the switch

22

## Connect Components to Create an Electric Circuit

Example: Connect a battery and a resistor to build a
portable light.

1.5A
1.5V

1.5V

1.5A

Device: Flashlight

Circuit Model

## Electric Circuit (Electric Network)

Connection of Components
Terms to describe the connection of components
Terminal
Node
Branch
Learning a new
Loop
vocabulary !
Mesh

23

24

## Electric Circuit Connections

Terminal point where a component or part of the
circuit connects to other components or other parts of
These internal
the circuit
connections are
+
+
-

v1

R Terminals

## not the terminals

v1of the connected
components.
R1
R2

## Each element alone

has two terminals

+
-

v1
R1
R2

R3
A connection of
components has terminals

R3
R4

25

## Electric Circuit Connections

Node connection point

R1

## Pick a point and call it the node

R1
R2

R3

Electrically anywhere
in here is the
connection point

R4

R3

26

## Example: Identify Nodes

Label the nodes in the circuit.

+
-

v1

Electrically,
anywhere along
the wires in this
area is the
connection point

R1

R2

R3

call it the node

## Note that this connection

is an electrical circuit and
could be a model for a
system such as the
electrical system in a car

27

## Electric Circuit Connections

Branch portion of a circuit with only two external
terminals
t
1

t1

+
-

v1
terminals

t2

R1
t3

## Each element is a branch.

The connection between
t1 and t3 is also a branch

t4

R1

+
-

v1
t2

R2
t3

## Each element is a branch. The

connection is NOT a branch
because it has 3 external terminals
t1 , t3, and t4 and three
components connect at t2 .

28

## Example 4: Identify Branches

Find branches in the circuit.
First identify the nodes.

40V +

4
2

## Each of the components are individually a branch, 8

components means 8 branches.
There is a branch containing the 40V source and the 3
and 1 resistors the connection has two terminals.
The branch at the right has two terminals that connect this
sub-circuit to the rest of the circuit.

28A

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

29

Parallel Connection
Elements of a circuit which share the same two nodes

v1

Electrically,
anywhere along
the wires in this
area is the
connection point

+
-

i1

R1

R2

R3

## Pick a point and

call it the node
All components of the circuit connect to the same two
nodes and are therefore in parallel.
We often use the symbol || to indicate that elements
are in parallel, here v1 || i1 || R1 || R2 || R3

30

## Example 5: Indentify Parallel Elements

Which elements in the circuit are connected in parallel?
First indentify the nodes.

40V +

## The branch containing

the 40V source and the
3 and 1 resistors is
in parallel with 6
resistor

28A

## 4 and 28A source are

in parallel.
No other individual
components are in parallel

31

## Electric Circuit Connections

Loop a closed connection of branches
Mesh a loop that does not contain other loops
R1

+
-

v1

R4
R2

R5
R3

2+1=3

## The two meshes plus the

third exterior loop

## Form a closed connection of branches by starting at a node and

traversing the circuit until we get back to the starting node.
Cannot use the same node twice.

32

N2

N1

N3

R1

+
-

v1

R2
i1

v2

R3

R5

+
-

R4

N4

How many meshes?

4
5

## How many loops? 5 + +

What is not a loop? A path that crosses the same node twice

## Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)

Equal amounts of charge enter and exit a node.
Algebraic sum of currents
into and out of a node is
N
zero:
i 0
n 1

## Convention 1: Current labeled as pointing into a

node is given a negative sign in the summation and
current labeled as pointing out of the node is
positive.
Convention 2: Current labeled as pointing into a
node is given a positive sign in the summation and
current labeled as pointing out of the node is
negative.

33

34

## Example 7: Applying KCL

Find i3 in terms of the other currents.

Node

i1

i2

Using Convention 1:
4

n 1
(i out of node +)

i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0

## Solve for i3:

i3 i1 i2 i4

Using Convention 2:
4

i3

n 1
(i out of node -)

i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0

i4

## Both conventions yield the

same result. We will
generally use Convention 1

35

Node

i1

Given:

i2
i3

i1 5A
i2 3A

i4

i4 2A
Find

i3:

## Note: i2 = -3A means

that the current actually
flows in the direction
opposite to the arrow

n 1
(i out of node +)

i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0

i3 i1 i2 i4 (5 A) 3 A (2 A)
0A

36

## Example 8: Applying KCL

Same problem with some of the current directions
changed. Find i3 in terms of the other currents.
Using Convention 1:
4

n 1
(i out of node +)

Using Convention 2:

n 1
(i out of node -)

i2

i1

i3

i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0

## Solve for i3: i3 i1 i2 i4

Node

i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0

## Solve for i3: i3 i1 i2 i4

i4
Both conventions yield the
same result. We will
generally use Convention 1

37

## Example 9: Applying KCL in a Circuit

Apply KCL at each node.
Identify the nodes in the circuit and label.

N1

+
-

i4
R4
v1

R1
i1

is

R2
i2

R3
i3

N2
KCL at Node 1 :
5

at Node 2:

i 0 iS i1 i2 i3 i4 0

i 0 iS i1 i2 i3 i4 0

n 1
(i out of node +)
5
n 1
(i out of node +)

## Example 9 (cont): Applying KCL in a Circuit

If we knew some actual values:

iS 5A , i1 i2 i3 1A
Node 1:
2:

5A 1A 1A 1A i4 0 i4 2A
5A 1A 1A 1A i4 0 i4 2A

38

39

## Example 10: Solving a Circuit Using KCL

What is the current through the 5resistor?

5A

15A

1
ia

8A

+
5

va

## We need to solve for ia.

Identify the nodes in the circuit and apply KCL to create equations to solve for ia.
KCL at the
top node
yields:

i 0 -5 A -15 A 8 A ia 0
n 1
ia 5 A 15 A - 8 A 12 A
(i out of node 1)

## Once we know the current in a resistor,

we can use Ohms law to find the voltage:

Here we only
needed to write 1
equation and solve
for the 1 unknown.

va ia R 12 A 5 60V

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

40

Series Connections
Elements of a circuit connected so that the current out
of one component goes into the next.
3

40V +

4
2

## We say that the 40V source, the 3 resistor, and the 1

resistor are connected in series.

28A

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

41

Example 11: Show that series components have the same current.

N1
40V

N2

N3

ia

+
-

ib
N4

ic

28A

4
2

N5

N6

## Write KCL equations at nodes N1 and N4:

N1 :

n 1
(i out of node +)

i 0 ia ib 0

ia ib ic

N 24 :

n 1
(i out of node +)

i 0 ib ic 0

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

42

Summary
Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh

Resistor
Voltage Source
Current Source
Switch
DC Lecture 1 DC Circuit Components,
Connections, and KCL

Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel same voltage
Series same current
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit

Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
oCurrents
oPower

Analysis Tools

## Kirchoffs Current Law

Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Cypria
Andrew Mount
Joshua Mount
Neeraj Gohad
Description:
Pseudo colored electron
micrograph of the cyprid larvae
of barnacle (Amphibalanus
amphitrite). The golden colored
tissue bordering the antennule
opening is a chloride transport
epithelium. Its supposed
involvement is helping the cyprid
to settle and metamorphose into
a juvenile barnacle.

43

KCL and KVL

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

44

45

## Overview of DC Electric Circuits

Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source

Current Source
Switch

Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit

Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 2 KCL and
oCurrents
KVL
oPower
oEnergy

Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition

## Why Do We Perform Circuit Analysis?

We analyze a circuit or solve a circuit in order to
identify the currents, voltages, and power
consumption in the circuit.
Circuits are analyzed by application of the three laws:
Ohms law
Kirchoffs current law
Kirchoffs voltage law

46

## Why Do We Perform Circuit Analysis?

To Understand Real Devices Such as a Strain Gauge

## Sense changes in length (temp, force, ..)

cv
cv

http://www.societyofrobots.com/images/sensors_ftstraingauge.jpg

47

48

## Why Do We Perform Circuit Analysis?

To Understand Real Devices Such as a Strain Gauge
Wheatstone Bridge
Measurement Circuit

## Knee Implant Sensor

http://www.medgadget.com/ar
chives/2006/11/wireless_sens
or.html

## At start: R1R4 = R2R3

After surface strain: R1, R4 and R2, R3 va and vb

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

49

Reminder: KCL
Net flow of current out of a node is zero.

## currents out of the

node are positive

in 0
A negative sign is
used to account for a
current that has a
reference direction
pointing into the
node.

Algebraic sum

Reference direction
out of node +

i2

Na

i1
Reference direction
into node -

50

Given: v2=4V
Find i3

Nd

## Note: When talking about a voltage or

current a reference direction must be
given.

i5

+ v2 -

+ v5 -

1A

10V

i1

2 i2

Na

i3

Nc

Nb
i4

## Other voltages and currents are assumed

(arbitrary) in order to analyze the circuit.
Label all nodes to see that we could apply KCL at node c in order to find i3.

## Write KCL at node c

i3

i1
Nc

i4

n 1
(i out of node +)

i 0 i1 i3 i4 0
i3 i1 i4

51

## Example 1 (cont): Use KCL to Solve Circuit

Apply KCL at node b

i5

Nd

+ v5 -

i2
1A

10V

i1

Nb
2

i4

n 1
(i out of node +)

## Apply KCL at node d

i5
Nd

i1

Na

Nc

2 i2

+ v2 i3

Nb

i4

i i2 i4 0
i2 i4
2

n 1
(i out of node +)

## The two resistors are on

the same branch and have
the same current

i i1 i5 0
i1 i5

52

## Example 1 (cont) : Use KCL to Solve Circuit

Substituting

Nd

i2 i4
i3 i1 i2

i1 is the current
in the current
source

v2 i2 R 2

Na

+ v5 -

1A

## 1 equation with 3 unknowns, use given

information to reduce the unknowns:
Ohms Law
for 2 resistor

i5

10V

i1

v2
4V
i2

2A
R 2 2

i1 1A
Substitute
and solve:

i3 -1A+2A = 1A

Nc

i2

+ v2 i3

i4

Nb

53

## Example 2: Do-over of Example 1

Given: v2=4V
Find i3
Solution: Write KCL at node a
Na i 2
i5

Nd

i5

Na

+ v5 -

1A

10V

i1

Nc

i3

We can see that i1 describes the current in the branch containing the
resistor and current source.

i i5 i3 i2 0

positive

i3 i5 i2
i3 i1 i2

(same)

i2

+ v2 i3

Nb

i4

54

i3 i1 i2

Nd

## 1 equation with 3 unknowns, use given

information to reduce the unknowns:

Ohms Law
for 2 resistor

i1 is the current
in the current
source

Substitute
and solve:

Na

+ v5 -

1A

10V

i1

v2 i2 R 2 i2

i1 1A

i5

v2
4V

2A
R 2 2

+ v2 i3

Nc

(same)

(same)

i3 -1A+2A=1A

i2

Same result !

Nb

i4

55

## Voltage Is a Relative Measure

Voltage describes work done to move charge (battery)
or the work done by moving charge (light bulb).
In a circuit it is the work done to move charge
between 2 points
Must label 2 points in the circuit to describe a voltage
One side with -
N
N
N
One side with + N
3

+
-

v1

N5

v2

v3

v4

56

## Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

Sum of the voltage drops around a closed path is zero
N

## voltage drops in the

clock-wise direction
are positive

vn 0

Algebraic sum

A negative sign is
used to account for a
voltage rise.

Alternatively, we could
consider voltage rises as
positive. Either way works but
we must be consistent
Alternatively, we could have used
the counter clockwise direction.
Must be consistent

## In this second case, a

negative sign is assigned to
voltage drops

57

N

## voltage drops in the

clock-wise direction
are positive

vn 0

Algebraic sum

A negative sign is
used to account for a
voltage rise.

A voltage rise means you enter from the - and leave from the + in the
direction of the loop. A voltage drop means you enter from the + and
leave from the -.

v1

## In the CW direction, enter the + terminal

and leave from - -> voltage drop -> +

D1

CW Direction

D2

v2

## In the CW direction, enter the - terminal and

leave from + -> voltage rise -> -

58

## Example 3: Application of KVL (Ex. 2.6)

Given v1=6V,
v4=1V, vs=12V
Find v2
Di device could be a
resistor or something else v
S
vi are the component
voltages

N1

+ v1
D1

KVL Loop 1

- N2
KVL Loop 3

+ v2

D2

N3

KVL Loop 2
D3

v3

+
-

D4

v4

N4

## 1. Recognize that D2 and D3 have the same two nodes parallel

2. How many loops in the circuit? three
3. How many loops include v2? Two, Loop 1 and Loop 2

59

KVL Loop 1

+ v1

N1

+ v2
D2

- N2

D1

D3

vS

v3

N3

+
-

D4

v4

N4

## Apply KVL to Loop 1

Traverse Loop 1 in the clock-wise (CW) direction
Use the convention that voltage rises (- to +) will be negative
while voltage drops (+ to -) will be positive
4

v v v v v 0
i 1

60

## Example 3 (cont): Application of KVL (Ex. 2.6)

N1

+ v1
D1

KVL Loop 1

- N2

+ v2
D2

N3

KVL Loop 2

vS

D3

v3

+
-

v4

D4

N4

v2 vS - v1 - v4 12V- 6V-1V=5V

Substitute
and solve:

2

v v -v 0
i 1

v 2 v3

same voltage

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Parallel Connections
Elements of a circuit which share the same nodes also
have the same voltage.
Use KVL to show that the voltage across all
parallel elements is the same.

N1

L1:

+
-

v1

KVL
Loop 1
N2

v2

v3

KVL
Loop 2

+
-

v v1 v2 0 v2 v1

v v2 v3 0 v2 v3

v v1 v3 0 v1 v3

drops, CW

L 2:

drops, CW

L3:

drops, CW

KVL Loop 3

v1 v2 v3

same voltage

61

62

N1

40V +
N6

N2

N3

+
v40
1 -

+
40
5
N5

v4
-

28A

N4

## Example of Parallel Elements: 4 and 28A source are in parallel.

New Question: If v40 = v4 does that mean that the 4 resistor and the 40 are

in parallel?
Answer: NO, they must also share the same two nodes to be in parallel.

63

RR

## You are given this:

vS 12V

vs

vR 5V

KVL loop 1

RL

What is vL?
-

KVL
N

drops, CW

vn 0

vR

vL

vn v S v R v L 0

drops, CW

vL vS vR 12V-(5V)=7V

64

complicated)
Na

Nd

1A

10V

RC

vn 10V v2 vC 0

drops, CW

KVL loop 1

Nc

v2

+
6V +
vc

Nb

65

Na i1 2

32V

v1

Nb

v3

i3

v2

i2 Nc

20V

## Since we are given the source

voltages and resistance values, we
want the current in each branch and
the voltage across each element.

Nd

Steps:
1. Label nodes
2. Label and assign directions for the current in each branch
(arbitrary)
3. Assign unknown element voltages in terms of the arbitrary
assignments made for currents

66

## Example 7 (cont): Use of KVL & KCL Together to Solve a

Circuit
Na
1) KCL at node b:

i i1 i2 i3 0

out of node b

i1

+ v 1
8

32V

KVL loop 1
Nd
2) KVL around loop 1:

vn 32V v1 v3 0

drops, CW

## 3) From Ohms law we see that:

4) Combine 2) and 3) to get:

Nb

v1 2i1 and v3 8i 3
2i1 (0i2 ) 8i3 32V

v3

v2

i2 Nc
+
20V

i3 KVL loop 2

67

Circuit

Na

i1

+ v1 -

KVL loop 1
Nd

vn v2 20V v3 0

drops, CW

## 6) From circuit we see that:

7) Combine 5) and 6) to get:

32V

Nb

v2 4i 2 and v3 8i 3
(0i1 ) 4i2 8i3 20V

+
v3
-

i3

i2

Nc

v2 +
20V

KVL loop 2

## How to Get the Solution?

Three equations with three unknowns gives us a system of simultaneous equations
which are:

i1 i2 i3 0

## 2i1 (0i2 ) 8i3 32V

(0i1 ) 4i2 8i3 20V

## This system of equations can be solved by:

1. Substitution
2. Cramers rule
3. A calculator such as TI 89
4. MATLAB, EXCEL, MAPLE

68

69

Determinant

D3
D1
D2
i1
; i2
; i3
D
D
D
1 1 1

A Matrix

D 2 0
0 4

1 1 1 1 1

8 D 2 0

8 2 0

8 0 4

0 4

## (1)(0)(8) (1)(8)(0) ( 1)(2)(4)

56
(4)(8)(1) (8)(2)(1) (0)(0)(1)
(-1)

0 1 1
0 1 1 0 1
A Matrix with b
replacing first
D1 32 0 8 D1 32 0 8 32 0 224 i1 4A
column
20 4 8
20 4 8 20 4
1 0 1
1 0 1 1 0
A Matrix with b
replacing second D2 2 32 8 D2 2 32 8 2 32 56 i2 1A
column
0 20 8
0 20 8 0 20
1 1 0
1 1 0 1 1
A Matrix with b
replacing third
D3 2 0 32 D3 2 0 32 2 0 168 i3 3A
column
0 4 20
0 4 20 0 4

## Solution Using TI 89 Calculator

i1 i2 i3 0
2i1 (0i2 ) 8i3 32V
(0i1 ) 4i2 8i3 20V
TI-89 Titanium

zeros x y z , 2 x 8 z 32, 4 y 8 z 20 , x, y, z
ans =
4.0000
-1.0000
3.0000

i1
i
2
i3

70

## Solution Using a Matrix Approach

Three equations with three unknowns gives us a system of simultaneous equations
which are:

i1 i2 i3 0
2i1 (0i2 ) 8i3 32V
(0i1 ) 4i2 8i3 20V
These can be written in
matrix form Ai=b as:

1i1 1i2
2i 0i
2
1
0i1 4i2

1i3
8i3
8i3

1 1 1
2 0 8

0 4 8

i1
0
i
2
32
i3
20

71

72

i1
i
2
i3

4
1 A

i1 = 4 A
i2 = -1 A
i3 = 3 A

By Ohms law:

v1
v
2
v3

2
i1 8
4 i 4 Volts

2
8 i3 24

v1 = 8 V
v2 = -4 V
v3 = 24 V

## General Problem: Ax=b

General Solution: x=A-1b where A-1 is matrix inverse.
(MATLAB is available for all students to install, license works on
campus or by VPN)

73

User Input

1 1 -1
A= 2 0 8
0 4 8
>> b=[0;32;20]
0
b = 32
20

User MATLAB
output

>> inv(A)*b
ans =
4.0000
-1.0000
3.0000

i1
i
2
i3

74

75

## Solution Using a Matrix Approach - MS Excel

Result
4
-1
Enter the coefficients
and constants
Select an area the same size as the constants (3 rows, 1 col)
Click on the formula bar and enter = mmult(minverse(A2:C4),E2:E4)
Then simultaneously press Control, shift and enter.

i1
i
2
i3

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary
Ohms Law: v = iR. The current flow is proportional
the voltage
Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL):
in = 0
The algebraic sum of currents at a node must equal
zero.
Use: Sum of the currents out of a node = 0

## Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL):

vi = 0
The algebraic sum of the voltage drops around a closed
loop must equal zero.
Use: Sum of the voltage drops around a CW loop = 0

76

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Calculated Chaos
Eric Fenimore
Description:
The creation of fireworks
involves knowledge of
chemistry (what materials to
include to get the desired
colors), physics/dynamics,
and artistry (what colors,
shapes, patterns, and sounds
should the firework emit such
that it is enjoyable to watch).
This picture is an extremely
clear, focused close-up of the
instant when a firework is
detonating.

77

## ECE 307 Lecture 3

Power and Energy and Equivalent Resistance

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering Clemson University

78

79

## Overview of DC Electric Circuits

Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source

Current Source
Switch

Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit

Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 3 Power and
oCurrents
Energy and Equivalent
Resistance oPower
oEnergy

Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition

p vi W
i

Convention
Watts

## This is the power dissipated by

the element when voltage and
current are drawn as shown.

v
-

generic
component

## Interpretation: If p > 0 then the device consumes power

If p < 0 then the device supplies power

80

81

## Example 1: Using the Sign Convention in Power Calculations

Find power consumed by
each component

i
+
v
-

i 2A
v 5V

p vi 10 W
dissipates
power

i 2A
+ v 5V
p vi
v
5V2A
10 W

device supplies
power, e.g. battery

i 2A
+ v 5V

Because of labeling

p vi
5V 2A
dissipates power 10 W

82

83

## Example 2: Power Loss in a Wire

One gauge wire has a resistance of 0.1239/1000ft. Assume 2,000 ft and 1A
current. What is voltage drop along the wire and power consumed by the wire?

i 1A

+
v
-

## V=IR = 1A(0.2478) = 0.2478V

P=VI= (0.2478V)(1A) = 0.2478W
R=2,000ft (0.1239 / 1000ft)
= 0.2478

## This is the amount of power

given off from the wire as heat
Simplified two
steps into one

## Repeat for 16 gauge wire

4.016/1000ft R = 8.032
Note: 16 gauge
wire is a smaller
diameter than 1
gauge

p i2 R
(1A) 2 9 9W

Also

v2
p
R

## Example 3: Power Calculation Components Can Supply or

Consume Power

R
(very small,
ignore)

200 mA

R
(very small,
ignore)
1.5V Nominal but it has been
discharged so we dont actually
know this voltage

1.5V

## The charger supplies

power to the circuit
and the cell phone
battery consumes
(stores) that power.

84

85

## Example 4: Power Calculation Interpreting the Sign of the

Power
Find power consumed by each component
if v1 4V, v2 2V vR 2V, i 0.2A :

## pv1 vi (0.2A)(4V) 0.8W (supplies power)

pR i 2 R (0.2A) 2 (10) 0.4W (consumes power)
pv2 vi (0.2A)(2V) 0.4W (consumes power)
Find power consumed by each component
if v1 4V, v2 2V vR 6V, i 0.6A
(None of the reference directions have changed)

## pv1 vi (4V)( 0.6A) 2.4W (supplies power)

pR i 2 R (0.6A) 2 (10)
pv2 vi (2V)( 0.6A)

## 3.6W (consumes power)

1.2W (supplies power)

10

i
+

v1

vR

v2

86

## Energy in Electric Circuits

Energy consumed
tf

E p d p t f p t0 vit
t0

## Given constant power

Constant voltage and current

Units
Joules = Ws = VAs VAh ->Ah
When the voltage is Implied

s = seconds
h = hours

## Example: 5000 mAh for a

remote control car where 12V is
implied

## Example 5: Energy Calculation

A 12V battery is rated at 1500 mAh. How long can it
power a 10W load?

E 18VAh
t
1.8h
p
10W

87

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

88

Resistors in Series
Series Resistors are on the Same Branch -> Same Current
Summing voltage drops around mesh 1:
4

m1

+
v1 R 1
+
v2 R 2
+
v3 R 3
-

v
n=1

= -v v1 v2 v3 = 0

## Result 1: The total voltage across all of the

resistors gets divided (split) between the
individual resistors:

v v1 v2 v3

Voltage Divider

## Result 2: Using Ohms law for each R, the

voltage and current for the whole resistor
branch is related to the sum of the individual
resistances

v i R 1 i R 2 iR 3
i (R 1 +R 2 +R 3 )

Circuit Reduction

89

## Resistors in Series Voltage Divider

Continuing from previous slide, solve for i

v
i
R1 R 2 R 3

m1

+
v1 R 1
+
v2 R 2
+
v3 R 3
-

## Write each resistor voltage:

R1
v
R1 R 2 R 3
R2
v2 iR 2
v
R 1 +R 2 +R 3
R3
v3 iR 3
v
R1 R 2 R 3
v1 iR 1

Rn
vn
v
R1 R 2 R 3
Each resistor voltage is
a scaled version of v
v is scaled or divided
between the resistors

## This result is true for any number (N) of resistors in

series. Resistor voltage for the nth resistor is:

vn

Rn

R
k 1

i

m1

+
R
v1 1
+
v2 R 2
+
v3 R 3
-

i
v

R eq

## From earlier slide:

v iR 1 iR 2 iR 3 i (R 1 +R 2 +R 3 ) iR eq
where

R eq R 1 +R 2 +R 3

## From the voltage source point of view, there is no

difference between the 3 individual resistors in
series and one large resistor
We can redraw the circuit using a single
resistance
We have lost information about the individual
components, e.g. v1, v2, v3
This result is true for any number (N) of resistors in
series. Total resistance is:
N

R eq R k
k 1

## Equation for Equivalent

Resistance of Series Resistors

90

i

+
v1 R 1 1
+
v2 R 2 1
+
R 100 1
v100
-

100V

Check:
100

v
k 1

i
100V

v100

R eq

## Step 1: Find equivalent resistance and solve for

the current100
R eq R k 1 1. L 1 100
1

100V
i
1A
100

91

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Resistors in Parallel
Parallel Resistors Share the Same 2 Nodes -> Same Voltage

Na

i1

i2

R1

R2

i3

n 1
out of a

R3

Nb

in i i1 i2 i3 0

## Result 1: The total current into all of the resistors

(i) gets divided (split) between the individual
resistors:
Current Divider
i i1 i2 i3

Result 2: Using Ohms law for each R, the voltage and current for the
whole resistor group is related to the sum of the individual resistances

v
v
v

R1 R 2 R 3

1
1
1

+
+ v
R
R
R 3
2
1

Circuit Reduction

92

93

i

## Continuing from previous slide, solve for v in terms of i

Na

i1

i2

i3

R1

R2

R3

Nb
This result is true for any number
(N) of resistors in parallel. Resistor
current for the nth resistor is:

1

k 1 R k

in
Rn
N

1
1
1
v
+
+
R
R
R 3
2
1

1
1
1
+
+

v R 1 R 2 R 3
i1

R1
R1

1
1
1
+
+

R 1 R 2 R 3
v

i2

R2
R2

1
1
1
+
+

v R 1 R 2 R 3
i3

R3
R3

1
1
1
+
+

R
R
R
2
3
in 1
Rn

## Each resistor current

is a scaled version of
i
i is scaled or
divided between
the resistors

94

i

Na

i1

i2

R1

R2

i3
R3

Nb

Na

R eq

Nb

v
R eq

where

1
1
1
+
+
R 1 R 2 R 3

R eq

## From the voltage source point of view, there is

no difference between the 3 individual resistors in
parallel and one smaller resistor
We can redraw the circuit using a single
resistance
We have lost information about the
individual components, e.g. i1, i2, i3
This result is true for any number (N) of resistors in
parallel. Total resistance is:
N
1
1

R eq k 1 R k

## Equation for Equivalent

Resistance of Parallel Resistors

95

i
i100

i2

i1
R1

R2

100V

that pi = 1W?
v1
v12
p1 i1v1 v1
1W
R
R
1
1
v12
(100V) 2
R1

10k
1W
1W

i
100V

100

+
vR

i1
R eq

v1 100V

10 102 A 10mA
R 1 10k

## Find equivalent resistance of the string and solve

for the current i 100
1
1
1

100
102 /

R eq k 1 R k
10k

R eq 100 i =

100V
1A
100

96

i
100V

v1

R1 1

v2

R2 1

+-

v100

100V

i1

i2

R1

R2

i100

100

R100 1

R eq 100 i =

100V
1A ptotal 100W
100

## Same current and power ->

from the Source Point of View,
there is no difference between
the series and parallel strings

R k 1 R k 10k

vk 1V vk 100V

ik 1A ik 10mA

pk 1W pk 1W

## String failure modes:

If one of the series bulbs breaks (open-circuit), then i = 0 for all bulbs.
If one of the parallel bulbs breaks (short-circuit), then v = 0 for all bulbs.

Resistances

## A sequence of series and parallel reductions can be

used in a circuit.
Goal is to simplify the circuit without losing the
identity of the voltage or current of interest.
Procedure
1. Perform a reduction (series or parallel)
2. Redraw circuit
3. A reduction may create the opportunity for a new
reduction.
Repeat

97

98

## Given : R 1 75, R 2 30, R 3 20

Find Req
Step1: R2 and R3 are in series:

R eq1 R 2 R 3 50
The circuit reduces to

Req1

R eq1
R eq

R eq

R eq

1
1
1
+
R 1 R eq1

75 50

75 50

R 1R eq1
R 1 +R 1eq

30

99

Solution

Find i1 and i2

## Given : R 1 75, R 2 30,

R 3 20
Combine R2 and R3 in series:

Req1 R2 R3 50

1A

R3

i1

i2
R2

R1

Req1

## Use Current Divider:

1
1
1
1
1

R eq 30 = (7550)/(75 + 50)
R eq R1 R eq1 75 50
i1 = Req1/(R1+Req1) i = 50/(75+50) 1A
= 0.4

i2 = R1/(R1+Req1) i = 75/(75+50) 1A =
0.6

100

Circuit Solution

R3

1A

i1

R1

i2
vR 3

vR2

R2

101

## Example 11: Sequence of Series and Parallel Reductions to Find

Req

Find Req

R eq

From inspection:

Where:

xy
x y
x y

R eq R 1 +R 2 R 3 +R 4 R 5 +R 6

1
2
3
4
5

## Example 11 (cont): Sequence of Series and Parallel Reductions

to Find Req

Given: R 1 2

R 5 2

R 2 4

R 3 5

102

R 4 5

R 6 3

R 5 R 6 5
R 4 R 5 +R 6

5 5

55

2.5

R 3 R 4 R 5 +R 6 5 2.5 7.5

R 2 R 3 +R 4 R 5 +R 6

4 7.5

4 7.5

2.6

R eq R 1 +R 2 R 3 +R 4 R 5 +R 6 2 2.6 4.6

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

103

Potentiometer
Devices
that use
angle
sensing

Idea
Change resistance as
the shaft rotates

This is a
Voltage
Divider

Given
Angle

Circuit
Model

104

Potentiometer

Measurement
Measurement
and
and
Analog->
Analog->
Digital
Digital
Conversion
Conversion

Digital
Digital
Computer/
Computer/
Controller
Controller

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary
Power and Energy in DC Circuits
p=vi
For current through a voltage drop, p > 0 means
power is dissipated in the component and the
circuit supplies power to the component
For current through a voltage rise, p<0 means
power is supplied by the component and
component supplies power to the circuit.
In a resistor
v2

pi R
2

E=pt=vit

105

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary (cont)
Equivalent Circuits
The terminal behavior, voltage and current, is
unchanged
Series and parallel reductions can be used to create
simplified, electrically equivalent circuits.
Series resistors combine into an equivalent resistance as
N

R eq R k
k 1

as
N
1
1
R eq

k 1

Rk

106

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary (cont)
Resistor Results
Series resistors divide a voltage .
Ex: for 2 resistors in series, voltage accross resistor 1 is
v1

R1
v
R1 R 2

## Parallel resistors divide a current

Ex: for 2 resistors in parallel, current in resistor 1 is
1
1

R
R
2
i1 1
R1

R 1R 2
R R2
i 1
i
R1

107

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Bamboo Pipeworks
Holly Tuten
Description:
This photo shows a
mosquito breeding habitat in
a South Carolina zoological
park. While collecting
mosquito larvae, the canopy
above was photographed for
later analysis of canopy
coverage with graphic arts
software.

108

## ECE 307 Lecture 4

The Node Voltage Method

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering Clemson University

109

110

## Overview of DC Electric Circuits

Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source

Current Source
Switch

Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit

Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 4 The Node
oCurrents
Voltage Method
oPower
oEnergy

Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition

111

## Explosive Gas Sensor

Gas that
may be
explosive

Gas flows
through sensor

+
No Explosive Gas Present:
1. i heats the resistor (p=vi)
2. i reaches a constant value
Explosive Gas Present:
1. Gas burns on heated resistor -> R gets even hotter
2. Heat increases R -> i is now reduced (Ohms law)
3. Measure i and a change indicates an explosive gas present

## Creating Node Voltage References

A voltage must be measured between two points in a
circuit, we have been measuring across elements.
+ vR Another possibility: one node is chosen as the
reference point for all other voltages.
The Reference Node is marked by
The Reference Node often (but not required) has a
physical meaning in which case it is called a ground
All node voltages are shown relative to the
reference node.

112

## Example 1: Choosing a Reference Node and Labeling Node

Voltages
Label the Node Voltages in the Circuit
N1

Vehicle
12V

v1

v1

Frame of the
vehicle is a
conductor

N2

v1

v2

N3

v1

v3
N4

## Could consider the frame as a

reference node in analysis

## # of node voltages = # of nodes -1

Note: The dashed lines indicate that there are several parallel elements
connected between N1 and N4 and all have the same voltage.

113

114

Solve the
entire circuit
using the Node
Voltage Method

Find
component
voltages

All
Node
Voltages

Specific
Component
Voltages

Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
current or
power

Current,
Power, etc

## 1. Label all n of the nodes and Select a Reference

node
2. Decide if the remaining n-1 node voltages are
dependent or independent. A connected voltage
source will make a node dependent. Count the m
dependent nodes.
3. Write KCL equations at each of the n-1-m
independent nodes. Write m equations to relate
the dependent node voltages to the source
voltages.
4. Solve n-1 equations.

115

## Preliminary - How to Write the Current at a Node Using Node

Voltages
v1

Nb

R1

Na

i1

R3

i2
R2

va
vb

Nd
+

i3

vd

KVL : va v1 vb 0
Solve to yield: v1 vb va

Reference
Node

116

vc

- Nc

v1 vb va
i1

R1
R1

## Important Point: The R1 component current was written

in terms of the two node voltages (vb and va)

## Preliminary - How to Write the Current at a Node Using Node

Voltages

117

Now extend the result of the previous slide to any resistor in the circuit

## i Out of node of interest

R

Adjacent
Node
+

vadjacent
Reference Node

Node of
Interest
KVL that includes Resistor of
Interest, Node of Interest,
and Adjacent Node

vR
+
vnode of interest

drops ,CW

## vR vnode of interest vadjacent

Ohms Law for Resistor of Interest

R
R

## Can now apply this to all nodes and resistors in the

circuit without thinking about the sign convention

## Preliminary - How to Write the Current at a Node Using Node

Voltages
Special Case where adjacent node is the Reference Node

Adjacent
Node
Reference
Node
-

vR
iout of nodeR
of interest

Node of
Interest
+

vnode of interest
There is no adjacent
node in this case

## KVL that includes Resistor of

Interest, Node of Interest,
and Adjacent Node

0V vR vnode of interest 0
vR vnode of interest
Ohms Law for Resistor of Interest

## iout of node of interest

vR vnode of interest

R
R

## Can now apply this to all nodes and resistors in the

circuit without thinking about the sign convention

118

119

Na

Nb

R2

Redraw to
emphasize
nodes

va

is

R3

R1

is

vb

is

R2

Na
+

i1

va

R1

Nb

i2

i3 +
R3

vb

Nc

Nc

i is

out of
node a

out of
node b

va va vb

0
R1
R2

vb vb - va
i
+
0
R3
R2

1
1

R 1 R 2

1
R2

R2

va
is

1
vb
1
0

R 2 R 3

## Node Voltage Method

We now know how do all of the steps in the Node
Voltage Method
1. Label all nodes and select Reference Node
# nodes = n
2. Identify dependent nodes (voltage sources)
# dependent nodes = m
3. Write n-1-m KCL eqns. + m eqns. to describe
dependent nodes (always need a total of n-1
eqns)
4. Solve

120

121

## Example 2: Straightforward NVM, 3 Nodes

1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node

R3
iout of node of interest

n=3

## 2. Identify dependent nodes m=0

(voltage sources)

3. Write n -1 m = 2 KCL
eqns.

Na

## iout of node of interest

va vb va vb va
va
i

i1

R3
R2
R1
out of node a
i1
vb va vb va vb
i

i2

R2
R3
R4
out of node b
1 1 1

R 1 R 2 R 3

4. Solve

R1

vb
i2
-

1 1

R 2 R 3 va i1
vb

i2
1 1 1 1 1

R 2 R 3 R 2 R 3 R 4

Nb

Nc
Reference
Node

122

## Example 3: Four Nodes and a Dependent Source

1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node

vb

va

n=4

## 2. Identify dependent nodes m=1

(No KCL at node a)

vc

+
-

## 3. Write n-1-m=2 KCL eqns +

1 equation to describe dependent node

vb va vb vc vb

R1
R3
R2
out of node b
vc vb vc
i

is 0

R3
R4
out of node c

Reference
Node

4. Solve

va v s

1
R1

0
1

1
1
1

R
R
R
2
3
1
1

R3
0

1
R3

1
1

R 3 R 4

va
v
b
vc

0
i
s

vs

123

## Example 4: NVM Complete Circuit Solution

Find voltage at nodes 1 and 2.

## 2. Identify dependent nodes

(voltage sources)
m=0

n=3

N2

## 1. Label all nodes and

select Reference Node

N1

v1

v2

N3

At node 1

v1
v1 v2
3A
0
2
2

At node 2

v2 v1
v2
2A
0
2
4

4. Solve
At node 1

2v1 v2 6

At node 2

2v1 3v2 8

Add

2 v2 2
v2 1V
v1 2.5V

124

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Using the method you have found all of the Node Voltages in the
circuit.

## Any component voltage can be written using one or

two node voltages.

Solve the
entire circuit
using the Node
Voltage Method

Find
component
voltages

All
Node
Voltages

Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
current or
power

Component
Voltages

Current,
Power

125

## Component Voltage from Node Voltage

Use KVL and the labeled node voltages to find the
component voltages
100

v
+ R100 +
+

200

122

v100

v300

vR300
+
-

v400
+
-

...

300

...

v110

110

vR400 400
+
+
401
v401

This is a
very big
circuit

Find vR100:
KVL: -v100+vR100+ v110=0
vR100=v100 - v110
Find vR400:
KVL: -v400-vR400+v401=0
vR400=-v400+v401
Find vR300:
KVL: -v300-vR300=0
vR300= -v300
Only need one node voltage when
component is attached to reference node.

126

127

Solve the
entire circuit
using the Node
Voltage Method

Find
component
voltages

All
Node
Voltages

Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
current or
power

Component
Voltages

Current,
Power

128

## Example 5: NVM to Find Component Current

Find i using NVM.
1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node

vc

va

n=4

## 2. Identify dependent nodes m = 1

(voltage sources)
3. Write n-1-m=2 KCL eqns. + 1 equation
to describe dependent node

va va vb va vc
i

8
4
2
out of node a
vc v a
i 1A
0

2
out of node c

vb 20V

4. Solve

va 16V, vc 18V
5. Solve

va
i
2A
8

vb

129

va

vb

vc

va

i10
-

## 1. Label all nodes and

select Reference Node
n=5

vd

130

## Example 6 (cont): NVM to Find Component Current, 5 Nodes

2. Identify dependent nodes
(voltage sources)
m=1

va

vb

vc

vd

i10

## 3. Write n-1-m=3 KCL

eqns. + 1 equation to
describe dependent node

vb va
vb
vb vc
i

2
10
9
out of node b
4. Solve
Could solve by computer or calculator as a
v c vb v c v c v d
i

## 0 system of 4 equations and 4 unknowns

9
4
8
out of node c
or
easily reduce to 2 unknowns and
v d vc
i
1A 0

8

out of node d
c

va 40V

Cramers rule.

131

## Example 6 (cont): NVM to Find Component Current, 5 Nodes

4. Solve (cont)
After substitution:

## 64Vb 10Vc 1800

4Vb 13Vc 36
Cramers rule:

1800 10
36 13
vb
30V
64 10
4 13
Substitute to find vd:

64 1800
4
36
vc
12V
64 10
4 13

vc vd 9V
20V
8V vc 21V
8V 0 vd 9V

5. Solve

i 10 vb / 10 3A

## Example 6 (cont): NVM to Find Component Current, 5 Nodes

4. Solve (alternative)

## Solve by computer or calculator as a

system of 4 equations and 4 unknowns

vb va
vb
vb vc

2
10
9
out of node b
vc vb vc vc vd
i

9
4
8
out of node c
v d vc
i

1A 0

8
out of node d
TI-89
i

va 40V

45 64 10 0
0 8 35 9

0
0
1 1

1
0
0
0

Simultaneous Equations
Application

va
v
b
vc

vd

0
0

40

va
40
v
30
b V
vc
12

v
20
d

132

133

## Example 7: More NVM Application Practice

+

Find i and vb
1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node

n=3

## 2. Identify dependent nodes m=1

(voltage sources)

va

vb

## 3. Write n -1- m =1 KCL eqns. + 1

equation to describe dependent node

vb va
vb
i
4 0

4
6
Out of node b

va 4V

4. Solve

vb 12V

5. Solve

vb va
i
2A
4

134

## Example 8: Even More NVM Application Practice

Find the voltage across the 40 resistor using
the NVM. Find the current through the 30 resistor.

## 2. Identify dependent nodes

(voltage sources)

n=4

Reference Node

i30

v0

m=2

## 3. Write n -1- m = 1 KCL eqns. + 2 equations to

describe dependent nodes
KCL at node b:

vb va vb vb vc
i

10
40
20
Out of b
Voltages of Dependent nodes:

va 10V
vc 32V

i30

4. Solve
104
vb
14.8571V
7
5. Solve

v0 vb 14.8571V
v v
32 10 22
c a

0.73A
30
30
30

135

i10

v v
b a
10
14.8571 10

10
0.4857A

vc vb
20
32 14.8571

20
0.8571A

i20

i30 0.73A
b

i30 i20

14.8571
40
0.3714A

i40
d

1.5904A

136

## Example 8 (cont): Even More NVM Application Practice

p10V 10 1.219 12.19W

Check: Power

## p32V 32 1.5904 50.8928W

p30 0.7333

p30 16.1333W

p10 2.3590W

p20 14.6924W

30 16.1333W
2
p20 0.8571 20 14.6924W
2
p40 0.3714 40 5.5175W
2
p10 0.4857 10 2.3590W
2

p40 5.5175W

p10V 12.19W
Absorbs Power

p32V 50.8928W

Delivers Power

Check

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

137

Summary
Node Voltage Method
Solve circuit using Kirchoffs current law to
find all Node Voltages
Use the Node Voltages to find any voltage, current,
power etc. in the solved circuit
Solve the
entire circuit
using the Node
Voltage Method

Find
component
voltages

Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
current or
power

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary (cont)
Steps of Node Voltage Method
1. Label all nodes and select Reference Node
# nodes = n
2. Identify dependent nodes (voltage sources)
# dependent nodes = m
3. Write n-1-m KCL eqns. + m eqns. to describe
dependent nodes (always need a total of n-1
eqns)
4. Solve
5. Solve for component voltages and currents

138

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Close Encounter: Carbon
Nanotube Meets Protein
Sungho Choi & Kurt Geckeler
Description:
The computer-assisted
illustration shows the product
of a carbon nanotube
interacting with a protein for
the first time. This novel class
of nanobiocomposites is
designed for biomedical and
sensor applications.

139

## ECE 307 - Lecture 5

The Mesh Current Method

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

140

141

## Overview of DC Electric Circuits

Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source

Current Source
Switch

Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit

Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 5 The Mesh
oCurrents
Current Method
oPower
oEnergy

Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition

## Measuring Voltages and Current

A voltmeter/ammeter/ohmmeter is used
to measure voltage/current/resistance in
a real circuit. A \$20 meter from the
hardware store is shown.

## Voltage is measured between two

points. Here the voltmeter is used to
measure the voltage across the fuse.

va

R
A fuse is simply a resistor, if p=vi is too large
(too much current) the resistor cant dissipate
enough heat and the wire melts.

## The ammeter must be put in series

with the fuse to measure current.
Be careful doing this!

142

143

Techniques

## Recall the Node Voltage Approach

Solve the
entire circuit using
the Node Voltage
Method

Find
component
voltages

All
Node
Voltages

Specific
Component
Voltages

All
Mesh
Currents

Specific
Component
Currents

Solve the
entire circuit using
the Mesh Current
Method

Find
component
currents

Find
other electrical
quantities such
as current or
power

Voltage,
Current,
Power, etc
Find
other electrical
quantities such
as voltage or
power

## Mesh Current Method (MCM)

Systematic application of KVL
Label all n of the mesh currents in a clockwise direction.
Decide if the each of the n mesh currents are dependent or
independent.
A current source will make a mesh dependent.
Count the m dependent meshes.
Write KVL equations at each of the n - m independent
meshes. Write m equations to relate the dependent mesh
currents to the source currents. Define a supermesh for
the special case of a shared current source
Solve the n equations

144

145

N

## voltage drops in the

clock-wise direction
are positive

vn 0
A negative sign is
used to account for a
voltage rise.

A voltage rise means you enter from the - and leave from the + in the
direction of the loop. A voltage drop means you enter from the + and
leave from the -.

v1

## In the CW direction, enter the + terminal

and leave from - voltage drop +

D1

CW Direction

D2

v2

## In the CW direction, enter the - terminal and

leave from + voltage rise -

146

## Preliminary - What is a Mesh Current?

Draw a Clockwise
Mesh Current around
each Mesh.
Some branches have
one mesh current
Some branches have
two mesh currents
In reality there is only one
current cant physically
separate the two.

i1

i4

i7

i2

i5

i8

i3

i6

i9

147

Mesh Currents

## Case 1: Branch Current = Mesh Current

Mesh current is selected and used to describe voltages
across resistors
v2
+
KVL : vi v1 v2 v3 0
v drops in
CW direction

## Using Ohms Law:

KVL : v1 iR 2 iR 3 0

+
+
+
-

## Key to the Mesh Current Method: Write KVL equations

around all the meshes in the circuit using only constant sources,
resistances, and the mesh currents.

v3

148

## Case 2: Branch Current = Difference of Mesh Currents

Mesh currents are selected and used to describe voltages
across resistors

KCL:

i1 ix i2 0

out of
node a

i1

ix i1 i2

a i2

vx ix R 2 (i1 i2 )R 2
vx will be a voltage drop when writing KVL
around the i1 mesh: (i1-i2)R2
vx will be a voltage rise when writing KVL
around the i2 mesh: -(i1-i2) R2= (i2-i1)R2

+
-

i1

vx

ix

i2
-

149

## Preliminary - Can Write All the Voltages Using Mesh Currents

Case 2: (cont)
Writing the KVL equations using vx=(i1-i2)R2

## Since we are summing voltages, the voltage source is

an easy element to describe.

Drops in
Mesh 1

Drops in
Mesh 2

vn vs i1R 1 i1 i2 R 2 0

vn i2 i1 R 2 i2 R 3 i2 R 4 0

## vx will be a voltage drop when writing KVL

around the i1 mesh
vx will be a voltage rise when writing KVL
around the i2 mesh

## Now solve the 2 equations

for i1 and i2 to complete
the Mesh Current method.

i1

+
-

a
i1i

+
1

vx
-

i2
ix
i2

## Case 1 and Case 2 show that we can write any

resistor voltage in the circuit using one or two
mesh currents.
Now ready to apply the Mesh Current Method
(MCM)

150

151

n=2

+-

## 2. Identify dependent meshes m=0

(current sources)

+-

## 3. Write n-m=2 KVL eqns.

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2

+-

i1

vn V1 i1R1 V2 (i1 i2 )R 2 0

i2

## Form for resistors in outside branch

Form for resistors in shared branch

vn V2 i2 R 3 V3 i2 R 4 (i2 i1 )R 2 0
General Form in a Mesh of Interest:

152

MCM
4. Solve

+
-

## KVL Equations from previous slide:

vn V1 i1R 1 V2 (i1 i2 )R 2 0

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1

+
-

+
i1

i2

vn V2 i2 R 3 V3 i2 R 4 (i2 i1 )R 2 0

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2

R 2
R1 +R 2
R

R
+R
+R
2
2
3
4

i1
i
2

V1 V2
V2 V3

i1
i
2

## (would need actual

values for the
voltage sources and
resistors to solve)

153

3

n=2

## 2. Identify dependent meshes m=0

(current sources)

4V

3V
4

2V

1V

5V
i1

i2

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2

4. Solve

14 11
11 18

i1
i
2

1V

4V

i1
0.2

A
0.34
i2

6V

154

n=2

## 2. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)

m=1

## 3. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns

AND m=1 equation in the
dependent loop

i1 1A

vn 5V 4k i2 0

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2

4. Solve

i2 1.25x103 A
i1 1A

5V

1A
i1

4k
i2

155

more difficult)

n=2

## 2. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)

m=1

4k

1A

5V

## 3. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns

AND m=1 equation in the
dependent loop

i1

i1 1A

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2

4. Solve

Divided by in bottom
equation to make the
units consistent

vn 5V 4k i2 i1 0

0
4000 4000

i1
i
2

i2

1A

5A

1.0
i1

A

1.001

i2

156

n=2

## 2. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)

m=1

## 3. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns

AND m=1 equation for
the dependent mesh
We have two problems:
1. The model of a current source does not
relate voltage and current cant write
KVL directly ????
2. Cant write that i1 or i2 is equal to the
value of the current source (as in the
previous example) since both go through
it.

4k
+
4k

vx
i1

5V

1A
i2

157

## Example 5 (cont) : Two Meshes Share a Current Source (most

difficult)
4k
1. Label all meshes

n=2

## 2. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)

m=1

## 3. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns

AND m=1 equation for the
dependent loop

Solution:
Change one of the
meshes into a supermesh that circles the
two meshes of interest.

+
4k

vx
-

5V

1A

i1

i2

## .What did that change?

Now we can say the i2 is
the current in the current
source.

## Proceed with Step 3 of the

MCM using these loops.

158

difficult)

n=2

## 2. Identify dependent meshes m=1

Create
(current sources)

supermesh

## 3. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns

AND m=1 equation for
the dependent loop

4k

4k
5V

1A
i1

i2

vn 4k i1 4k i1 i2 5V 0

i2 1A
4. Solve

4k ( 1A) 5V
i1
0.499A
8k

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

159

Using the Mesh Current Method You Have Found All of the
Mesh Currents in the Circuit.

mesh currents.

Solve the
entire circuit
using the Mesh
Current Method

Find
component
currents

All
Mesh
Currents

Specific
Component
Currents

Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
voltage or
power

Voltage,
Power

## Component (Branch) Current from Mesh Current

i101

i102

i103

Find ia:
ia= i201 - i102

i203

Find ib:
ib= i301 - i302

ia
id

i200

i201
ic

i300

i301 ib

This is part
of a very
big circuit

i302

Find ic:
ic= i301 - i201
Find id:
id = i200
Only one current
needed at the edge of
the circuit

160

161

## Example 6: Apply the MCM Solution

Given that you have already solved the circuit:
i1
i
2
i3

0.5A

0.95A

0.55A

ia
i3

## Find the Branch Currents

Shown:
ib i2 i3 0.95A 0.55A
ic i2 0.95A
id i1 i2 0.5A 0.95A
ie i1 i3 0.5A 0.55A
i f i1 0.5A

if

ib

ie

+
-

i1

id

+
-

ia i3 0.55A

i2
ic

162

Solve the
entire circuit
using the Mesh
Current Method
All
Mesh
Currents

Find
component
currents
Specific
Component
Currents

Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
voltage or
power

Voltage,
Power

163

## Example 7: Apply the MCM Solution

Given that you have already solved the circuit using MCM:
i1
i
2
i3

17.11A

13.57A

11.26A

+
-

## Find power consumed by R3=16:

i1

p ia 2 R 3 i3 R 3 11.26A 16
2

i3

2,028W 2.028kW

by Vs2=110V:

ia

+
-

i2
ib

164

## Example 8: Full Use of MCM to Find a Current of Interest

Use MCM to find the current through the 8 resistor.
1. Label all meshes

n=2

## 2. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)

m=0

## 3. Write n-m=2 KVL eqns

v drops
Mesh 1

10V 2i1 8 i1 i2 0

8 i

v drops
Mesh 2

i1 4i2 20V 0

10 V

i1

i8

i2

5i1 - 4i2 = 5V
-2i1 + 3i2 = -5V

4. Solve

5. Solve

i1 = -0.714A, i2 = -2.143A

I8 = i1 i2 = -3.857A

20V

165

## Example 9: Full Use of MCM to Find a Voltage of Interest

Use MCM to find the voltage across the 8
resistor.
n=3
1.
Label all meshes
2. Identify dependent meshes m=0
(current sources)
3. Write n-m=3 KVL eqns

v drops
Mesh 1

40 2i1 8 i1 i2 0 ;

6 i

i1

8 i

v drops
Mesh 2

i2

i3

i1 6i2 6 i2 i3 0

i2 4i3 20 0

v drops
Mesh 3

4. Solve
zeros

TI-89 Titanium

40 2 x 8 x y ,8 y x 6 y 6 y z , 6 z y 4 z 20 , x, y, z
i1 5.6A
5. Solve

i2 2A i3 0.8A

v0 8 i1 i2 8 5.6 A 2 A 28.8V

166

(more difficult)

the 10 resistor.
n=3

## 1. Label all meshes

2. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)

i1

m=1

i10

i2

i3

3. Write n-m=2 KVL eqns AND m=1 equation for the dep. loop

v drops
Mesh 1

40 2i1 10 i1 i2 0 ;

10 i

v drops
Mesh 2

i1 9i2 4 i2 i3 0

i3 1A
TI-89 Titanium

4. Solve
zeros

40 2 x 10 x y ,10 y x 9 y 4 y 1 , x, y
i1 5A i2 2A

5. Solve

i10 i1 i2 3A

167

Current?

## Look at circuit, often one will use fewer equations

6 meshes, 2 nodes
Direct use of NVM will have fewer equations
Series and parallel
combinations can be used
In conjunction with MCM
or NVM.
ieq

2 meshes, 11 nodes
Direct use of MCM will have fewer equations

Req

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

168

Summary
Mesh Current Method
Solve circuit using Kirchoffs voltage law to
find all Mesh Currents.
Use the Mesh Currents to find any current,
voltage, power etc. in the solved circuit
Can solve any circuit by Node Voltage Method
or Mesh Current Method but one may be easier for
a given circuit.
Find
Solve the
entire circuit

Find
component
values

other electrical
quantities such
as current,
voltage, or
power

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)

169

## Histological Processing of Cellbased Fiber with Regenerative

Medicine Application
Willie Jones
This photograph displays fivemicron histological sections of a
hollow fiber with a green
fluorescent protein that labels
epithelial gland cells. The
cellular fiber was sectioned in
order to determine the fiber
morphology, as well as the
cellular distribution throughout.

## ECE 307 - Lecture 6

Equivalent Circuits

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

170

171

## Overview of DC Electric Circuits

Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source

Current Source
Switch

Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit

Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 6
oCurrents
Equivalent Circuits
oPower
oEnergy

Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition

172

## Temperature Sensing - Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

In a Metal, increasing temperature (T) will increase the resistance (R T)

RT R0 R0 T

## Platinum: =+0.00392/C, R0=100 at T= 0C

Several ways to measure R.

5V

+
-

RL
RT

+
vT

## Voltage divider equation:

Measure the resistance R then we know T
This is a means of measuring temperature.

RT
vT
(5V )
RL RT
vT

R0 R0 T
(5V )
RL R0 R0 T

Measure VT

## Solve the voltage equation for T

vT RL R0 (vT 5V )
5V vT R0

## Use the resistor

temperature curve to
calculate temperature T

173

174

## Temperature Sensing - Thermistor

In a Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) Thermistor, increasing temperature will
decrease the resistance.
A Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) refers to materials that experience an increase
in electrical resistance when their temperature is raised.
The material is a semiconductor (later lecture) and not a metal

## Measure the resistance R then we know T

This is a means of measuring temperature.

Build a circuit to
measure resistance
(voltage divider is one
possibility)

## Thevenin and Norton Equivalents

Replace part of a circuit with a simpler circuit that is
electrically equivalent.

175

176

## Series and Parallel reductions create electrically

equivalent circuits.
a

a
i

+i
1

vab R1

i2

i3

R2

R3

+
vab

Some quantities are exactly the same while others are different.
Equivalent means the circuits are the same in some important
aspects but are not identical.

Req

177

## Electrically Equivalent for Our Work

Electrically Equivalent - from the load perspective,
the same Voltage and Current exist.

## The Voltage and Current

dont change if the circuits
are eclectically equivalent.

## Note: The load is considered to be

any sub-circuit that can be
connected at two terminals

178

## Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

Any part of the circuit with two terminals (a one-port
network) can be replaced by a single voltage source
and a resistor in series.

From the R4
perspective, v and
i, it cant tell
which circuit it is
in.

## Procedure to find Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

A. Find Equivalent Resistance
Remove Load (resistor or sub-circuit)
Remove Sources
V source -> short circuit
I source -> open circuit

Find R

## B. Find Open Circuit Voltage

Remove Load
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh current)
Find voltage at load terminals (still without the load)

179

## Example 1: Find Thevenin Equivalent

Find Thevenin Equivalent for circuit to the left of Nodes a-b.

Remove Load
Remove Sources

## V source -> short circuit

I source -> open circuit

180

## Example 1 (cont): Find Thevenin Equivalent

A. Find Equivalent
Resistance (continued)
Parallel Combination

Series Combination

R 1 || R 2 R 3

R 1R 2
R3
R1 R 2

181

182

i0

v3

i1
1.
2.
3.
4.

vab

v2

## Label meshes n=1

No dep meshes n=0
Write n-m=1 KVL
Solve
3

n 1
(drops)

## B. Find Open Circuit Voltage

Remove Load
Solve Circuit - mesh current
Find voltage at load terminals (still
without the load) use i1 to find
vab
KVL at output loop:
3

vn vs i1 R1 i1 R2 0
i1

vs
R1 R2

## Note that this is not a

Mesh since it is not a
window in the circuit

n 1
(drops)

v2 v3 vab 0

R2
vab v2 i1 R2
vs
R1 R2

183

R 1R 2
RT
R3
R1 R 2

R2
vT
vs
R1 R2

## Placing the Thevenin equivalent into the original circuit:

iL
+

vL
-

iL and vL will
be the same as when
the original circuit
was connected.

184

## Norton Equivalent Circuit

Any part of the circuit with two terminals (a one-port
network) can be replaced by a single current source
and a resistor in parallel.
From the R4
perspective, v and
i, it cant tell
which circuit it is
in.

iN

RN

185

A.

Remove Load
Remove Sources

## V source -> short circuit

I source -> open circuit

B.

## Exactly the same

procedure as finding R
for the Thevenin
Equivalent:
RN=RT

Find RN

## Replace Load with a Short

Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh current)
Find current at the load terminals (still with the short)

## Example 2: Find the Norton Equivalent Circuit

Find the Norton Equivalent for the circuit to the left of Nodes a-b.
R5

A. Find Equivalent
Resistance
Remove Load
Remove Sources

## V source -> short circuit

I source -> open circuit

186

187

RN

R N

R ||R R || R
1

R5

R 1R 2

R 3 || R 4 R 5
R 1 R 2

R 1R 2

3 R 4
R

R
2

1
R5
R 1R 2
R3 R4
R1 R 2

188

## Example 2 (cont): Find the Norton Equivalent Circuit

B. Find Short Circuit Current
Replace Load with a Short
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh
current)
Find current at the load terminals (still
with the short)
N2
N

## Solve by Node Voltage

1. Label all Nodes and select
Reference Node
2. Identify dependent nodes
(No KCL at Node a)

R5

N3

R5

m=1

N4

Reference
Node

N1

N3

n=4

N2

isc

N4

## Example 2 (cont): Find the Norton Equivalent Circuit

3. Write n-1-m=2 KCL eqns +
1 equation to describe dependent node
3

n 1
(out Node 2)
4

n 1
(out Node 3)

vn

v 2 v1 v 2 v 2 v3

0
R1
R2
R3

v3 v 2
v3 v3
vn
I

0
R3
R4 R5

v1 V
4. Solve

5. Solve

iN isc

v3
R5

189

R 1R 2
R 3 R 4
R1 R 2

RN
R5
R 1R 2
R3 R4
R1 R 2

iN

v3
R5

## Placing the Norton equivalent into the original circuit:

IL
+

vL
-

iL and vL will
be the same as when
the original circuit
was connected.

190

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Source Transformation
Any voltage source in series with a resistance can be
replaced by a current source in parallel with the same
resistance.

191

## Source Transformation Thevenin <-> Norton

R is same in both circuits

vT i N R
vT
iN
R

192

193

## Example 3: Find Thevenin Equivalent

Find Thevenin Equivalent
for the circuit to the left of
nodes a and b

10

1V
A. Find Equivalent Resistance
Remove Load
Remove Sources
V source -> short circuit
I source -> open circuit

R T 10||10 2 5 5

0.1A

10

10 5V

b
10

10

15
b

194

## Example 3 (cont): Thevenin (cont)

B. Find Open Circuit Voltage
Remove Load
Solve Circuit - node voltage
Find voltage at load terminals (still
without the load)

10
v1

5
v2

1V

10

5
v3

0A

v4

0.1A

## Using Node Voltage:

1. Label all Nodes and select
Reference Node

n=5

## 2. Identify dependent nodes

(No KCL at Node a)

m=1

## 3. Write n-1-m=3 KCL eqns +

1 equation to describe dependent node
4. Solve (easily reduce to 2eqn
w/ 2unknowns)

v1 1V , v2 1V , v3 v4 1.5V

v v
v2 v1
v
2 2 3 0
10 10
5
out 2
v3 v2
v3 v4 0
i
0.1A
0

5
5
out 3
v4 v3
i

0 v3 v4

5
out 4
v1 1V
5. Solve

vT vab v4 1.5V

195

## Example 3 (cont): Find Norton Equivalent

Find Norton Equivalent for
the circuit to the left of
nodes a and b

10

1V
A. Find Equivalent Resistance
Remove Load
Remove Sources
V source -> short circuit
I source -> open circuit

R T 10||10 2 5 5
15

Same as
Thevenin

0.1A

10

10 5V

b
10

10

196

10

## B. Find Short Circuit Current

Replace Load with a Short
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or
mesh current)
Find current at the load
terminals (still with the short)
Using Mesh Current:
1. Label all meshes

n=3

1V
i1

mesh 1

## 2. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)
m=1, Create
super-mesh

## 3. Write n-m=2 KVL eqns

AND m=1 equation for the
dependent loop
4. Solve

10
i2

drops super
mesh 2

i3
b

vn 10 i2 i1 5 i2 5 i2 i3 0

i3 0.1A

i1 0.05 A, i2 0 A, i3 0.1A

isc

0.1A

1V 10 i1 10 i1 i2 0

5. Solve

i N =isc i2 i3 0.1A

197

## Find Equivalent for the

circuit to the left of
nodes a and b using source
transformations

10

1V

10 5V

0.1A

10

b
10

10
1V

i N1

vT
1V

0.1A
RT 10

10

0.1A

198

(cont)

1
1
1

Req1 10 10

Req1 5

10
0.1A

10

0.1A

b
a

veq1 5 0.1A
0.5V
0.1A

0.1A

199

(cont)
5

Req1
Req1 5 5 10

0.1A

0.5V

b
10

10
0.1A
0.5V

iN 2

vT 0.5V

0.05 A
RT 10

200

## Example 3 (cont): Reduce Circuit Using Source Transformations

(cont)
a

5
Here were are looking for an
electrical equivalent of two
current sources pointing into
the same node

10

0.1A

0.05A

b
5

10

veq 2 10 0.15 A
1.5V

10

0.15A
b

201

(cont)
10

Req1 10 5 15

1.5V
b
15

1.5V
b

202

Results
10

1V

0.1A

10

10 5V

b
Thevenin
Equivalent

Norton
Equivalent

15
a

1.5V
iN
0.1A
15

1.5V

0.1A

Transformations
15
a

1.5V
iN
0.1A
15

15

1.5V
b

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

203

Summary
Any subpart of a circuit, which has two terminals
connecting it to the rest of the circuit, can be replaced
by a Thevenin or Norton Equivalent Circuit
One-port (two
terminal) circuit

Thevenin
Equivalent
RT

Norton
Equivalent

vT
b

a
Source
Transformation

iT

RT
b

## Source transformations convert between the Thevenin

and Norton models and can be used to simplify a
circuit.

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Carbon Nano Onions
Arno Rettenbacher and Luis
Echegoyen
Description:
Illustration, the colored threelayer structure shown in the
center of a real onion is a
computer model of a fullerene
C60 molecule (yellow) inside a
two-layer onion C240 (blue)
inside a three-layer onion C540
(grey), all together described as
C60@C240@C540

204

## ECE 307 - Lecture 7

Superposition, Maximum Power
Transfer, and Dependent Sources

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

205

206

## Overview of DC Electric Circuits

Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Voltage Source
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Current Source
function:
Switch
oProcess
Dependent Sources
Analysis Tools
Kirchhoff's Current Law
Information
Node Voltage Method
oTransfer Power
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Characterized by:
Mesh Current Method
Superposition
oVoltages
DC Lecture 7 Superposition,
oCurrents
Maximum Power
Transfer,
oPower
Dependent Sources

oEnergy

207

## Thevenin Equivalent Circuit to Understand Biological System

Journal of Physiology
In order to demonstrate the relative importance of
extracellular shunt pathways upon epithelial
parameters of membrane potential and resistance, a
simple Thevenin equivalent model was used
Thevenin equivalent circuit used
to lump the electrical behavior of
part of the tissue (a subcircuit of
the whole circuit)

Cornea Membrane

208

## General Definition of Superposition

A general property of any linear system where the
response to a sum of inputs is equal to the sum of the
individual responses.
For the system T( ) and the inputs x1..xN

T ( x1 x2 K xN ) T ( x1 ) T ( x2 ) K T ( x N )
Response to Sum of Inputs
Example Linear System:

T x 3x
?

T (1 2) T (1) T (2)
?

99

Ohms Law
Equations

## Sum of Responses to Individual Inputs

Example Non-linear System:

T x x2
?

T (1 2) T (1) T (2)
?

(1 2) 1 2
2

95

Power
Equations

209

## Superposition in Linear Circuits

In a circuit, each branch current and voltage is the
cumulative effect of the individual voltage and
current sources.
Electric
Circuit
Source
2

Source
1

Source
N

io
io-1
io-2
io-N

+
vo
vo-1
vo-2
vo-N
-

Response to Sum

vo = vo-1 +vo-2+vo-N
io = io-1 +io-2+io-N
Sum of Responses

T ( x1 x2 K xN ) T ( x1 ) T ( x2 ) K T ( xN )

## Choose one current or voltage source and remove all

others
Replace voltage source by short circuit
Replace current source by open circuit
Solve for voltages and/or currents of interest.
Repeat for
EVERY source
in the circuit

210

211

a

## Find io and vo by Superposition

Aside: Show solution using a previous
method

1A

2A
b

## Use Node Voltage Method:

va
iN 1A 2 A 3 A
0

4
out node a
Solve:

va 1A 4 2 A 4 3 A 4
1 A 2 A 3 A 4

= 24V
v0 va 24V

T(xi)=4*xi

3A

io

vo
-

## Superposition works for this

circuit

T ( x1 ) T ( x2 ) T ( x3 )
T ( x1 x2 x3 )
Matches the original definition
of superposition

212

## Example 1 (cont) : Compare Superposition to Node Voltage

Result
Repeat using Superposition:

## Consider the 1A Source

1A

2A

3A

io

vo
-

+
1A

io-1

vo-1
-

io 1 1A, vo 1 1A 4 4V
Consider the 2A Source

+
2A

io-2

vo-2
-

io 2 2 A, vo 2 2 A 4 8V

## Consider the 3A Source

+
3A

io-3

vo-3
-

io 3 3 A, vo 3 3 A 4 12V
Solve using Superposition

## vo=vo-1 +vo-2+vo-3 =24V

io=io-1 +io-2+io-3 =6A

Same as
NVM

213

## Example 2: Solve Circuit by Superposition

Use superposition to find the current
through the 8 resistor in the circuit.

i8

## Find the current in the 8 resistor

due to each source, we consider two circuits:

vb

va

vc

Short

i8

vb

va

i8
Basically we have to
solve the circuit twice.
Superposition may
require more work

vc

214

vb

va

vc

vb

va

Short

i8

i8

Apply NVM:

Apply NVM:

va 10V

vc 0V
vb 10V vb
vb
i

2
8 4
i out node ab

vb 40
Solve:

vc

i8

va 0V

vc 20V

i out node a b

vb
v
v 20V
b b
0
2 8
4

vb 40

vb
5 A
7
8

Solve:

i8

7 A

i8 i8 i8 10

vb
5 A
7
8

215

## Example 2 (cont): Solve Circuit by Superposition

A Check of the Node Voltage Method Solution using an Alternate Approach
The Superposition approach requires that we consider two circuits:
These are in parallel

4 8 44 88
i8

8

3

8
2 8
2

2 8
5

v8
3

10V
8
2 3
8
3

40
7

v8

v8 v4 v8
i8

v8
3

i8

75 A

20V
8
4 5
8
5

40
7

7 A

i8 i8 i8 10

v8 v2 v8
i8

v8
5

75 A

## Example 3: Solve Circuit with Voltage and Current Sources by

Superposition
Use superposition to find the current
through the 10 resistor in the circuit.

i10

## Find the current in the 10 resistor

due to each source, we consider two circuits:
Open circuit

i10

i10
Short circuit
Turning the current source off results in
an open circuit (zero current) in the branch
containing the 8 resistor.
This is Circuit A

## Turning off the voltage source results

in a short circuit in series with the 2
resistor.
This is Circuit B

216

217

## Example 3 (cont): Solve Circuit with Voltage and Current

Sources by Superposition
Circuit A

## Zero current through 8 resistor

means zero voltage drop.

Resistors in series
9 4 13

i10

i10
va

Apply NVM

vb

i10

i10

va 40V
vb 40V vb
v

b 0
2
10 13
solve to get:
vb

2600
V
88

i10

vb
260

A
10 88

218

## Example 3 (cont): Solve Circuit with Voltage and Current

Sources by Superposition
Resistors in parallel

Circuit B

i10

i10

## Next, expand circuit

back out and use
current divider again
to find current
through
10 resistor.

i10

i9

4
12
1A

5
4 9 3
44

i10

## By making this parallel

connection we have
lost the identity of i10

2
2 12
1
i9
A
10 2
12 44 22

## Example 3 (cont): Solve Circuit with Voltage and Current

Sources by Superposition

Circuit B

Circuit A
i10

260
A
88

i10

264
A 3A
88

1
4
A= A
22
88

260
4
A A
88
88

219

## Maximum Power Transfer

Thevenin
Equivalent
Maximum Power Transfer:
Given that the Vth and Rth are
fixed, what is the value of RL
such that PL (power to the
load) is maximized ?
This is also a good model of a real
battery, i.e., a battery has internal
resistance

220

221

Voltage Divider

Thevenin
Equivalent

RL
Vth
Rth RL

2

RL
V
1
2
PL VI

Vth
RL RL Rth RL
2

## Differentiate PL and set to zero to find extremum:

dPL
d

dRL dRL

2 Rth RL 2 2 RL Rth R L 2
V
Vth 0
2 th
2
Rth RL
Rth RL

RL

## Maximum Power Transfer

Solve for condition on RL for maximum power transfer:

Rth RL 2 2 RL Rth RL
2
V
0

th
2
Rth RL

Multiply by denominator

2

R
R

2
th
2
th

RL2 Vth2 0

## Maximum power delivered to load:

Rth

RL Rth

i
Vth

+
-

RL=Rth

+
va

Vth
2 Rth

PL max

2
2
V
V
i 2 Rth th2 Rth th
4 Rth
4 Rth

222

Transfer

223

## Find the value of the variable

resistor that draws maximum power
from the circuit. Find Pmax.
Approach:
1) Find Thevenin Equivalent
2) Use Formula for R0 and power
Remove load and turn off all sources (open current
sources, short voltage sources) to find Rth

## The arrow means that the value

of the resistance can be changed
a variable resistor

1250 10000 6000
10000 6000

1250 3750
5000
5k

Power Transfer

224

## Remove load and find open circuit voltage, Voc=Vth.

Mesh Current Method

i1

i2

Mesh 1

i1 9mA

Mesh 2

Solve

i2 2mA

Solve

Vth 50 10000i2

50 10000 2 10 3
50 20 30V

## Current in the 1.25k resistor is zero and

therefore the voltage is v125k=0V

225

Power Transfer
Rth=5k
i
Vth=30V

+
-

R0=Rth

R0 Rth 5k
30

Vth2

4 Rth 4 5000
2

Pmax

0.045W
45mW

Power Transfer:
Vth
i
R0 Rth
2

Vth
P0 i 2 R0
R0
R0 Rth

30V

R0
R

5000

## Example 5: Calculate Load Resistance for Maximum Power

Transfer (a little more difficult)
Find the value of load
resistance that results in
maximum power transfer to the
load from the circuit.
Recall what we know about
maximum power transfer:

Pmax

Vth2

4 Rth

if
RL Rth
Approach:
1) Find Thevenin equivalent Circuit
2) Formula for RL and power

226

## Example 5 (cont): Calculate Load Resistance for Maximum

Power Transfer (a little more difficult)
Remove load and find Vth

## Use Mesh Current Method

vk 100 4 ia ib 4ia 20 0

vk 30 4ib 4ib 4 ib ia 0

drops, CW

ib

drops, CW

Solve

ia
Possibly confusing point:
The purple line does not define a Mesh
Current and does not contribute to the
voltages in the 4 resistors.

227

27
A
2
ib 7A
ia

Vth 20 4 ia ib
Vth 102V

228

## Example 5 (cont): Calculate Load Resistance for Maximum

Power Transfer (a little more difficult)
Turn off sources and find Rth

4 4 2

## These are resistors

in parallel

4 4 2 2.4

Resistance for
maximum power
transfer:

Rth 2.4
RL

Maximum Power
Delivered to the Load

Pmax

Vth2

4 Rth

102

4 2.4
2

1084W

229

## The constant source values are dependant on a

voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit
Dependent (Controlled) Voltage Source
Dependent (Controlled) Current Source
v X
or

iX
or

iX

vX

Controlled
Voltage Source

Controlled
Current Source

230

## Dependent (Controlled) Voltage Source

Behavior: produces voltage proportional to a voltage or
current in the circuit
Voltage Controlled Voltage Source

IX

v X
you must be given
this location in the
same circuit

number

+
vx

## you must be given

this location in the
same circuit

number

ix

231

## Dependent (Controlled) Current Source

Behavior: produces current proportional to a voltage or
current in the circuit
Voltage Controlled Current Source

IX

v X
you must be given
this location in the
same circuit

number

+
vx

## you must be given

this location in the
same circuit

number

ix

## Circuit Analysis With Dependent Sources

Each of these device will add another equation to the
Mesh Current or Node Voltage analysis.
Extra equation describes the controlling
relationship, e.g. ix
Extra equation for each dependent device in the
circuit, e.g., 2 dependent sources will add 2
equations

232

## Example 6: Example 3.12 from Textbook

Find the Node Voltages

vx=2v3

## The value of v3 determines the value

of vx.
Example: If v3=2.5V then vx=5V

233

234

## Example 6 (cont): Example 3.12 from Textbook

1. Label all Nodes and select
Reference Node

n=4

## 2. Identify dependent nodes

No KCL at Node 1 since it is a
dependent node (Note that
vx is a dependent source )

m=1

## A dependent node is not the same

as a dependent source

v X 2v3

## 3. Write n-1-m=2 KCL eqns +

1 eqn to describe dependent node + 1 eqn to describe dependent source

in

v v
v2 v1
I 2 3 0
R1
R2

in

v3 v2 v3

0
R2
R3

out Node 2

out Node 3

Reference
Node

235

Equation for the
dependent node:

v1 v X

v1 v X 0

equations

## New equation for

dependent source:

v X 2v3

v X 2v3 0

4. Solve

1
1

R1 R2

R2

R2

1
0

0
0

1
1

R1 R2
0
2

1

R1

v X 2v3

4
Reference
Node

4 equations / 4 unknowns

1
1

v1
I
v
0
2
v3
0

v
0
X

## Example 7: Example 3.13 from Textbook

Find the Mesh Currents
1. Label all meshes

n=3

## 2. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)

m=0

## 3. Write n-m=3 KVL eqns. + 1 eqn to

describe dependent sources

## The value of v determines

the value of source (2v)

236

## Example 7 (cont): Example 3.13 from Textbook

M1:
M2:
M3:

vk v1 i1 R1 (i1 i2 ) R2 0

vk (i2 i1 ) R2 i2 R3 (i2 i3 ) R4 2v 0

vk (i3 i2 ) R4 i3 R5 2v 0

v drops, CW

v drops, CW

v drops, CW

New: Describe
dependent source in
terms of loop
currents

v (i1 i2 ) R2

4. Solve
4 equations with 4 unknowns

237

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary
Superposition
Total response = sum of response to each
individual source.
Maximum Power Transfer
In a Thevenin equivalent circuit, maximum power
is transferred to an adjustable load when RTH=RL
Dependent Sources
Circuit elements
An external voltage or current controls the amount
of voltage or current produced by the source.

238

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)

## Molten Carbon Material

Santanu Kundu and Martin
Beagley
Description:
Photograph, this material is
called mesophase pitch, a
liquid-crystalline material
that is used to manufacture
carbon fibers and composites.

239

## ECE 307 AC Lecture 1

AC Circuit Elements

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

240

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

What is an AC Circuit?
In the first part of this course we considered Direct
Current (DC) circuits where the current was constant
for all time

## Note that the voltages must also be constant if the

currents are constant.

241

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

What is an AC Circuit?
Alternating Current (AC) circuits where the current
can change magnitude and direction over time.

## Note that the voltages must also change with time as

the currents change in time.

242

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

243

Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3-phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
by:
AC Lecture 1Characterized
AC Circuit
Elements oVoltages

oCurrents

## Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?

Related to the way that electric power is generated.

## Mechanical Energy is converted into Electrical Energy

by a Generator
A steam turbine used to provide electric power

244

## Diagram of an electrical system

Contiguous United States power transmission grid
consists of 300,000 km of lines operated by 500
companies.
A transmission substation

Nikola Tesla's
Alternating current
polyphase generators
on display at the 1893

245

246

## Overview of Power Generation, Distribution, and Consumption

Using Alternating Current
Inductor

3-Phase Distribution
Generator
Motor

Sinusoidal Source

Resistor

Generation

Power Supply
Capacitor
Transformer
Distribution

Consumption

## World renewable energy share (2008), with hydroelectricity more than

50% of all renewable energy sources

247

## Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?

Generator Operation
Winding of the
generator (coil of wire)
is turned in a magnetic
field.
A voltage is induced in
the moving coil by the
magnetic field.
The voltage causes
current flow.

Torque Input

248

## Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?

Amount of voltage induced is related to
the orientation of the winding relative
to the magnetic field.
Induced Voltage sin(normal to coil - direction of magnetic field)

Voltag
e

0 - 180

180 - 360
One cycle

249

## Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?

Sources of energy to turn a generator
Nuclear
Coal
Solar

Steam

Turbine

Water
Wind
Waves
Combustion Engine
Turbine Engine

Electric
Generator

250

## Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?

Sources of energy to turn a generator

United States.

## The Gordon Dam in Tasmania is a large hydro

facility, with an installed capacity of 430 MW.

Massachusetts

## Wind power, Poseidon seen from above in

Onsevig, Denmark.

## Artist's impression of tidal turbines on

a different type of support structure

## Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?

Sources of energy to turn a generator
Biomass

251

## Example 1: An AC Generating System

Diesel Engine

Electric Generator

252

## Example 1: An AC Generating System

The Hoover Dam in the United States is a large conventional
dammed-hydro facility, with an installed capacity of 2,080 MW.

253

254

255

## Introduction to the Inductor

Energy stored in
the magnetic field
A=area of coil
l= height of coil
o = magnetic permeability = 4 10-7[H/m]
r = relative permeability = 1 in air
N = number 2of turns of coil
N A
in units of Henry (H)
L o r

Physical Device
Intentional Inductor, e.g.,
Circuit Device

Coiled Cord

iin (t )

+
vin (t )

diL (t )
vL (t ) L
dt
Circuit Model

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

256

Combining Inductors
iin (t )

iin (t )

L1

vin (t )

vin (t )

L2

L1

## Series inductors combine

similar to series resistors

## Parallel inductors combine

similar to parallel resistors
1
1
1

LEQ L1 L2

LEQ L1 L2

Series
Connected:

LEQ Li
i 1

Parallel
Connected:

N
1
1

LEQ i 1 Li

L2

257

## Inductance for Distance Measurement

A=area of coil
l= height of coil
or = property of core material
N = number of turns of coil

o r N 2 A
L
l
r changes as
the core moves
out of the coil.
Position Measurement
System: Measure the
inductance to know
position
Attach moving
system to the
inductor core

L changes as
the core moves
out of the coil.

iin (t )

+
Inductance
Measurement vin (t )
System
-

258

259

## Introduction to the Capacitor

+

iC (t )

Energy stored in
the electric field
between plates

vC(t)

A=area of plates
D= distance between plates
o = permittivity of air
= 8.85410-12[F/m]
r = relative permittivity = 1 (air)
o r A
C
in units of Farad (F)
Physical
D
Device

Circuit Device

iC (t )

vC(t)

dvC (t )
iC (t ) C
dt

Circuit
Model

## Unintentional Capacitance, e.g.,

Long parallel wires act as the
plates in a capacitor

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

260

Combining Capacitors
Series
Connected

iin (t )

iin (t )
C1

vin (t )

C2

1
1
1

CEQ C1 C2

vin (t )

## Series capacitors combine

similar to parallel resistors

CEQ

iin (t )
Parallel
Connected

+
vin (t )

## These relationships are

true for any number of
capacitors:

iin (t )
C2

C1

CEQ C1 C2

## Parallel capacitors combine

similar to series resistors
Series
Connected:

N
1
1

CEQ i 1 Ci

vin (t )

CEQ

Parallel
C EQ
Connected:

C
i 1

261

## Capacitance for Distance Measurement

0 r A
C
d

A = area of plates
Measure C and Change A
-> displacement sensor

Ex. Rotation
Sensor

d = distance between
plates
Measure C and Change d
-> distance measurement

r= property of
material between plates
Measure C and Change r
-> material property measurement

d
r1

r2

262

## Device Power and Energy

A resistor dissipates power as heat
Inductors & Capacitors store (or supply) power
Inductor in the magnetic field
Capacitor in the electric field
p (t )supplied to device v (t )i (t )
t

i(t)
+
v(t)
-

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

263

Device Power
A resistor always dissipates power
v(t ) v 2 (t )
v (t )

0
R
R

p (t )supplied to device

Inductor
p (t )supplied to device

?
di (t )
L
i (t ) ( , ,=) 0
dt

i(t)
+

Capacitor
p (t )supplied to device

## Depending on the form of i(t), at

any time the device could absorb
power (p>0) OR supply power
back to the circuit (p<0).

?
dv(t )
v (t )C
( , ,=) 0
dt

v(t)
-

264

Device Energy
Resistor
Wdissipated

## All energy is dissipated as heat

2
t v (t ')
v(t ')
v (t ')
dt '
dt '
0
0
R
R
t

Inductor
Wstored

di (t ')
1 2
1 2
L
i (t ')dt ' Li (t ') Li (t ) if i 2 (0) 0
0
dt '
2
2
0
t

## All energy is stored in the

electric field, no energy stored
if voltage is zero

Capacitor
Wstored

## All energy is stored in the

magnetic field, no energy stored
if current is zero

dv(t ')
1 2
1 2
v(t ')C
dt ' Cv (t ') Cv (t ) if v 2 (0) 0
0
dt '
2
2
0
t

265

## Voltage and Current Sources That Vary With Time

v(t )

+
-

i(t )

v(t )

+
-

Recall: In
DC circuits
the voltage
and current
are constant
Sinusoids are used in the generation
and distribution of power worldwide

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

266

Properties of Sinusoids

Amplitude

Reference Cosine
Period
T

Frequency

t
-A
Phase Angle
fraction of a
period

t
) rad
T
or

2 (

t
360( ) deg
T

1 1 1
f
Hz
T sec T
2
2 f rad / s
T

t
-A

General Description of an
Arbitrary Sinusoid:

x(t ) A cos(t )

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Properties of Sinusoids
Phase angle may be positive or negative
Wave lags or is delayed from reference cosine

Reference Cosine

t
-A

x(t ) A cos(t )
4

A

Reference Cosine
t

-A

x(t ) A cos(t )
4

267

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

268

Properties of Sinusoids
where Vnlnl is voltage at no load and Vflfl is voltage at full load.

170V
120Vrms

## US: f=60Hz, Vpeak= 170V

Europe, Asia, Africa:
f=50 and 60Hz, Vpeak=325V

1 T 2
x (t )dt

0
T

Vmax

US:

Vrms

170V

Vrms 120V
2

for sinusoid

Vrms

325V

230V
2

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Basic Circuit Principles and Techniques Still Work With the New
Components

Circuit Connections
KCL Node Voltage
KVL Mesh Current
Superposition
Thevenin and Norton
Power and Energy

## However: The time

dependent sources and the
differential equations
describing inductors and
capacitors will make
applying these principles
more difficult.

269

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

270

Resistor in an AC Circuit
Vmax

Resistor

Imax

+
vs(t)

+
-

vR

R
i

vR=vS

vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
Using KVL:

v v

iR 0

drops

vS Vmax
i
cos(t )
R
R

## V and I have same

frequency and same
phase angle but
different magnitudes

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

271

Inductor in an AC Circuit
Inductor

Vmax

## -90o phase shift, Current lags voltage

Imax

vs(t) +
-

di
vL L
dt
-

i
t

vL=vS

vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
di
0
KVL: vS L
dt

Vmax
1
1
i vs dt Vmax cos(t )dt
sin(t )
L
L
L
V

max cos(t )
L
2

## V and I have same

frequency but
different phase angles
and magnitudes

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

272

Capacitor in an AC Circuit
90o phase shift, Current leads voltage

Capacitor

Vmax

vs(t) +
-

vC

vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
KVL: vS

Imax

dV
dt

iC

i
dt
0 C

vC

i
0 C dt 0
t

## Differentiate and solve for i(t)

dvS
d
C [Vmax cos(t )] CVmax sin(t )
dt
dt

CVmax cos(t )
2

iC

vC=vS

## V and I have same

frequency but
different phase angles
and magnitudes

## Summary - AC Wave Forms and Components

Introduced three new circuit models
Sinusoidal Source x(t ) A cos(t )
Inductor (stores energy)
Capacitor (stores energy)

diL (t )
dt
dv (t )
iC (t ) C C
dt

vL (t ) L

## Can solve circuits using same basic techniques we used in DC

circuits
The frequency remains the same in all of these examples
and will in general be true.
Only the phase and magnitude change.

273

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)

274

## Secret of the RockClimbing Ability in Fishes

Takashi Maie and Eric
Livingston
Description:
During migration, juveniles
reach upstream habitats by
climbing rock surfaces of
waterfalls up to 100 feet high.

## ECE 307 AC Lecture 2

Phasors and Complex Numbers

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

275

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

276

Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3-phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
by:
AC Lecture 2Characterized
Phasors and
Complex Numbers
oVoltages

oCurrents

Power Inverter

DC Voltage
(e.g. 12V car
battery)

Inverter
(convert DC
to AC)
170V

AC Voltage
(e.g. 120V
(rms) to
power a tool)

12V

+-

12V
Approximated
Sinusoid

277

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

278

Review of Sinusoids
v(t )

+
-

A = Maximum
Value

Sinusoidal
Source
T = Time between similar points

t = Time shift
from standard
cosine

2 (

Amplitude

t
) rad
T

Phase
Angle

Period

1 1 1
Hz
Frequency
T sec T
2
2 f rad / s
T
f

Radian Frequency

v(t ) A cos(t )

279

+
vL

iL

Inductor
vL (t ) L

diL (t )
dt

+
vC

## Basic Circuit Laws Still Apply:

Circuit Connections
KCL Node Voltage
KVL Mesh Current
Superposition
Thevenin and Norton
Power and Energy

iC

Capacitor
iC (t ) C

dvC (t )
dt

A

dv
iC
dt

## Node Voltage method:

Label all nodes and choose a reference node
Node A
Dep Source:

vs (t ) V cos t
Solve to find
vB(t):

## Result has the

same frequency
as the source

v A (t ) vs (t )

vB (t ) v A (t )
dv (t )
C B 0
R
dt
V RC
V
vB (t )
sin

cos t

2
2
2
2
1 RC
1 RC
Node B
KCL:

vB (t ) VBmax cos t 2

280

## AC Waveforms and Components

Any voltage or current in a circuit is a sinusoid
with the same frequency as the source(s).
Will introduce a method to keep track of only the
phase and magnitude (since frequency does not
change it is not included)
Need to review complex numbers to use this
method.

281

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Complex Numbers
In mathematics an imaginary number (i) is defined as
1
1

i
j

## We need to use complex

numbers but we have been
using i to represent current so
we will redefine using j

b
4ac
2
The solution to ax bx c 0 is x
2a
The general solution to the quadratic equation may be
a complex number

x A jB
Real

Complex

282

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Complex Numbers
Reminder: the term imaginary does not mean that
the information does not apply in the real world.
Given a parabola:

y x2 1

y
x

x 1 0 x 1 j
2

## This imaginary number tells use concrete

information the parabola does not
intersect the x-axis

283

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

284

Complex Numbers
Can plot complex numbers in the complex plane, for
x A jB
Rectangular Form
Plot real part, A, on horizontal axis
Plot imaginary part, B, on the vertical axis
x A jB
Im (Imaginary Axis)
C A2 B 2

tan 1 B / A

x Ce j C

Re (Real Axis)

## The two forms, polar and

rectangular, are both needed
when using complex numbers.

Polar Form

180o 180o or
Back to Rectangular
Form

x C cos jC sin

285

## Example 1: Converting Between Forms

Convert Rectangular to Polar:

i 10 j 20

Im

20

22.3663.4o

v 2 3 j

' tan

10 Re

3 / 2 56.31

v

2 3
2

3.6123.69o

'
-2

Im

Re

286

## Example 1: Converting Between Forms (cont)

Convert Polar to Rectangular :

i 105o

Im

20

i 10cos 5o j10sin 5o

9.96 j 0.87

v 7 120o

10 Re

o

7 0.5 j 7 0.866
3.5 j 6.06

Im

'
7

-120

Re

287

## Complex Numbers - Adding and Subtracting

Use rectangular form (convert from polar form if
necessary)
V1 A1 jB1
V2 A2 jB2
V1 V2 ( A1 A2 ) j ( B1 B2 )
V1 V2 ( A1 A2 ) j ( B1 B2 )

Im

V2

V1 V2

V1
Re

V1 V2

## Example 2: Adding and Subtracting Complex Numbers

Given: i 10 j 20 , v 2 3 j , z 4 j12
i v 10 j 20 +2 3 j (10+2) j (20 3) 12 j17
i v 10 j 20 (2 3 j ) (10 2) j (20 3) 8 j 23

i v z 10 j 20 +2 3 j 4 j12
(10+2 4) j (20 3 12) 8 j 29

288

## Example 2: Adding and Subtracting Complex Numbers (cont)

i1 j 20 A and i2 4 j12 A

## Note that the complex

numbers have units of
Amperes.

289

290

## Complex Numbers - Multiplying and Dividing

Use polar form (recommend converting if not in polar
form)
V1 C11
V2 C2 2
V1 V2 C1 1 C2
2
C1C2 (1 2 )

V1
C11
C1

(1 2 )
V2 C2 2 C2

## Multiple magnitudes and add angles to

multiple (based on the exponent form)
j 1 2
j1
j 2

C1e C2 e

C1C2 e

## Divide magnitudes and subtract divisor

angle to divide (based on the exponent
form)

C1e j1 C1e j1 e j2 C1 j 1 2

e
j 2
C2 e
C2
C2

## Complex Numbers - Multiplying and Dividing

May multiply in rectangular form
V1 A1 jB1

V2 A2 jB2

## V1 gV2 A1 jB1 A2 jB2

A1 A2 j 2 B1 B2 j A1 B2 A2 B1
A1 A2 B1 B2 j A1 B2 A2 B1

291

292

i 105o 10
o
o
o
=

90

1.43

95
v 7 90o 7

o
o
10

5
11

90
iz
10g11
o
o
o

90

90
v
7 90o
7
15.7185o

15.7 175

185

Im

Re
-175o

293

185o

Im
i
Re

-i
-175o

v 20o V
o

35

o
i 135 A

## Note that the complex

numbers have units of
Amperes and Volts. V/A
yield the units of Ohms.

294

## Complex Numbers Complex Conjugate

Reflect about the real axis
Operation on a single number and denoted by *
Rectangular form change sign of complex part
Polar form change sign of angle
Im

V1 A1 jB1 or V1 C11
V1* A1 jB1 or V1* C1 1

V2*

V1
Re

V2 A2 jB2 or V2 C2 2
V2* A2 jB2 or V2* C2 2
Note that V* -V, this is an easy mistake to make.

V2

V1*

i 105o

i * 10 5o

v 7 90o

v* 790o

z 1190o

z * 11 90o

i 10 j 20
v 2 j3
z 4 j12

i* 10 j 20
v* 2 j 3
z* 4 j12

295

296

## Total System Response

DC circuit (constant sources) with resistors
time when
switch is closed

5V

VR1

Voltage
source

5V

VR1

time

steady
state

i=0
v=0

voltage
divider

5V

V(t)

time when
switch is closed

V(t)
VR1 voltage
divider

VR1

time

-5V

steady
state

## Total System Response (cont)

Steady state:
All voltages and currents are constant in DC
circuits
All voltages and currents are constant sinusoids in
AC circuits

297

298

## Total System Response (cont)

DC circuit (constant sources) with energy storage

V (t)

VC(t)

vC

Steady state:
all voltages and currents
are constant but this
occurs some time after
the circuit has settled (in
this case after the
capacitor has charged).

C
time when
switch is
closed

transient

must be considered
because often have
larger currents or
voltages during this time

steady state

## We will analyze circuit in

the steady-state region
assume the switch was
closed a long time ago to
perform steady state analysis

299

## AC circuit (sources change with time) with energy storage devices

V(t)

Initial condition
on capacitor

V (t )
Energy storage
component

Steady state:
all voltages and
currents are constant
sinusoids in AC circuits
but this occurs some
time after the circuit
has settled.

vC

time when
switch is
closed

Motivates use of
complex numbers
transient

steady
state

AC Analysis
must be considered
because often have
larger currents or
voltages during this time

## assume the switch was closed a

long time ago to perform steady
state analysis

## Total System Response (cont)

Summary
Transient response is very important when switching
circuits on and off
Must be considered when sizing circuit breakers
and switches
Looking forward, we will only consider the steady
state response

300

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Phasors
Assume a steady-state circuit powered by sinusoidal
sources
Phasors will be introduced as a method to keep track
of only the phase and magnitude of sinusoids in
circuit analysis (since frequency does not change)

301

302

## Phasors to Represent Sinusoids

Eulers identity

v(t ) A cos(0t )

V ( j ) Ae j A cos jA sin A
Frequency is implied
but not directly included
V(jw)

complex plane

Rectangular
form

Polar form

## v(t ) 10cos 10t V V ( j ) 10 V 5 j8.66 V

3
3

v1 (t ) 15cos(377t )V V1 ( j ) 15 V
4
4

v2 (t ) 15cos(377t )V V2 ( j ) 15 V
12
12
Note: This radian frequency
corresponds to 60 Hz which
is the normal US frequency

303

304

## Example 6: Using Phasors in a Circuit

vs (t )

v1 (t ) 15cos(377t )V V1 ( j ) 15 V
4
4

v2 (t ) 15cos(377t )V V2 ( j ) 15 V
12
12

KVL : V1 ( j ) V2 ( j ) VS ( j ) 0

VS ( j ) V1 ( j ) V2 ( j ) 15
-

V 15 V
12
4

12
12
4
4
25.1 j14.5 V

## 25.12 14.52 tan 1 (

Convert to a function of time

14.5
) 28.9830oV
25.1

vS (t ) 28.98cos(377t )
6

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

305

Summary
Complex Numbers
Two forms: rectangular and polar
Described addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division
Introduced Complex Conjugate
Plotted complex numbers in the complex plane
Im

V2

V1
Re

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary (cont)
When we change a circuit, e.g. close a switch, the
circuit has a response that lasts for a short time and
then it settles into a long-term behavior
Transient response is the short-term response and
will not be considered in our analysis.
Steady-state response is the long-term behavior
of the circuit
We have seen that the frequency remains the same in an
AC circuit
Introduced phasors as a short-cut to keeping track of the
angle and magnitude of a sinusoid

306

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)

## Mimicking Nature: Fiber Based Microprobe

Daria Monaenkova, Marius Chyasnavichys and Taras Andrukh
Description:
This image of a butterfly feeding and a nanofiber yarn absorbing a microdrop illustrates a promising application
of electrospun nanofiber yarns. The fiber based probe is designed to absorb droplets of fluid as small as the eye
of an ant. This probe could have important biomedical applications, where the extraction and analysis of tiny
amounts of fluid from glands, pores, or, ideally, from cells are necessary for accurate and early diagnosis of
diseases. The probe under development could sample biofluid without causing pain to the patient!

307

## The Old Engineering Building

(circa 1912, no longer standing)
Clemson University

308

## ECE 307 AC Lecture 3

Phasors, Impedance, and AC Circuit Analysis

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

309

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

310

Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3-phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition

Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 3 Phasors, Impedance
oVoltages
and AC Circuit
Analysis

oCurrents

311

R

V (t )
Inductive
Load

di
V L
dt

i(t)
Open

312

## Transients Switching Considerations

More Typical Example Switch from house used to switch fluorescent lights.

313

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

314

Overview
vR (t ) RiR (t )

Z R ( j ) R0o
VR ( j ) Z R ( j ) I R ( j )

vs (t ) V cos t

dv (t )
iC (t ) C C
dt
Phasor

## Use circuit theorems

(KVL, KCL) to write
system of equations
Solve differential
equations
Circuit solution (voltages
and currents)

1
90o
C
VC ( j ) ZC ( j ) I C ( j )
Z C ( j )

V ( j ) V

## Use circuit theorems

(KVL, KCL) to write
system of equations
All voltages and
currents have same
frequency as the
source

Solve LINEAR
equations
Circuit solution (voltages
and currents)

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

315

Review of Phasors
Showed Phasors to represent sinusoidal sources
v(t ) A cos(t )

V ( j ) Ae j A cos jA sin A
Rectangular
form

## We will always use the

radian frequency

Frequency is implied
but not directly included

## Any voltage and current in the circuit (eg node

voltages, mesh currents) can be represented by
phasors

Polar form

316

## Example 1: Circuit Voltages in Phasor Form

Given the node voltages in a circuit, any
component voltage can be found.
+

+
- V1
Vx
+

V2

+
V3

Given
Node
Voltages:

V1 2030o V, V2 10 30o V
V3 5120o V

Vx + V1 + V2 = 0
Find Vx :

KVL:

If we skip V2

Vx V1 0 Vx V1

20210o 20 150o V

317

- Vy

V2

V1

## Given the node voltages in a circuit, any

component voltage can be found.

V3

Given
Node
Voltages:

V1 2030o V, V2 10 30o V
V3 5120o V

Find Vy:

o
o

120

10

30
2
y
3
y
3
2
y
KVL:

Rectangular
form to add:
Back to polar:

14.55 140.1o V

318

## Example 2: Circuit Currents in Phasor Form

Given the mesh current in a circuit, any
component current can be found.

N2

I1

I1 1

Given
Mesh
Currents:

I2

I 2 1.5 A
5

Ix

Find Ix:

KCL:

Rectangular
form to add:
Back to polar:

A
3

I1 I x I 2 0 I x I1 I 2

I x 1 1.5
3

## I x 1cos( ) j1sin( ) 1.5cos( ) j1.5sin( )

3
3
5

5
0.5000 + j0.8660 1.2135 - j0.8817 -0.7135 + j1.748 A

-0.7135

1.748
1.89 1.18 A
-0.7135

+ 1.748 tan 1
2

## Any voltage and current in the circuit can be written

as a phasor.
How do we describe the voltage and current
relationships in devices such as resistors, capacitors,
and inductors?
I(j)
+
Component: Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor

V(j)
-

V(j)

I(j)
?

319

320

## Phasor Voltages and Currents in a Resistor

Vmax
Imax

+
vs(t)

+
-

vR

vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
Using KVL:

v vS iR 0

drops

vS Vmax
i
cos(t )
R
R
I max cos(t )
Time Domain

time
i
vR
Phasor form of voltages and current:

VR ( j ) VS ( j ) Vmax 0o Volt
Vmax
I R ( j )
0 Ampere
R

## Divide voltage and current for the resistor:

VR ( j ) Vmax 0

R0
I R ( j ) Vmax 0
Relationship
R
Frequency Domain

between phasor
voltage and current

321

Circuit

Given: R1 100
Find i1

R2 100

## Label nodes to see that all three

elements are in parallel and have the
same voltage.
Convert voltage source to a phasor:

Na

+
-

v(t )

i1

Nb

## v(t ) 30cos t (10t 2 ) V

V ( j ) 3090 V
Use the relationship between voltage and current on the previous slide:

I1 ( j )

V ( j ) 3090 V 3090 V

0.3090 A
Z ( j )
R10
1000

## Convert current back to the time domain:

i (t ) 0.3cos t (10t 2 ) A

R1

i2

R2

322

## Phasor Voltages and Currents in an Inductor

Vmax

+
-

vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )

vL L

di
dt

di
0
KVL: vS L
dt
1
1
iL vS dt Vmax cos(t )dt
L
L
V
V

L
L
2
Time Domain

Imax
i
vS

time

## Phasor form of voltages and current:

VL ( j ) VS ( j ) Vmax 0o V
I L ( j )

Vmax
90 A
L

## Divide voltage and current for the inductor:

Vmax 0
VL ( j )

L90
V
I L ( j )
max
90
Relationship
L
Frequency Domain

between phasor
voltage and current

323

## Phasor Voltages and Currents in a Capacitor

Vmax

dV
iC
dt

+
vs(t)

vC

vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
t

KVL: vS 0

i
vC dt
0 C

dvS
d
C [Vmax cos(t )]
dt
dt
CVmax sin(t )
CVmax cos(t

)
2

Time Domain

Imax

iC
dt 0
C

iC C

## 90o phase shift, Current leads voltage

time

vS
Phasor form of voltages and current:

VC ( j ) VS ( j ) Vmax 0o V
I C ( j ) CVmax90 A
Divide voltage and current for the inductor:

VC ( j )
Vmax 0
1

90
I C ( j ) CVmax90 C
Frequency Domain

Relationship
between phasor
voltage and current

## Impedance The Impedance Equation

Can write a general expression to relate phasor
voltage and current in a device
I(j)
+
V(j)
-

Component: Resistor,
Inductor, Capacitor
V(j)

I(j)

V ( j )
Z ( j )
I ( j )
or

V ( j ) Z ( j ) I ( j )

## This looks similar to Ohms Law.

We can use it in the ways we
used Ohms Law:
Node Voltage
Mesh Currents
Thevenin and Norton
Series and Parallel
Superposition

324

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

325

Impedance - Summary
Impedance
(degrees)

is determined by the
sources in the circuit.
All sources in a circuit
must have the same .

Z(j) in
Impedance
(radians)

Impedance
(rectangular)

R0

R0

L90

L
2

j L

1
90
C

C
2

j
C

326

## Impedance Effect of Impedance

Impedance
(degrees)

R0
VR ( j ) Z R ( j ) I R ( j ) R0 I max I A
RI max I +0 V RI max I V

L90
VL ( j ) Z L ( j ) I L ( j ) L90 I max I A
LI max I +90 V LI max I +90 V

1
90
C

90 I max I A
C

I
1

I max I 90 V max I 90 V
C
C

VC ( j ) Z C ( j ) I C ( j )

complex plane

## Example 4: Calculating Impedances

Find the impedances for the portion of the circuit shown
Must first know the frequency,
assume it is given as f=159.15Hz
Find radian frequency:

Z R1 1000
Z R 2 500
ZC

( )

100

) j100
C
2 10 106 103
2
2

2
2
2

327

328

## Example 5: Calculating Voltages and Currents Using The

Impedance Equation
Find current

I(j)
+

if :

Z ( j )

V(j)

Complex Plane

Z 1000
I

if :
Given:

V 0.10 V
if :

I,V,Z

V 0.10 V

10 mA
Z 1000

Z 10( )
2
0.10 V

I
10 mA

2
10( )
2

Z 100( )
2
I

0.10 V

1 mA

2
100( )
2

Resistor

Z
V
I Inductor
I

V
Capacitor

329

## Example 6: Calculating Voltages and Currents Using Impedance

Equation Reversed Reference Direction
Changed the reference direction for current, now:

V ( j ) Z ( j ) I ( j )
Complex Plane

Find current
I(j)
+

if :

I'

Z ( j )

V(j)
-

Z 1000

if :

Given:

V 0.10 V
if :

Add

V,Z

0.10 V
1 mA
1000

Z 10( )
Add
2
0.10 V

I'
10 mA

2
10( )
2

Z 100( )
2

I'

Resistor
Z
I
V
Inductor

Add , resolve to
- <

0.10 V

1 mA

2
100( )
2

I
Z

V
Capacitor

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

330

Combining Impedances
Series Combinations (similar to resistors)
These impedances
can be any device,
i.e., inductors,
resistors, or
capacitors

Z1

Z EQ Z1 Z 2 K Z N

Z2
ZN

Z3

Zi

ZEQ

i 1

Combining
impedances NOT
resistances,
inductances or
capacitances.

Z1

Z2

1
1
1
1

K
Z EQ Z1 Z 2
ZN

ZN

ZEQ

i 1

1
Zi

Z Z1 Z 2
Z1
Z

Z2

L
( )
2 C
2
1
j ( L
)
C
1

( L
)
C 2

331

332

## Example 8: Combining Series and Parallel Impedances

Given the
impedances at
1000 rad/s

, Z L 10 , Z R1 1000, Z R 2 500
2
2
Z C j100, Z L j10, Z R1 100, Z R 2 50
Z C 100

Za:

1
1
1
j2 1

Z a 50 j100
j100
Za

j100

j2 1

2
22 12 tan 1 ( 2)
100

44.72 0.4636
2.24 1.107
40 j 20
100

1000 rad / s
Za

140 j10

## Transform using phasors and impedances

Label all n of the Nodes and Select a Reference
Node
Decide if the remaining n-1 Node Voltages are
dependent or independent. A connected voltage
source will make a node dependent. Count the m
dependent nodes.
Write KCL equations at each of the n-1-m
independent nodes. Write m equations to relate the
dependent node voltages to the source voltages.
Solve n-1 equations.

333

334

jL j1

0.1H

0.1F
+

VC

10

20 cos(10t )V

j
j
j
C
1

## 2. Label all Nodes and select

Reference Node (n = 4)

10

10 rad / s

## 3. Identify dependent nodes

(m = 1)
4. Write n-1-m = 2 KCL eqns +
1 equation to describe dependent node

VS 200V

impedances

V2 V3
V2 V1 V2
In

j1 10
j
out of
node2

V3 V2 V3
In

j 10
out of
node3

V1 200V

Same as DC
but now use
impedances

## Example 9: Node Voltage Method with Impedances and Phasors

(cont)
5. Solve

This step is a lot more tedious to do by hand with the complex numbers.

1
1
1
1
1
)V1 (

)V2 (
)V3 0
j1
j1 10 j
j
1
1
1
(
)V2 (

)V3 0
j
j1 10
V1 20V
(

Arrange KCL
Equations

Put in Matrix
Form

1
1
1
1
1
(

)
(

)
j1
j1 10 j
j

1
1
1
0
(
)
( )

j
j 10
1
0
0

Solve
(MATLAB)

V1 0
V 0
2

V3 20V

V1
V
2
V3

20V
200

19.4 j 3.9V
19.8 11.36

19.6 j1.94V

19.7 5.65

335

(cont)

0.1H

0.1F
+

VC

10 rad / s

V2 VC V3 0

10

10

20 cos(10t )V

node voltages

VC V2 V3
j 2 V 2 90o V

4
Im

## Convert phasor to time domain

vC (t ) 2cos(10t )V
2

V1

V3

Re

V2

VC V2 V3

336

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary
Impedances
Complex form for any resistor, capacitor, inductor
Series and Parallel Reduction
Impedance Equation: V=ZI
Node Voltage Method for AC circuits
Transform circuit then proceed as DC circuit

337

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Layout of an Integrated Circuit
Nishant Gupta and Githin Alapatt
Description:
The design of an integrated circuit
(IC) starts with the functional
description of the circuit and ends
with the fabrication of different
layers on a silicon wafer. There are
about 700 steps involved in this
process, and every step is critical
for the successful operation of the
IC.

338

## Outdoor Theater (Amphitheater)

(circa 2003)
Clemson University

339

## ECE 307 AC Lecture 4 Phasors,

Impedance, and AC Circuit Analysis

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

340

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

341

Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3-phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition

Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 4 Phasors, Impedance
oVoltages
and AC Circuit
Analysis

oCurrents

Bridge Rectifier
(low-pass)

342

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

343

Review
Z3

Time
Domain

Z2

Transform
using
Phasors

Frequency
Domain

Impedances
Combine in series and parallel like resistors
V-I relationship:

V ( j ) Z ( j ) I ( j )

KCL and KVL still apply Node voltage / Mesh current analysis
Superposition
Thevenin, Norton, Source Transformation

Z4

344

## Node Voltage Approach

Transform
to
frequency
domain

Solve the
Entire Circuit using
the Node Voltage
Method
All
Node
Voltages

All
Mesh
Currents
Solve the
Entire Circuit using
the Mesh Current
Method

Find
Component
Voltages
Specific
Component
Voltages
Specific
Component
Currents
Find
Component
Currents

Find
Other
Electrical
Quantities
such as current
or power

Voltage
Current,
Power, etc
Find
Other
Electrical
Quantities
such as voltage
or power

## 1. Transform using phasors and impedances

2. Label all n of the mesh currents in a clockwise
direction
3. Decide if the n mesh currents are dependent or
independent. A connected current source will make
a mesh dependent. Count the m dependent meshes.
4. Write KVL equations at each of the n-m
independent nodes. Write m equations to relate the
dependent mesh currents to the source currents.
Define a supermesh for the special case of a shared
current source
5. Solve n equations

345

346

C
+

1
F
5
-

## 1. Transform to frequency domain

vC (t )

+
vS (t )

I1

vR (t )
-

vS (t ) 30cos(20t )V

VS 300V, Z R 5
1
ZC j
j
C

1
1
20
5

j 0.25

## 2. Label all meshes n=1

3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources) m=0

voltage drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1

347

## Example 1: MCM for Circuit with Single Mesh (cont)

Im

VR

5. Solve

I1 (5 j 0.25) 300o V

I1

300
A 5.992.86A
5.01 2.86

## Find component voltages

VS

Re

VC
Visual Check of KVL: VS=VR+VC

## VC I1Z C (5.992.86)0.25 90 1.5 87.14V

=1.5 1.52rad V
vC (t ) 1.5cos 20t 1.52 V
VR I1 R 5(5.992.86) 29.952.86V
29.950.05rad V
vR (t ) 29.95cos 20t+0.05 V

+
vS (t ) -

vC (t )

vR (t )
I1

348

## Example 1: MCM for Circuit with Single Mesh (cont)

Note about units:

VC =1.5 1.52rad V

## vC (t ) 1.5cos 20t 1.52 V

Can evaluate the cosine
function at any time by
substituting t

rad

rad
sec rad
sec

deg
VC 1.5 87.14V

## vC (t ) 1.5cos 20t 87.14 V

To evaluate the cosine
function:
1) Convert deg to rad
2) Substitute t and add

349

## Example 2: MCM for Circuit with Two Meshes

5k

2H

5103

+
-

j754

1F
-j2652.5

vS (t )

I1

Ix

Find Ix(j)

vS (t ) 120cos(377t 20)

1k

103

ZC

I2

## Note: 377 rad / s f 60 Hz

4. Write n-m=2 KVL eqns.

j
j 2652.5
C

Z L j L j 2 377 j 754
2. Label all meshes n=2
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources) m=0

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1

drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2

## Example 2 (cont): MCM for Circuit with Two Meshes

5. Solve

5 103 j 2652.5
I1
j 2652.5
113 j41.04V

3
I
0
j
2652.5
10

j
754

j
2652.5

0.01817.82o
I1
0.0175 + j0.0056
A
I 0.0224 - j0.0039 A
o
0.023-9.96

2
Find current of interest
Ix = - I1 = 1(17.82+180) = 0.018

+
Ix

I1

I2

350

351

## Example 3: MCM Where One of the Branches has a Current

Source
1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
2. Label all meshes

n=2

## 3. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)

m=1

## 4. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns

AND m=1 equation in the
dependent loop

1 A
4

I1 1 A
4

Vn 5 V 20 I 2 0

3
2

drops in

CW direction
in mesh 2

5 V
3

20
I1

I2

5 V
3
I2

20
2

5. Solve

4
A
5
0.25
6

I1
I

352

## Example 4: MCM Where One of the Branches has a Current

Source (a little more difficult)
1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
n=2
2. Label all meshes
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
4. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation in the
dependent loop

m=1

20

A
4

3
I1 1 A 1
A
4
4

Vn 5 V 20 I 2 I1 0

3
2

drops in

CW direction
in mesh 2

5. Solve

0 I1
1
j 20 j 20 I

3
1

5 2 V

I1

5 V
3
I2

I1
1.0 2.4

0.97 - 2.1
I2

353

## Example 5: Two meshes share a current source (most difficult)

1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
2. Label all meshes

n=2

## 3. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)

m=1

20
4. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns
2
AND m=1 equation for the
dependent mesh

## We have two problems:

1. The model of a current source does
not relate voltage and current ->
cant write KVL directly ????
2. Cant write that I1 or I2 is equal to
the value of the current source (as in
the previous example) since both go
through it.

20

+
Vx

- 1 A
4
I1

I2

5 V
3

354

## Example 5 (cont): Two meshes share a current source (most

difficult)
1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
2. Label all meshes

n=2

## 3. Identify dependent meshes

(current sources)

m=1

20
4. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns
2
AND m=1 equation for the
dependent loop

Solution:
Change one of the meshes
into a super-mesh that
circles the two meshes of
interest.

20

+
Vx
- 1 A
I1
4

Now proceed
with Step 3 of the
MCM.

I2

5 V
3

355

## Example 5 (cont): Two meshes share a current source (most

difficult)
1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
2. Label all meshes
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
4. Write n-m=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation for the
dependent loop

20

n=2
m=1
Create
Super mesh

20
2

I1

A
4

I2

5 V
3

Vn 20 I1 20 I1 I 2 5 V 0

2
2
3
drops super mesh 1

I 2 1 A
4

5. Solve

I1
0.54590.5624
I 1.0000-2.3562 A

356

## Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

Any part of the circuit with two terminals (a one-port
network) can be replaced by a single voltage source
and an impedance in series.
Z3

Z1

Z2

From the Z4
perspective, V
and I, it cant tell
which circuit it is
in.

Z4

ZT

VT

ZT

VT=VOC
VT

Z4

## Procedure to find Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

A. Find Equivalent Impedance
Remove Load (impedance or sub-circuit)
Remove Sources
V source -> short circuit
I source -> open circuit

Find Z

## B. Find Open Circuit Voltage

Remove Load
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh current)
Find voltage at load terminals (still without the load)

357

358

## Norton Equivalent Circuit

Any part of the circuit with two terminals (a one-port
network) can be replaced by a single current source
and an impedance in parallel.
Z1

Z3

Z2

IN

From the Z4
perspective, V
and I, it cant tell
which circuit it is
in.

Z4

ZN=ZT
IN

ZRNN

Z4

359

A.

Remove Load
Remove Sources

## V source -> short circuit

I sourve -> open circuit

B.

## Exactly the same

procedure as finding Z
for the Thevenin
Equivalent:
ZN=ZT

Find Z

## Replace Load with a Short

Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh current)
Find current at the load terminals (still with the short)

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Source Transformation
Any voltage source in series with an impedance can
be replaced by a current source in parallel with the
same impedance.

ZT

VT

IN

ZN

360

361

## Source Transformation Thevenin <-> Norton

Z is same in both circuits
ZT

VT

IN
`

VT I N Z
VT
IN
Z

ZN

362

VS 1100
Voc

Z1 5
Z 2 j 20

Voltage Divider

Z 2VS
20901100
Voc

106.714.04V
Z1 Z 2
20.6275.96

Z in

Z in Z1 / / Z 2
Z1Z 2
50 2090
10090

4.8514
Z1 Z 2
5 j 20
20.6275.96

363

364

## Choose one current or voltage source and remove

all others
Replace voltage source by short circuit
Replace current source by open circuit
Solve for voltages and/or currents of interest.
Repeat for
EVERY source
in the circuit

365

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

366

Example 7: Superposition
Find Io and Vo by Superposition

110o

2 10o

380o

+j4
Vo

Io

110o

j4

Io-1

Vo-1
-

## I o 1 110o , Vo 1 110o 490o 4100o V

Consider the 2A Source

2 10o
Io-2

j4

Vo-2
-

880o V

367

## Example 7 (cont): Superposition

Repeat using Superposition:

110o

2 10o

380o

380

j4

Io-3

Io

j4

Vo-3
-

## I o 3 380o A, Vo 3 380o A 490o 12170o V

Solve using Superposition

Vo Vo 1 Vo 2 Vo 3 4.450938.6646oV
I o I o 1 I o 2 I o 3 17.8038128.6646o A

Vo
-

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary
Transform circuit to frequency domain then proceed
as DC circuit
Series and Parallel Reduction for Impedances
Mesh Current Method for AC circuits
Node Voltage Method
Thevenin Equivalent
Superposition
Transform back to find time domain signal

368

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Fractal Plastic
Ian Stocks
Description:
This composite image was
created by duplicating a pattern
that was formed as an accidental
by-product of a process for slide
mounting mites. Fractal patterns
are self-similar at different scales,
snowflakes are examples of
fractal patterns. Pure fractals are
mathematical objects that repeat
infinitely; the fractal structures
seen in nature are models of these
patterns.

369

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Old Hospital
(circa long ago)
Clemson University

370

## MATLAB Code for Examples in this Lecture

% AC Mesh Current Lecture Example
%MCM 2
VS=120*cosd(20)+j*120*sind(20) %angles in degrees
ZC=-j*1/(377*1E-6)
ZL=j*377*2
ZR1k=1000
ZR5k=5000
A=[ZR5k+ZC -ZC;-ZC ZC+ZR1k+ZL]
B=[VS; 0]
I=inv(A)*B
% Convert to polar
Ipolar=[abs(I(1)) angle(I(1))*180/pi ; abs(I(2)) angle(I(2))*180/pi] %This is not a
polar form in matlab
% MCM 4
A=[1 0;20*j -20*j]
B=[1*cos(-3*pi/4) + j*1*sin(-3*pi/4);5*cos(-2*pi/3) + j*5*sin(-2*pi/3)]
I=inv(A)*B
% Convert to polar
Ipolar=[abs(I(1)) angle(I(1)); abs(I(2)) angle(I(2))] %This is not a polar form in
matlab
% MCM 5

371

## MATLAB Code for Examples in this Lecture

ZC=-j*20
A=[2*ZC ZC;0 1]
B=[-5*cos(pi/3) - j*5*sin(pi/3);-1*cos(pi/4) - j*1*sin(pi/4)]
I=inv(A)*B
% Convert to polar
Ipolar=[abs(I(1)) angle(I(1)); abs(I(2)) angle(I(2))] %This is
not a polar form in matlab
%Thevenin
Z1=5
Z2=j*20
VS=110
VOC=(Z2*VS)/(Z1+Z2)
VOCpolar=[abs(VOC) angle(VOC)*180/pi] %This is not a
polar form in matlab
%Superposition
Io=4*cosd(100)+j*4*sind(100) + 8*cosd(80)+j*8*sind(80) +
12*cosd(170)+j*12*sind(170)
Iopolar=[abs(Io) angle(Io)*180/pi]
Vo=1*cosd(10)+j*1*sind(10) + 2*cosd(-10)+j*2*sind(-10) +
3*cosd(80)+j*3*sind(80)
Vopolar=[abs(Vo) angle(Vo)*180/pi]

372

AC Power

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

373

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

374

Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3-phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition

Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 5 AC Power

oVoltages
oCurrents

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Energy at Clemson
BTU (British Thermal Unit)s are measurements
of energy consumption (english units), they can
be converted directly to:
3412 BTUs = 1 kWh (metric unit)
MMBTU is an english system abbreviation for
106BTU (not to be confused with M=106 in the
metric system)
Clemson University energy consumption in a
year (2008):
Fossil Fuel (cost ~\$3,000,000)
Electric (cost ~\$5,500,000)
900,000 MMBTU 900,000 x106 BTU

1kWh
8
2.64 x10 kWh
3, 412 BTU

9 x1011 BTU

## Mix is about fossil

fuel and AC
electric from power
company

375

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Energy at Clemson
Energy reduction goal is 20% by 2020
(.2)2.64 x108 kWh 5.28 x10 7 kWh 5.28 x10 4 MWh

## What does that mean?

Turn off light bulbs
100W light bulb running continuously for a year
Energy used in 100W 24h
876kWh

365
day

a year by one

bulb
day
bulb

bulb
Number of bulbs (operating
bulb
continuously) that would 5.28 x107 kWh
60,000 bulbs
876kWh
need to be turned off

376

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Energy at Clemson
Energy reduction goal is 20% by 2020
(.2)2.64 x108 kWh 5.28 x107 kWh 5.28 x10 4 MWh

## What does that mean?

Replace this 20% with solar : An average for a
solar cell over a day in the south is 200W/m2 and
20% efficient in converting solar to electrical
Total energy
generated per
area in 1 year
Total area
required

200W
0.2
2
m

24h
0.35MWh
365
day

day
m

m
4
2
5.28 x10 MWh

150,857
m

0.35
MWh

377

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Energy at Clemson

378

379

## Instantaneous and Average Values of a Waveform

Instantaneous Value a
constant that describes the
waveform at a specific time.

Voltage (V)

Instantaneous value at
t=11.1 sec is 2.1V
Instantaneous value at
t=5.0 sec is 4.8V

## Average Value a constant that

describes the waveform over a time
span.
Average voltage from
5.0 to 6.7 is 3.99V
Average voltage from
6.7 to 11.1 is 4.1V

4.8
4.1
3.99
2.1

5.0

6.7

## 11.1 Time (seconds)

Average value of a
sinusoid over one
period is zero

## Today we will consider the

instantaneous and average
values of power waveforms
in AC circuits.

380

## Example 1 Calculating Average Values of a Periodic Waveform

From a plot

From function

v(t) cos(2 t )V
T 1s

Voltage (V)

3.0
2.0
1.0
-1.0

1 2 3 4

Vavg

Time (seconds)

Average Value

Vavg

1 T
cos(2 t )Vdt
T 0

3V 1s 1V 1s 2V 1s
4s

1V

1
sin(2 t )
2 (1)
o

sin(2 ) sin(0) 0V
2 (1)

381

## Impedance and Phase Shift

I j
V j

v(t ) V cos(t V )
i (t ) I cos(t I )
(V=0 for the plot)

V
I

Z j
V j V V
I j I I

V j V V
Z j

I j
I I
V
V I Z
I
Impedance causes phase shift, ,
between voltage and current

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

382

Instantaneous Power
Given the voltage and current

v(t ) V cos(t )
i (t ) I cos(t )

## In order to simplify the following

definitions assume that V=0 then

V I

## The instantaneous power is written as

p (t ) v(t )i (t )
VI cos t cos t

Trig.
Identity

+
v(t)

VI
VI
cos cos 2t
2
2
constant

## Time varying sinusoid,

twice original frequency

i(t)
Note: The standard
reference direction for v
and i is still used; thus,
this describes power
consumed by the device
= power supplied by
the circuit to the device

383

## Instantaneous Power in a Resistor

VI
VI
o
p (t ) cos 0 cos 2t 0o
2
2
resistor always
VI
=
1

cos
2

consumes power
2
Resistive Load

1
0.8

v(t ) V cos(t )
i (t ) I cos(t )

Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt

Z j R0

0.6

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

Voltage
Voltage
Current
InstantaneousCurrent
Voltage
Power

-0.8
-1

Time

10

12

Plot assumes V 0o

14

384

## Instantaneous Power in an Inductor and Capacitor

Capacitor; = -90

1
90
C
0

Inductor; = +90

v t V cos t

i t I cos t 90o

Z L90 v t V cos t o
i t I cos t 90

0
VI
VI
o
p (t ) cos 90 cos 2t 90o
2
2
VI
=
sin 2t

VI
VI
o
p (t ) cos 90 cos 2t 90o
2
2
VI
= - sin 2t
2
Capacitive Load

0.8

0.8

0.6

## Current Leads the Voltage

0.4

Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt

Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt

0.6

0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

Time

10

12

## Current Lags the Voltage

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

Voltage
Voltage
Current
InstantaneousCurrent
Voltage
Power

-0.8
-1

Inductive Load

1
Store or supply energy?

Voltage
Voltage
Current
InstantaneousCurrent
Voltage
Power

-0.8
14

-1

Time

10

12

14

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

385

Average Power
Average power is the integral of instantaneous power over one
period
Substitute power equation from previous slide and
1 T
Pav
p t dt
integrate each term in the sum separately
0

T
T

1 VI
1 VI
VI

cos dt
cos 2t dt cos
T 0 2
T 0 2
2

constant

VI
Resistor

VI
2
Pav cos
0 Capacitor
2

0 Inductor

time
Does the power company charge you to
use a capacitor since the average power
is zero?

## Comparison of Instantaneous Power in Resistor, Inductor, and

Capacitor
Instantaneous Power

Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt

0.8
0.6

Average Power
Resistor > 0

0.4

Average Power
Capacitor and
Inductor = 0

0.2
0
Resistor
Inductor
Capacitor

-0.2
-0.4

Time

10

12

14

386

387

## Example 2: Motor Load (Inductive and Resistive)

Motor Load (Inductive and Resistive)

1
0.8

Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

Voltage
Voltage
Current
InstantaneousCurrent
Voltage
Power

-0.8
-1

Time

10

12

14

388

## Reminder: Root Mean Square (RMS)

Common Power Sinusoids

170V
120Vrms

## US: f=60Hz, Vpeak= 170V

Europe, Asia, Africa:
f=50Hz, Vpeak=325V

1 T 2
x (t )dt

0
T

Vmax

for sinusoid

US:

Vrms

170V

Vrms 120V
2

Vrms

325V

230V
2

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

389

RMS Phasor
Assume = 377rad/s (f = 60Hz) and we introduce phasors with rms value

v t Vmax cos t V

i t I max cos t I

Vmax
V ( j )
%
V ( j )
V
2
2
I max
I ( j )
%
I ( j )
I
2
2

## RMS Phasor quantities & power related to peak-value and power

Notation for an
RMS Phasor

Vmax I max
V I

%
%
Pav
cos V I cos
2
Notation for the
%cos t
2
v
t

2
V

%
2
V
Magnitude of an
1 Vmax

cos
cos
RMS Phasor
2 Z
Z
i t 2 I%cos t
2
1
2
%
Z I max cos Z I cos
2

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Impedance Triangle
Im

Z
jX

Re

Resistors

## X is called the Reactance

and it comes from the
Capacitors and Inductors:
X>0 if the load is more
inductive
X<0 if the load is more
capacitive

V% j V v V
Z

v i Z R jX
%
I j
I i
I

## Z is the magnitude of Z, i.e. Z= Z

The real part of the impedance, R, affects the power differently than the
complex part, X.

390

## Power Factor (pf)

v i
Pav

VI
cos V I%cos
2

Pav
pf
cos
V I%

The phase angle of the load plays a very important role in the absorption of
power by the load impedance.

0 pf 1

pf 0

## Purely inductive or capacitive load

No average dissipated power

pf 1

## Purely resistive load

All power is dissipated power

reactive load.

391

392

Pav
pf
cos
V I%

if 0

Im

pf 0

Z
Inductive load

Re

if 0

pf 0

Capacitive load

## pf= **, leading

Add the terms leading and lagging to describe the sign of

XL
X
XC

393

Complex Power
*

%
S V ( j )I ( j )
V I%

## The * means complex conjugate

V I% V
*

S
Convert
To Rect.

V I%cos j V I%sin

Im

## |S| - apparent power

- units volt-amperes (VA)

Pav jQ
where

Pav V%I%cos
Q V%I%sin

## Recall power factor:

pf

Pav
cos
S

I% v i V I%

Q - reactive power
- volt-amperes reactive (VAR)

Re

## Pav - real power (absorbed by load resistance)

- watts (W)
The pf tells us how much real
power is consumed as a
fraction of total power

## Complex Power (Alternate Forms)

In terms of rms values
*

%
S VI

Z I% or
V

/Z
I% V

2
2
*
%
%
%
%
S Z II Z I R jX I

Pav jQ
2
%
Pav R I

V
/Z
S V
Pav jQ

2
%
QX I

V / Z*

1 2
V
R
1 2
if Z jX Q
V
X
if Z R Pav

394

395

## Example 3 Calculating Real and Reactive Power

If

s 20150V
V

Inductive load

and Z L 6 j 6 7245o

v 150o
Find the real & reactive power dissipated in the load.

s 20150V
V
%
Is

2.357105A
o
Z
7245

I 105o
V I 150 105 45
o

%
%cos 20 2.357 cos 45 33.3W
Pav VI
%
%sin 20 2.357 sin 45 33.3VAR
Q VI

Pav V%I%cos
Q V%I%sin

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary
Introduced RMS Phasors
Introduced complex power
Real component (average power)
Complex Component (reactive power)
Phase shift angle between voltage and current (ie
impedance angle) determines the ratio of real to
reactive power.
Power Factor is the ratio of average power to
magnitude of complex power.

396

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)

397

Amphitrite
Goddess of the Sea
Joshua Mount, Neeraj Gohad, Andrew
Mount
Description:
A pseudo-colored scanning electron
micrograph shows the presence of
chloride transport epithelium involved in
salt balance on the cirri (feeding
apparatus) of the adult barnacle
(Amphibalanus amphitrite). To feed,
barnacles extend the cirri into the ocean
to catch small organism like tiny shrimp.
As the ciiri extend out in the ocean the
chloride ephithelium on the cirri may be
involved in helping the barnacle maintain
osmotic balance (salt balance) in its body.

## The Agriculture Train (Built circa 1911)

Clemson University

398

## ECE 307 AC Lecture 6

Power Factor Correction

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

399

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

400

Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3-phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition

Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 6 Power Factor
Correction oVoltages

oCurrents

## Buying Power for a Factory

Duke Energy Website: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
When the average monthly power factor of the Customers power requirements is less
than 85 percent, the Company may correct the integrated demand in kilowatts for that
month by multiplying by 85 percent and dividing by the average power factor in
percent for that month.

Im

.85 pf cos

pf cos

## cos 1 ( pf ) cos 1 (.85) 31.788o

Billable .85 Billable .85

Billable
new pf
cos

Corrected
Pay Extra

Re
Pay Extra

## Suppose bill would be \$100,000 for the month

with pf<.85.
But you added inductive reactance to your
plant so that increased
to 33o your bill just increased by \$13,509
to 43o your bill just increased by \$16,223
to 53o your bill just increased by \$
41,239

401

## Examples of Inductive Loads

Motors, solenoids, and relays. If it moves, it's
probably an inductive
power drills, electric mixers, fans, sewing machines,
and vacuum cleaners. Transformers also produce
inductive loads.
Some lighting

402

Reminder
RMS Phasors

Vmax
V ( j )
%
V ( j )
V
2
2
I max
I ( j )
%
I ( j )
I
2
2

403

404

Motivation
Complex Power:
%
S VI
V

Im

## |S| - apparent power

- units volt-amperes (VA)

I% i

V I% v i V I%
V I%cos j V I%sin
Pav jQ

Q - reactive power
- volt-amperes reactive (VAR)

Re

## Pav - real power (absorbed by load resistance)

- watts (W)

Pav does work such heating water in an electric water heater (resistor)
Q describes the storage and return of power to the network in the reactive
components (inductors and capacitors)
Typically unwanted such as the inductance of an electric motor

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Motivation

405

Im
s

Re

Pav
The power company will charge the industrial user for

S V I%

We would like to find a way to perform the same amount of work, PAV, but
pay less, reduce |S|. We want to make the power factor close to unity:
Phase shift caused by the load impedance
Pav

pf

cos

Yes.
Add capacitance to cancel
inductive load
Add inductance to cancel
capacitive load

v i 0

## Can we remove the phase shift caused

by the load impedance?

406

Im
R

Z
jX

Re

j V
V
v
V
Z

v i Z R jX
I
I% j
I% i
*

%
S VI
2
2
*
%
%
%
%
Z II Z I R jX I

2
1 2
1
*

V /Z j V
X
R
Pav jQ S

V
/Z
V

## This is the same angle in

the impedance triangle and
in the complex power -> we
can change the impedance
angle to change the power
angle.

## Power Factor (pf) (from previous lecture)

%
S VI V v

I%
i

V I% v i V I%
V I%cos j V I%sin

Pav
Pav
pf

cos
V I% S

Pav jQ
The phase angle of the load plays a very important role in the absorption of
power by the load impedance.
Purely inductive or capacitive load
pf

0
0 pf 1
No average dissipated power

0 pf 1
pf 1

## A pf between 0 and 1 means combination of

resistive and reactive load.
Purely resistive load
All power is dissipated power

407

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

408

Example 2
Given

v t 10 2 cos 25t / 8 V

## i t 3.5 2 cos 25t / 4 A

Find
1. The pf for the load with this voltage and current
2. The average power and reactive power of the load
Solution
Convert to phasor rms form:
Determine the load
impedance:

10 V
V
8

I% 3.5 4 A

10 8
V

2.86

2.86

8
4
8

%
I 3.5 4

/ 8 22.5 0
Pav 10 3.5 0.924 32.3W

Capacitive load
pf leading

409

Example 3
I%

## Find the real average power

dissipated in the circuit shown here.

Z eq1 j 6 P j 4
j6 j4

j6 j 4

20

j 6

50120V
rms

j12

Z eq 2 20 j12 23.32 31
50120
%
I
2.144151A
23.32 31

## Pav 50 2.144 cos 31 91.9W

Q 50 2.144 sin 31 54.34VAR

Z eq 2

Z eq1

Capacitive load

pf angle < 0
leading

j 4

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

410

Observations on pf angle
Z Z R jX

2
Pav V%I%cos I%
R
2
Q V%I%sin I%
X

V
V
R Z cos cos cos
I
I%
V
V
X Z sin sin sin
I
I%

Since

R0

0 90 X 0
90 0 X 0

pf

Pav
cos
S

90 0
inductive load
capacitive load

Q0
Q0

Lagging Power
Factor
(I Follows V)

Leading Power
Factor
(V Follows I)

411

Example 4.

412

## Find the complex power delivered

to the load Z.
1100V

10

j 6

Z L 10 P j 6 5.14559.04
Find the voltage across the load (use voltage divider):

## V L 5.14559.04 110 70.925.5 V

4 5.14559.04
L
V
70.925.5
%
IL

13.8 33.59 A
Z L 5.14559.04
I% 70.925.5 13.8 33.59 97859.1
S V
*
L L

503 j839 W

ZL

## Load is resistive &

Inductive. pf lagging.

Pav 503 W
Q 839 VAR

413

4

Z L 10

1100V

10

## Find the voltage across the load (use voltage divider):

V L 10 110 78.60 V
4 10
L 78.60
V
%
IL

7.860 A
ZL
10
*

%
S V L I L 78.60 7.860 6170

617 W

ZL

Pav 617 W
Q 0 VAR
pf = 0

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

414

Example 5a
Find the complex power delivered
to the complex load.

50

1170V

j86.7

## Note, the load is partially resistive

and partially inductive, as are many industrial
loads (things which have motors generally
present partially inductive loads).
Inductive load, lagging pf

Z L 50 j86.7
10060

60 0

pf cos 60 0.5

L 1170
V
%
IL

1.17 60 A
Z L 10060
L I%
S V
L 1170 1.17 60 136.8960

ZL

Pav 68.4 W
Q 118.5 VAR

68.4 j118.5 W

Inductive load

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

415

Example 5b
50

1170V
Find the value of capacitive
reactance which, when added in parallel
with the load impedance of example 5a,
will make the effective pf =1 (purely resistive
load). Find the complex power delivered to the
new load under this condition.

j86.7

ZL

## The resulting circuit is shown to the right.

Since we know we want pf = 1, this can only happen when q =0, so that cosq =1. This
means that the phase angle of the new load impedance must be zero.

pf cos cos 0 1
Let Z L1 50 j86.7 R jX A

Z L 2 jX B

R 50
X A L 86.7
XB

1
?
C

jX C

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

416

Example 5b (continued)
Our objective is to find the value of the capacitive reactance with makes the load
impedance have a phase of zero. One way to accomplish this is to do a little algebra!

Z L Z L1 PZ L 2

R jX A

Z L1Z L 2
Z L1 Z L 2

jX B R jX A jX B R j X A X B

R jX A jX B
R j XA XB R j XA XB
RX B2

R XA XB
2

jX B

R 2 X L X A X B
R2 X A X B

Thus, the needed condition is achieved if the imaginary part of the expression is
zero, making the load impedance purely real (pf =1). To make this happen we need

R XA XA XB 0
2

R 2 X A2
502 86.7 2
XB

115.54
XA
86.7

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

417

Example 5b (continued)

XB

1
1
1
C

23 F
C
Xc
377

115.54

50 115.54
ZL 2

2
2
R XA XB
502 86.7 115.54
RX B2

200.3

L
V
1170
%
IL

0.58410 A
Z L 200.30
*

%
S V L I L 1170 0.5841 0 68.40

68.4 W

## This is the shunt

capacitance that corrects
the phase angle of the load

## This is the effective

load impedance after
shunt capacitor

effective load

purely real.

418

## Power factor correction

load needing
pf correction
Shunt reactance
to give pf correction

ZL

RX B2

R XA XB
2

jX B

R 2 X A X A X B
R2 X A X B

pf = 1 when

R2 X A X A X B 0
XB
ZL

R X
XA
2

## This is the shunt reactance

needed to provide pf
correction

2
A

RX B2

R2 X A X B

## This is the resulting realvalued

load impedance after pf
correction

if X A L
if X A

XB

1
C

1
X B L
C

419

## Power factor correction

load needing
pf correction
2
Pav V%I%cos I%
R
2
Q V%I%sin I%
X

Shunt reactance
to give pf correction

2
I%
X A QA
2
I%
X B QB

Pav

if X A L

Make: QB QA

1
XB
C

S Pav

1
if X A
X B L
C

420

## Example: Example 5a (part 2)

We found that for the inductive load

Pav 68.4 W
Q 118.5 VAR

50

1170V

jX

j86.7

## If we add the shunt capacitor we must have that

QC 118.5VAR
1 2
= V
X
1
2
1170
X

ZL
2

1170
1
X
115.5
118.5
377 C
C

1
23 F
377
115.5

Compare to Example 5b

## Example 6: Switching Mode Computer Power Supply

1200V
V
Z PS

rm
s

Im

Note: w = 337rad/s

XPS

53.13
PPS : 280 W

s2

Re

Supply
120VAC, 280W
pf = 0.6 lagging

421

## What does a pf 0f 0.6 lagging and

real power of 280 W tell us?
280 W is the real part of S

pf

Pav
cos
S

280
S
VA 466.7VA
S S
0.6
we can find
I%
Knowing S and V

S 466.753.13VA

%
%
S VI I
3.8953.13A
V
1200V
I% 3.89 53.13A

Find ZPS :

Z PS

V
1200V

30.8653.13
%
I 3.8953.13A
18.5 j 24.39

422

S Pav jQ

Q 373.4VAR

53.13
Lagging pf

Z PS

R 18.5

L 24.4

## Given a wall outlet rated for 15A, how many

computers can I plug in?
~
from I we have

423

I circuit max
15A

## 2.72 can plug in only 2 computers

I per computer 5.5A
Correct the power factor by adding a shunt capacitor to nullify the reactive power in the
inductive load
1200V
V
Z PS

1
1
1

Z eq ZC Z PS
Z eq

## Since we changed the circuit the current

changes according to

1200V V
%
I

Z eq
Z eq

Z C Z PS
Z C Z PS

j
1
ZC

90
377C 377C
pf correction needs: QC 373.4 VAR

* 1200V
VV
%
S VI

*
Z eq
Z eq*
*

## Effective pf angle is decided by that of the

equivalent load.

Question:
Is it possible to control the effective phase angle of the equivalent load so that all
power is dissipated in the load rather than some of it being stored?
Answer: Yes.
Find expression for Zeq

Z eq

Z C Z PS
Z C Z PS

90

30.86

53.13

377C

18.5

j
24.69

377C

Z eq

30.86 36.87

424

425

Given
Z eq

30.86 36.87

## The expressions on slide

29 are essentially the same
as what is done here.

Z eq

30.86 36.87

## (377C )18.5 2 (24.69)377C 1 2 tan 1

24.69(377C ) 1

18.5(377C )
call this f for the
moment

If f =-36.87 it will subtract from the numerator phase angle such that the
phase angle for Zeq is 0 phase of S becomes zero!
Thus, one sets:

24.69(377C ) 1

36.87 tan
18.5(377C )
1

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

0.75(18.5)(377C ) 24.69(377C ) 1

1.45 10 4 C 1

## What is the effect of our choice of C ?

j
j 38.565 38.57 90
C
38.57 90 30.86 53.13
Z eq
j 38.565 18.5 j 24.69
ZC

## 1.19 103 36.87

51.460
23 125 36.87
What is the new current

426

I?%

V
1200
%
I
2.330A
Z 51.460

C 68.8 F
QC 373.4VAR
1 2
V
X
1
2
1200
X

1200
1
X
38.56
373.4
377 C
C

1
68.8 F
377 38.56

shift in current

427

Note
I 2(2.33)A 3.3A

Peak current

*

%
S VI

280 j 0 VA

power!

# computers

15A
4 .5
3.3A

## One can now connect 4

computers and one laptop to
the same circuit !
427

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary
Power Factor Correction

428

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)

429

## White Blood Cell Grabbing a

Bacterium
Thabe Matsebatlela
Description:
This micrograph shows what goes on
inside our bodies when we are infected
with bacteria. This is a magnified view
of what happened when white blood
cells of the immune system
(macrophages) were challenged with
bacteria: these cells were able to search,
grab, attack, and eliminate the bacteria.
The membrane protrusions of the white
blood cells are essential in achieving
this purpose, and drugs that enhance
these elongation actions will be useful
in activating immune system cells to kill
bacteria.

## The Old Sheep Barn

(still on campus, not sure why)
Clemson University

430

Transformers

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

431

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

432

Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Kirchhoff's Current Law
o
Transfer Power
Transformer
Node Voltage Method
(3-phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition

Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 7 Transformer

oVoltages
oCurrents

Transformers

433

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

434

Transformers
Transformers take one thing and convert it into another thing.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:PoleMountTrans
former02.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Transfor
mer3d_col3.svg

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Magnetic Coupling
When inductors are put close together, the magnetic
fields interact.

L1

L2

When we analyzed
circuits we assumed
that were physically
far enough apart so
that inductors
magnetic fields do not
interact.

435

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

436

Magnetic Coupling
Magnetic field outside each energized inductor
weakens rapidly with distance.
However, if d is small the fields will interact

Inductor

Inductor

coil of wire
Air

L1

n1

n2

L2

coil is wrapped
iron core

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Making a Transformer
Build a new device by purposely allowing the magnetic field in each inductor to
flow through the other, e.g., putting them on the same physical core.
I1

I2

V1

n1

n2

V2

## These wires are insulated so

no current flow between the
them

We need a circuit model for this device based on some knowledge of the
construction:
1 turn = 1 loop of wire
n1 # turns in coil 1 n2 # turns in coil 2
around core

n2
n1

dimensionless

437

438

## The Ideal Transformer

The core contains the magnetic
field and enhances coupling.

Circuit Diagram:
There is a dot for each winding that shows
how to label the voltages and currents.

I%
1

I%
2

V%
1

V%
2

Primary
(input)
Winding

n1 : n2
or
1: N

Secondary
(input)
Winding

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Transformer3d_col3.svg

## Transformers, which depend on magnetic coupling, require

time varying currents and thus do nothing for DC.

439

I%
1

Circuit Model:

I%
2

% NV%
V%
V%
V%
V
2
1
2
1

## V 1 is the input or primary voltage.

n2 n1
%
% I1 V 2 is the output or secondary voltage.
I
n I% n I% 2 N

V%
2

2 2

1 1

Step-up transformer

Step-down transformer

N 1 n2 n1

N 1 n2 n1

## Output voltage > Input voltage

Output current < Input current.
Voltage

n1 : n2
or
1: N

n2
n1

## Output voltage < Input voltage

Output current > Input current

v2 (t )
v1 (t )
Time

Transformation doesnt
affect phase or frequency

Voltage

v1 (t )
v2 (t )
Time

440

## Example 1: Transformer In a Power Supply

Transformers are used to change voltage and current levels.
Real world example: A power supply takes 120V AC input and outputs
5V DC.

1200V

V 2

## 170 cos(377t ) Vin Transformer

VR

Rectifier

VC

DC Voltage

Capacitor

1 1200V V
2 50V
V
Voltage

VR
7V
Time

Smoothed Voltage

VC
7V
time

time
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reservoir_capacitor

441

442

## Example 1 (cont): Transformer In a Power Supply

What is the number of turns needed in the step-down transformer to achieve
the voltage transformation?

%
V%
2 NV1

V%
5
2
N
V% 120
1

24
Thus if, we design n1 to have 240 turns then

n2 Nn1 10 turns

I%
1

I%
2

V%
1

V%
2

n1 : n2
or
1: N

240 :10

## Example 2 : The Stun Gun

http://home.howstuffworks.com/stun-gun3.htm

Step-up transformers can be used to convert a small voltage into a huge voltage
which can wreck havoc on the human nervous system. Follow in the link for
more information.

443

444

## Example 2 : The Stun Gun

Objective: Create a big AC voltage from a 9-volt DC battery

T1
1:100

9V

DC to AC V (t )
1
Converter

T2
1:100

T3
1:15

V2 (t )

V3 (t )

100V

10, 000V

V4 (t )

Rectify
Storage
Trigger
Etc.

DC Battery

1V

150, 000V

1A

10mA

0.1mA

7A

445

## Example 3: Transformer Specification

We require a transformer to deliver 500 mA at 24 V from a 120-V rms line source.
If the primary has 3000 turns, how many turns are required in the secondary?
What is the primary current?
I%
1

Given

V1 120V
V 24V
2

I%
2 500 mA
n1 3000

n2
n1

V%
1

V%
2

n1 : n2
or
1: N

Solution

%
V%
2 NV1
%
I
1
I%

2
N

I%
2

V%
24 1
3000
2
N
n2 Nn1
600
%
V1 120 5
5
% 1 0.5 100mA
I%

NI
1
2
5

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

446

Center-Tapped Transformer
Multiple taps to the secondary winding produce multiple output voltages related to the
same primary voltage.
Essentially multiple windings on the same core
A center -tapped transformer is used to supply power to a house. Center-tapped
transformer has n2 = n3.

I%
1

n 4800V V%
1
b
c

n1

V%
120V
2

n2

n3

120V
V%
3

n2 %
V%

V1
2
n1

n3 %
V%

V1
3
n1

240V

## This acts as 3 windings

on the same core;
There are 3 terminals
on the output side and
two on the input side.
120V and 240V
are typical residential
rms voltages.

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Isolation Transformer
If N = 1, V2 = V1, I2 = I1 then no transformation of voltage or current is accomplished.
I%
1

I%
2

V%
1

V%
2

n1 : n2 n1
or
1:1

Yet, this device is useful because the secondary and primary are now electrically
isolated (but magnetically coupled) so no current flows between the primary and
secondary.

447

448

Three coils on
the same core

VS1

VPrimary

z>0

VOut

VPrimary

VS2

VS1

VOut

VPrimary

VOut VS 1 VS 2 0

|Vout|

VOut

Vout

VOut

VOut VS 1 VS 2 0

VS2

VS2

VS1

z<0
VS 1 VS 2 0

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

449

Impedance Reflection
ZS
What impedance is seen by the source through
a transformer?

V 2 NV 1

N I%2 I%
1

V1

VS

b
The impedance seen looking into the transformer at a-b is

Z ab

I2

V2

n1 : n2

V 2
V 1
1 V 2
1
N
Z ab % % 2 % 2 Z L
I1 N I 2 N I 2 N

1
Z ab 2 Z L
N

Thus, a transformer gives us an alternative means to match a fixed load value to the
source.

ZL

450

## Example 5: Impedance Matching for Stereo Speakers

Find the transformer turns that provide a speaker impedance match to the
amplifier to ensure maximum noise (music) output in your dorm room.
Speaker 1
8
V

Amplifier

Speaker 2

Matching
Transformer
The two 8 are in parallel, so they combine to be 4. But the amplifier has an internal
resistance of 8. How do we make 4 look like 8 ?

RS 8
RL 4

Z out

1
RS 2 RL
N

RL 4 1
N

RS 8 2
2

2
*
*
V

%
%

%
S1 V I
N I 2 V 2 I 2 S2
N
*
1 1

## Power In = Power Out

No power is lost in an
ideal transformer. This is
NOT the case in real
transformers, however.
They get hot due to
heating inside the core.

451

Transfer

## Goal: Find the conditions on N=n2/n1 and ZL to achieve

maximum power transfer from the source to the load
ZS

ZS

VS

V2

V1

n1 : n2

ZL

452

453

## Transformers: Impedance Matching for Maximum Power

Transfer
In General, Max Power Transfer in an AC Circuit
ZS

Given

Z S RS jX S

Z L RL jX L

L
V

VS

V L

ZL
VS
ZS ZL

I%L

I%L

V S
ZS ZL

## The complex power is

*

%
SL V L I L

ZL V S
ZL
V S
V S

2
Z S Z L Z S Z L
ZS ZL

*
Note: V S V S V S V S

2
V S V S V S 0o

ZL

## Transformers: Impedance Matching for Maximum Power

Transfer
Max Power Transfer in an AC Circuit
The real (time average) power delivered to the load is

Pav S L Z L

RL V S

RS RL

V S

ZS ZL

RL V S

ZS ZL

XS XL

## This expression is maximized when

Z L Z S*

Pav max

or RL RS and X L X S

V S

4 RS

## AC condition for maximum

power transfer to a complex
load impedance.

454

Transfer

455

ZS

VS

Z ab

1
ZL
N2

## For maximum power transfer:

1 * RL
XL
Z S RS jX S Z 2 Z L 2 j 2
N
N
N
*
ab

RL N 2 RS and X L N 2 X S

where

XS

L inductor
1

capacitor
C

456

## Example 6: Use a Transformer for Impedance Matching to

Achieve Maximum Power Transfer
Find the transformer turns ratio and load
reactance that results in maximum power
transfer in the circuit to the right.

## We are given the freedom to specify XL

and N for maximum power transfer.

LS

0.1H

RS

10

V S 2000V

RL
RL N RS N
N
RS
2

RL
RS

RL 360
XL

377rad/s

VS
Solution:
For maximum power transfer

1: N

b
360
10

## This condition fully

specifies the N

1
X L N X S 36 (377)(0.1H) 1357.2
C
1
C
1.95 F
Negative reactance implies a capacitance
(1357.2)
2

X s L

## Example 6 (cont): Use a Transformer for Impedance Matching to

Achieve Maximum Power Transfer
Find the equivalent Circuit

Z ab Rab jX Cab
1
1
2 Z L 2 RL jX CL
N
N
Rab

RL 360

10
2
N
36

X Cab

1
2 X CL
N

0.1H

Rab 10

10

Cab 70.2 F

1
1 1

Cab N CL

70.2 F

457

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

458

Summary
Transformer changes the form of electrical input but
does not add power
High V, Low I -> Low V, High I
Low V, High I -> High V, Low I
Power In = Power Out
Equations
I%
I%
1
2
n2
N
n1

%
V%
2 NV1
%
I
1
I%

2
N

V%
1

V%
2

n1 : n2
or
1: N

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Bio- Inspired Hydrophobic
Nanoroughened Surfaces from
Processable Hybrid Composites
Stephen M. Budy and Scott T. Iacono
Description:
This is the first example of processable,
semi-fluorinated perfluorocyclobutyl
(PFCB) aryl either polymers covalently
bound to pendant polyhedral oligomeric
silsesquioxanes (POSS) cages. The
composites are prepared using a simple
strategy, and demonstrate an increase in
hydrophobicity (water-repelling) similar
to that of commercial Teflon. The
hydrophobicity is caused by the surface
migration of the nanometer-sized POSS
aggregates. This produces nanoroughness,
with surface features mimicking those of
the lotus leaf.

459

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Hardin Hall
(circa 1960, before major renovation)
Clemson University

460

## ECE 307 AC Lecture 8

Three-Phase Circuits

## Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering
Clemson University

461

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

462

Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3-phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition

Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 8 Three-Phase Circuits

oVoltages
oCurrents

## Organized Power Generation and Distribution is a Critical Part of

Our Social and Economic Lifestyles

463

464

## AC Power Generation and Distribution

Today we will answer the question:
Why are there 3 wires shown?
Multiphase
Generator

transformers
are used in
power
distribution to
change the
voltages and
currents

465

V an

V cn

120

V bn

## This is our circuit model of a three phase generator

Generator
produces three
voltages that are
120 degrees
different in phase.

466

467

Circuit
Model

+
Blender
ZB

V%
BR

Light
ZL

Stove
ZS

400
VB
VR
VB-VR

300
200

Volt

100

% %
V%
BR VB VR

0
-100
-200
-300
-400

Time

10

12

14

## AC Power Generation and Distribution

http://www.american-appliance.com/images/image_data/range_outlet.jpg

468

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

469

Safety
IB

IW
IG
IG
Normally: IB=IW and IG=0
Fault: IG 0 -> IB IW
GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) compares IG to IB and stops all current if
they are not equal.

470

Three Phase
(3-) Circuit
Analysis

## Three-phase Circuit Terminology

3- circuits have advantages
constant power ( rather than pulsating )
smoother motor operation.
Used widely in industry ( many of you might
encounter them )
Two configurations of loads and sources
The clouds represent:
Voltage sources for a
generator
Impedances for a load
Wye, Y Configuration

Delta, Configuration

471

Notation

## V AB voltage at node A with respect to node B

(plus sign at node A and minus sign at node B)
I%aA current with reference direction from node a to node A
(current arrow points from a towards A)
V AB

Example

I aA
a

472

## The Y (Wye) Connected Source

b

Properties
Voltages at the same frequency

V an

V bn

relationship

V cn

## V *n is the Phase Voltage

measured from * to nuetral (n)

## Fixed phase relationships between voltage sources

abc sequence

V an V 0 where V p Vmax
p
V bn V p 120

V cn V p 240 V p 120

## Other sequences such

asbca sequence are
also used

473

474

## The Y ( Wye ) Connected Source

Phase diagram

V cn

Plot in Time

Im

120
120

120

v%
bn (t )

v%
cn (t )

v%
an (t )

V an
Re

120

240

V bn
V an V p 0
V bn V p 120
V cn V p 240 V p 120

instantaneous voltage

## Phase rotation is abc because a reaches

a maximum first, followed by b and c

475

## The Y (Wye) Connected Source

V cn

Im
Balanced 3- system
- voltages have same magnitude

120 V
an
240

Re

120

V bn
V an

V bn

V cn

## V an V bn V cn V p V p cos 120 jV p sin 120 V p cos120 jV p sin120

V p V p cos120 jV p sin120 V p cos120 jV p sin120
V p 2V p cos120

V p 2V p 1
0

## This is the meaning of a balanced

set in terms of voltages or currents, i.e.,
they sum to zero.

476

## The Y (Wye) Connected Source

Line voltages are referenced
between the terminals a, b, and
c.

V ab

## V ab , V bc and V ca are called line voltages

KVL: V an V ab V bn 0
V ab V an V bn V p 0 V p 120

V p 10 1 120

V
V
V
Vp

V ca

V bc

V bc
V ca

V Line V phase

330

3 90 330 V bn

3 210

General relationship:

330 330 V an

3 150

330 V cn

## The Y (Wye) Connected Source

Phase diagram for line and phase voltages

V cn

Im

V ab

V ca
30

120

30

V an Re

120

V bn

30

V bc

Once we know any one of the six voltages, we can calculate the remaining five.

V Line V phase

330

V ab V bc V ca 0

477

478

## The Y ( Wye ) Load Phase and Line Voltages

V AB
A

V BC

V AN
V CA

N
V CN

V BN

Notes
Capital letters for load nodes
Balanced load (the 3 impedances are equal)
A balanced set ( V=0) of phase voltages
KVL

V AB V BN V AN 0

or

V AB V AN V BN
V p 0 V p 120
3V p 30

V Line V phase

330

479

## The Y ( Wye ) Load - Phase Currents

%
The phase currents I%AN , I%
BN , I CN form a balanced set,

% %
i.e. , I%
AN I BN I CN 0

Line Currents
(shown in green)
flow into load
nodes.

Impedance relationship:

AN
V
I%AN
Z

and

I%
I%AN by 120
BN lags
I%
I%
BN by 120
CN lags

I%
bB
I%aA

A I%AN

phase currents
shown in red

I%
cC
For a Y-load, the line currents equal the respective phase currents, i.e. ,

%
I%
aA I AN

%
I%
bB I BN

%
I%
cC I CN

I%
CN

I%Line I%Phase

I%BN

480

## The Wye Wye System Line Currents

Line Impedance Z L

I%
bB
I%aA

ZL

ZL

I%nN
ZL

n
I%
cC

c
Source

ZL
Transmission line

neutral
line

N
Z

C
Load

481

## The Wye Wye System Line Currents

The neutral line connects node n of the source and node N of the load. Find this current
for a complete balanced system (balanced source, transmission line, and load) as
follows:
The phase currents of the balanced load form a balanced set, i.e. ,

I%AN I%BN I%
CN 0
KCL at node N says

I%AN

=0

I%nN

I%BN
N

I%
CN

% % %
I%
nN I AN I BN I CN 0
I%
nN 0
In conclusion,
For a balanced Y-Y system, no current flows in the neutral line.

482

## The Wye Wye System Analysis

Since no current flows in the neutral wire, we can replace its line impedance with
zero impedance as shown below:

I%
bB

I%aA

ZL

ZL

I%nN 0

zero impedance

B
Z

n
I%
cC

ZL

## I%nN 0 even though the neutral line has zero impedance

We can now use superposition to solve for I%
aA .

483

%

## To use superposition to find I%

aA we deactivate sources V bn and V cn and find I aA
V anto
due
acting alone. We then repeat the process for
. .

cC or V cn
I%
bB or V bn
and I%

I%
bB

I%
aA

V an

ZL
ZL

B
Z

I%
nN

replaced Vbn
by short

I%
cC

ZL

484

## The Wye Wye System Analysis

Lets redraw this:

I%aA

ZL

## current flows only in

this loop

V an

n
I%cC

I%bB

Z
ZL

ZL

The short at n-N is in parallel with phases b-B and c-C, thus no current will flow
through them. One is left with a single loop current and the circuit:

I%bB 0

I%cC 0

485

## The Wye Wye System Analysis

Redraw the circuit showing only the active parts, i.e.
remove the part that was shorted out by the neutral:

I%
aA

ZL

I%AN

V an

aA as
Now we can find I%

V an
%
I aA
Z ZL

V AN

V AN

Z
V an
Z ZL

If we activate V cn and V bn , we will find that in each case no current will flow
aA . Thus, the
between a and A, and hence neither source will contribute to I%
equation above gives the entire I%
aA .

## The Wye Wye System Analysis

%
%
Since I%
form a balanced set, once
is known, we
I%
aA
aA , I bB , andI
cC
V AN
I%
bB
I%
can calculate
and
. Similarly, once phase
voltage
is
cC
known, all 5 other voltages associated with the Y-load can be
calculated.
Summary

## For the analysis of a balanced Y-Y system

1. Remove the nN line if present
2. Add a nN line with zero impedance
3. Use superposition to analyze a single-phase
equivalent circuit
4. Since all currents and voltages form balanced sets,
once you know one line current, you can calculate the
others, likewise for load voltages.

486

## The Delta Load

I%
bB
A

I%aA

I%AB

I ZAN

I%
CA
Z

I%
cC

I%BC

For the delta load, the line currents (in the transmission line) are different
than the currents flowing in the three phases of the load.
The currents ( I%AB , I%BC , I%
CA ) are referred to as phase currents.
The phase currents in the delta load ( -load ) form a balanced set, i.e.
1. They are equal in magnitude

## I%AB I%BC I%CA

2. They differ in phase by 120

487

Assume

I%AB I p 0
I%BC I p 120

## These are the phase

currents.

I%
CA I p 240 I p 120
KCL at node A

## I%aA I%CA I%AB 0

Relation between -load Phase Currents and Line Currents

% %
I%
aA I AB I CA
I p 0 I p 120 I p 10 1120

3 30 I p

%
Line current I%
aA is 3 times greater than the phase current I AB and lags it
by 30
This is the general trend, but this is not a general expression
because we assumed zero phase angle on the current

488

489

## The Delta Load

Phase diagram showing
phase currents and their
relationship to line currents
for delta load.

Since, in general,

I%AB 0
then

%
I%
aA I AB

3 30

I%
cC
I%
CA

## In general, for a delta load

I%Line I%Phase

3 30

Im

I%
bB

I%AB
I%
aA

I%
BC

If one knows one line or phase current, then ones knows the other 5 as well.

Re

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

490

Power Calculations
I%bB
A

I%aA

V Line V Phase

I%AB

Z
I AN

I%CA
Z

I%cC

I%BC

I%Line

3 30 I%Phase

I%aA

I%bB

A
Z

V Line

330 V Phase

I%Line I%Phase

I%cC

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

491

Power Calculations
Real Power from Phase Quantities
Given

phase

V p v

I%phase I p i

Complex power

Pp V p I p cos

the load Z

## This is the real power for any single phase of a 3 load.

Since real power is delivered to each phase of a 3 load, the total power is

P3 3Pp

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Power Calculations
Real Power from Line Quantities -Load
Given

phase

V p v

I%phase I p i

V Line V

phase

V p v

Solve for Ip

Ip

I Line
3

## Substitute into the equation for total real power:

P3 3V p I p cos
3VLine

I Line
cos 3VLine I Line cos
3

492

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Power Calculations
Real Power from Line Quantities Y-Load
Given

phase

V p v

I%phase I p i

## V Line VLine v , Line 3 30 V p 3V p v 30

I%Line I%phase I p i
Solve for Vp

V p

VLine
3

P3 3V p I p cos
3

VLine
3

I Line cos

493

494

Given:
Lower-case
indicates
source
quantity
Find:

## A balanced 3 Y-Y system with abc sequence

V bc 30 60 V

Z Line 1 j1

Z 20 j 20

an
a) V
b) I%
aA

Phase difference
Source connection
Magnitudes

Line Voltage
Two other voltages, V ab and V ca , have
same magnitude but 120o phase difference

Load Connection

## Identical impedances on all 3 loads

c) V
AN
d) complex ( apparent ) power absorbed by each line.
e) complex power absorbed by each load.
f) power factor of each source.
g) complex power supplied by each source.

495

## Example 1 (cont): Analysis of Y-Y System

Draw the circuit :

I%
aA

1 j1
1 j1

V an

A
20

B
20

j 20

V AN

V bc 30 60 V

20

1 j1

N
j 20

j 20

496

## Example 1 (cont): Analysis of Y-Y System

V bc 30 60 V
Relationships when V an has zero phase angle
an
a) Find V

Im
V cn

120

30

V an

V cn

V ab

V ca
30

Im

V an Re

V ca

Re
60
30

120

V bn

V Line

30

an
this voltage must lag V
by 120. thus,

V bn

V bc

330 V Phase

V ab

V bc

1
1

V bn
30 V bc
30 60 1 30
3
3

10 3 90 V

V an 10 3 90 120 10 330 V

497

## Example 1 (cont): Analysis of Y-Y System

b) Find I%
aA

I%
aA

V an
10 330

Z Line Z 1 j1 20 j 20
10 330 10 330

21 j 21
29.745

I%
aA 0.5832 15 A

I%
cC

I%
aA

I%AN

V an

Im

I%
cC 0.5832105 A
I%
bB 0.5832 135 A
120

120

I%
bB

ZL

I%
aA

Re

V AN

498

## Example 1 (cont): Analysis of Y-Y System

c) Find

I%
aA

V AN

V AN Z I%AN Z I%
aA
(20 j 20)(0.5832 15)

V AB
V AN

V CN
V CA

Re
60
30

V BN

ZL

I%AN

V an

16.530 V
Im

V BC

V AN

499

## Example 1 (cont): Analysis of Y-Y System

d) Find complex ( Apparent ) power absorbed
by each line

I%
aA

V aA Z Line I%aA
(1 j1)(0.5832 15)
0.824730V
*

%
S VI P jQ
ave

0.4809745
0.34 j 0.34 VA
Pave 0.34 W
Q 0.34VAR

Current lags
voltage

V an

ZL

V aA

I%AN

## Example 1 (cont): Analysis of Y-Y System

e) Find complex power absorbed by each load.
*
*

%
S V AN I AN 16.530 V 0.5832 15 A

6.8 j 6.8 VA

## f) power factor of each source.

V an 10 330V
I%an I%aA 0.5832 15A
*

%
S V an I an 10 330 V 0.583215 A=10.145VA

45 pf source 0.707

500

501

## Example 1 (cont): Analysis of Y-Y System

g) Find complex power supplied by each source.

## Ssupplied source Sconsumed source

*
*

%
V an I an 10 330 V 0.5832 15 A

= 10.0445 VA
7.14 j 7.14 VA

a
V an

I%
aA

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary
Balanced 3-Phase Generator creates three voltages
Equal magnitudes
Separated in phase by 120o
Phase sequence abc
Can be connected as a Y or Delta
Nodes labeled with small letters
Balanced 3-Phase Load
Three Equal Impedances
Can be connected as a Y or Delta
Nodes labeled with capital letters

502

## ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering

Summary
Balanced 3-Phase Power Distribution System
Line impedances are equal
No current in the neutral
In Y-Y connection, solve single phase to find
behavior of entire system
Convert line currents to phase currents and line
voltages to phase voltages.
Power
Total real power = 3 * real power per phase

503

## Science As Art at Clemson

(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Pluronic Fronds
Vladimir Reukov, Olga Reukova, Gary
Thompson and Alexey Vertegel
Description:
This image shows Pluronic F68 surfactant with
interspersed polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA)
nanoparticles, pipetted onto silicon substrate. It
is a result of an experimental mistake. After
spinning down the solution in a centrifuge,
instead of keeping the pellet with PBCA
nanoparticles at the bottom, we disposed it and
kept the supernatant, or the remaining solution
from the top. It contained excessive surfactant
and very few nanoparticles. So we threw out
the baby with the bathwater, but we got the
amazing image. Science should not be
presumptive you never know where you will
find something interesting. The image was
taken using tapping mode Atomic Force
Miscroscopy, scan size is 50X50 m, with a
Veeco Dimension 3100 instrument.

504

## Entrance to Campus Recreation (Photo circa

1980 before renovations)
Clemson University

505