ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 Lecture 1
DC Circuit Components, Connections,
and KCL
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Overview of DC Electric Circuits
Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source
Current Source
Switch
DC Lecture 1 DC Circuit Components,
Connections, and KCL
Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin Equivalent
Norton Equivalent
Similar
Electric Circuit
Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
oCurrents
oPower
Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Overview of Lecture
Introduce Six Elements Used in a DC Circuit
Constant Voltage Source
Constant Current Source
Resistor
Open Circuit, Short Circuit, Switch
Connect The Elements to Build a Circuit
Define Connection Terminology: Terminal, Node,
Branch, Loop, Mesh
Define Series and Parallel Connections
Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
Describes the currents at a connection
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
DC vs. AC
Thomas Edison
(February 11, 1847 October 18, 1931)
Nicola Tesla
10 July 1856 7 January 1943
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Voltage, Current, and Resistance
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Constant Voltage Source
Examples of Constant Voltage Sources:
Car Battery supplies
constant 12V to power the
lights and accessories
Solar Cell used to convert
light into electricity to power
this toy robot creates 0.5V
constant voltage.
AA Battery used in a
flashlight to supply a
constant 1.5V.
Rechargeable Battery
supplies 3.7V to power
the cell phone
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Constant Voltage Source
Produces a constant voltage that
is not affected by connections to
other components
Mathematical Model:
Voltage is Constant
Current
o Current is determined by
connections to other
components
o Can supply any current
Voltage
Behavior:
Constant > no change over time
Time
Symbol:
+
+

vS
or
vS
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Constant Voltage Source
What does it do when connected to other components?
Case 1:
Case 2:
Does work to move electrons and
supply energy to the rest of the
electric circuit
The electric circuit does work to
charge the battery
Current results from this connection
Current results from this connection
+

vS

Electric
Circuit
+

vS
Battery
Charging
Circuit
Note: We will have to solve the entire circuit in order
to know the amount of current.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Constant Current Source
Examples of Constant Current Sources:
Welder supplies constant
current to create the heat
needed to fuse metal pieces.
Cell Phone charger
supplies constant current at
the beginning of a fullcharge cycle.
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Behavior:
Produces a constant current that is
not affected by connections to other
components
Mathematical Model:
Current is Constant
Voltage
o Voltage is determined by
connections to other
components
o Can supply any voltage
Current
Constant Current Source
Constant > no change over time
Time
Symbol:
is
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Constant Current Source
What does it do when connected to other components?
Does work to move electrons and supply energy to the rest of the electric
circuit
A voltage can be
measured across +
v
the current
source as a result of this
connection
is
Electric
Circuit

Note: We will have to solve the entire circuit in
order to know the amount of voltage.
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Resistor
Examples of Resistors:
The Heating Element of a
toaster (the part that gets hot)
resists the flow of electrons and
gets hot.
An extension cord is used
to connect appliances and
has very low resistance.
The resistance of the extension cord is not zero and can be
significant depending on the application.
The Filament in a light bulb
(the part that produces light)
resists the flow of electrons and
gets very hot to produce light.
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Behavior:
Constant relationship between
voltage and current.
Current
Resistor
1
slope =
R
is constant.
Voltage
Mathematical Model:
Constant R summarizes material
properties, temperature, and size.
Ohms Law relates the voltage
and current using R:
v = iR
Symbol:
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Resistor
What does it do when connected to other components?
Resists the flow of electrons. A resistor removes energy from the circuit
and dissipates it as heat.
Current results from this connection
A voltage can be
measured across
the resistor as a
result of this
connection
+i
v
Electric
Circuit
Note: We will have to solve the entire circuit in order to
know either the voltage or the current. We do know that
voltage and current are related by Ohms Law as v = iR
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Application of Ohms Law
R is a circuit model of a physical material that
has length, width, height, and property of
conductivity that constitute the resistance.
Examples (given same size):
+
v
Copper wire (low resistance)
R

Nichrome wire (medium resistance)
Gold wire (low resistance)
Insulation on wire (high resistance)
For the current referenced into a voltage drop as shown
v=iR
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Application of Ohms Law
Must adjust the sign (+/) in Ohms law for other referenced directions,
i
+
v
v=  iR
v= iR
This is the standard
convention
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Example 1: Applying Ohms Law given fixed voltage and
current references
2A
2A
2A
+
v
10
v= iR
= 2A(10)
= 20V
10
v=  iR
= (2A)(10)
= 20V
10
+
v= iR
= (2A)(10)
= 20V
These are all the same circuit. 2A goes into the resistor from the top and there is a
20 V drop from top to bottom.
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Open and Short Circuits
Open Circuit:
Short Circuit:
No current can flow, ~ infinite R
No resistance to current flow, ~ zero R
Current
No Current
+
v
Resistance is
Electric
Circuit
+
v
Resistance
is zero
NO voltage can be
measured across
the opening
NO voltage can be
measured across
the short
Electric
Circuit
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Switch
Examples of Switches:
Switch on the wall turns
the lights on or off.
Switch on the coffee
maker turns the appliance
on or off.
Each button on the phone
or key on the keyboard is
a Switch.
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Switch
Behavior:
Can stop or allow the flow of current.
Mathematical Model:
No current flows when the switch
is open.
Current flows freely when switch
is closed.
Symbol:
20
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Switch
What does it do when connected to other components?
Connects or disconnects part of the circuit
Open:
Closed:
Acts like an open circuit
Acts like a short circuit
Current
No Current
Electric
Circuit
v=0V
Electric
Circuit
NO voltage can be
measured across
the opening
NO voltage can be
measured across
the switch
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Connect Components to Create an Electric Circuit
Example: Connect a battery and a resistor to build a
portable light.
1.5A
1.5V
1.5V
1.5A
Device: Flashlight
Circuit Model
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Electric Circuit (Electric Network)
Connection of Components
Terms to describe the connection of components
Terminal
Node
Branch
Learning a new
Loop
vocabulary !
Mesh
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Electric Circuit Connections
Terminal point where a component or part of the
circuit connects to other components or other parts of
These internal
the circuit
connections are
+
+

v1
R Terminals
not the terminals
v1of the connected
components.
R1
R2
Each element alone
has two terminals
+

v1
R1
R2
R3
A connection of
components has terminals
R3
R4
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Electric Circuit Connections
Node connection point
R1
Pick a point and call it the node
R1
R2
R3
Electrically anywhere
in here is the
connection point
R4
R3
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Example: Identify Nodes
Label the nodes in the circuit.
+

v1
Electrically,
anywhere along
the wires in this
area is the
connection point
R1
R2
R3
Pick a point and
call it the node
Note that this connection
is an electrical circuit and
could be a model for a
system such as the
electrical system in a car
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Electric Circuit Connections
Branch portion of a circuit with only two external
terminals
t
1
t1
+

v1
terminals
t2
R1
t3
Each element is a branch.
The connection between
t1 and t3 is also a branch
t4
R1
+

v1
t2
R2
t3
Each element is a branch. The
connection is NOT a branch
because it has 3 external terminals
t1 , t3, and t4 and three
components connect at t2 .
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Example 4: Identify Branches
Find branches in the circuit.
First identify the nodes.
40V +
4
2
Each of the components are individually a branch, 8
components means 8 branches.
There is a branch containing the 40V source and the 3
and 1 resistors the connection has two terminals.
The branch at the right has two terminals that connect this
subcircuit to the rest of the circuit.
28A
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Parallel Connection
Elements of a circuit which share the same two nodes
v1
Electrically,
anywhere along
the wires in this
area is the
connection point
+

i1
R1
R2
R3
Pick a point and
call it the node
All components of the circuit connect to the same two
nodes and are therefore in parallel.
We often use the symbol  to indicate that elements
are in parallel, here v1  i1  R1  R2  R3
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Example 5: Indentify Parallel Elements
Which elements in the circuit are connected in parallel?
First indentify the nodes.
40V +
The branch containing
the 40V source and the
3 and 1 resistors is
in parallel with 6
resistor
28A
4 and 28A source are
in parallel.
No other individual
components are in parallel
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Electric Circuit Connections
Loop a closed connection of branches
Mesh a loop that does not contain other loops
R1
+

v1
R4
R2
R5
R3
How many nodes?
How many meshes?
How many loops?
2+1=3
The two meshes plus the
third exterior loop
Form a closed connection of branches by starting at a node and
traversing the circuit until we get back to the starting node.
Cannot use the same node twice.
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Example 6: Identify nodes, loops, meshes
N2
N1
N3
R1
+

v1
R2
i1
v2
R3
R5
+

R4
N4
How many nodes?
How many meshes?
4
5
How many loops? 5 + +
What is not a loop? A path that crosses the same node twice
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
Equal amounts of charge enter and exit a node.
Algebraic sum of currents
into and out of a node is
N
zero:
i 0
n 1
Convention 1: Current labeled as pointing into a
node is given a negative sign in the summation and
current labeled as pointing out of the node is
positive.
Convention 2: Current labeled as pointing into a
node is given a positive sign in the summation and
current labeled as pointing out of the node is
negative.
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Example 7: Applying KCL
Find i3 in terms of the other currents.
Node
i1
i2
Using Convention 1:
4
n 1
(i out of node +)
i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0
Solve for i3:
i3 i1 i2 i4
Using Convention 2:
4
i3
n 1
(i out of node )
i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0
Solve for i3: i3 i1 i2 i4
i4
Both conventions yield the
same result. We will
generally use Convention 1
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Example 7 (cont): Applying KCL
Node
i1
Given:
i2
i3
i1 5A
i2 3A
i4
i4 2A
Find
i3:
Note: i2 = 3A means
that the current actually
flows in the direction
opposite to the arrow
n 1
(i out of node +)
i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0
i3 i1 i2 i4 (5 A) 3 A (2 A)
0A
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Example 8: Applying KCL
Same problem with some of the current directions
changed. Find i3 in terms of the other currents.
Using Convention 1:
4
n 1
(i out of node +)
Using Convention 2:
n 1
(i out of node )
i2
i1
i3
i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0
Solve for i3: i3 i1 i2 i4
Node
i 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 0
Solve for i3: i3 i1 i2 i4
i4
Both conventions yield the
same result. We will
generally use Convention 1
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Example 9: Applying KCL in a Circuit
Apply KCL at each node.
Identify the nodes in the circuit and label.
N1
+

i4
R4
v1
R1
i1
is
R2
i2
R3
i3
N2
KCL at Node 1 :
5
at Node 2:
i 0 iS i1 i2 i3 i4 0
i 0 iS i1 i2 i3 i4 0
n 1
(i out of node +)
5
n 1
(i out of node +)
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 9 (cont): Applying KCL in a Circuit
If we knew some actual values:
iS 5A , i1 i2 i3 1A
Node 1:
2:
5A 1A 1A 1A i4 0 i4 2A
5A 1A 1A 1A i4 0 i4 2A
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Example 10: Solving a Circuit Using KCL
What is the current through the 5resistor?
5A
15A
1
ia
8A
+
5
va
We need to solve for ia.
Identify the nodes in the circuit and apply KCL to create equations to solve for ia.
KCL at the
top node
yields:
i 0 5 A 15 A 8 A ia 0
n 1
ia 5 A 15 A  8 A 12 A
(i out of node 1)
Once we know the current in a resistor,
we can use Ohms law to find the voltage:
Here we only
needed to write 1
equation and solve
for the 1 unknown.
va ia R 12 A 5 60V
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Series Connections
Elements of a circuit connected so that the current out
of one component goes into the next.
3
40V +
4
2
We say that the 40V source, the 3 resistor, and the 1
resistor are connected in series.
28A
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Example 11: Show that series components have the same current.
N1
40V
N2
N3
ia
+

ib
N4
ic
28A
4
2
N5
N6
Write KCL equations at nodes N1 and N4:
N1 :
n 1
(i out of node +)
i 0 ia ib 0
ia ib ic
N 24 :
n 1
(i out of node +)
i 0 ib ic 0
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Summary
Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source
Current Source
Switch
DC Lecture 1 DC Circuit Components,
Connections, and KCL
Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel same voltage
Series same current
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit
Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
oCurrents
oPower
Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Cypria
Andrew Mount
Joshua Mount
Neeraj Gohad
Description:
Pseudo colored electron
micrograph of the cyprid larvae
of barnacle (Amphibalanus
amphitrite). The golden colored
tissue bordering the antennule
opening is a chloride transport
epithelium. Its supposed
involvement is helping the cyprid
to settle and metamorphose into
a juvenile barnacle.
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 Lecture 2
KCL and KVL
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
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Overview of DC Electric Circuits
Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source
Current Source
Switch
Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit
Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 2 KCL and
oCurrents
KVL
oPower
oEnergy
Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Why Do We Perform Circuit Analysis?
We analyze a circuit or solve a circuit in order to
identify the currents, voltages, and power
consumption in the circuit.
Circuits are analyzed by application of the three laws:
Ohms law
Kirchoffs current law
Kirchoffs voltage law
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Why Do We Perform Circuit Analysis?
To Understand Real Devices Such as a Strain Gauge
Sense changes in length (temp, force, ..)
cv
cv
http://www.societyofrobots.com/images/sensors_ftstraingauge.jpg
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Why Do We Perform Circuit Analysis?
To Understand Real Devices Such as a Strain Gauge
Wheatstone Bridge
Measurement Circuit
Knee Implant Sensor
http://www.medgadget.com/ar
chives/2006/11/wireless_sens
or.html
At start: R1R4 = R2R3
After surface strain: R1, R4 and R2, R3 va and vb
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Reminder: KCL
Net flow of current out of a node is zero.
currents out of the
node are positive
in 0
A negative sign is
used to account for a
current that has a
reference direction
pointing into the
node.
Algebraic sum
Reference direction
out of node +
i2
Na
i1
Reference direction
into node 
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Example 1: Use KCL to Solve Circuit
Given: v2=4V
Find i3
Nd
Note: When talking about a voltage or
current a reference direction must be
given.
i5
+ v2 
+ v5 
1A
10V
i1
2 i2
Na
i3
Nc
Nb
i4
Other voltages and currents are assumed
(arbitrary) in order to analyze the circuit.
Label all nodes to see that we could apply KCL at node c in order to find i3.
Write KCL at node c
i3
i1
Nc
i4
n 1
(i out of node +)
i 0 i1 i3 i4 0
i3 i1 i4
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Example 1 (cont): Use KCL to Solve Circuit
Apply KCL at node b
i5
Nd
+ v5 
i2
1A
10V
i1
Nb
2
i4
n 1
(i out of node +)
Apply KCL at node d
i5
Nd
i1
Na
Nc
2 i2
+ v2 i3
Nb
i4
i i2 i4 0
i2 i4
2
n 1
(i out of node +)
The two resistors are on
the same branch and have
the same current
i i1 i5 0
i1 i5
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Example 1 (cont) : Use KCL to Solve Circuit
Substituting
Nd
i2 i4
i3 i1 i2
i1 is the current
in the current
source
v2 i2 R 2
Na
+ v5 
1A
1 equation with 3 unknowns, use given
information to reduce the unknowns:
Ohms Law
for 2 resistor
i5
10V
i1
v2
4V
i2
2A
R 2 2
i1 1A
Substitute
and solve:
i3 1A+2A = 1A
Nc
i2
+ v2 i3
i4
Nb
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Example 2: Doover of Example 1
Given: v2=4V
Find i3
Solution: Write KCL at node a
Na i 2
i5
Nd
i5
Na
+ v5 
1A
10V
i1
Nc
i3
We can see that i1 describes the current in the branch containing the
resistor and current source.
i i5 i3 i2 0
out of Node a are
positive
i3 i5 i2
i3 i1 i2
(same)
i2
+ v2 i3
Nb
i4
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Example 2 (cont): Doover of Example 1
i3 i1 i2
Nd
1 equation with 3 unknowns, use given
information to reduce the unknowns:
Ohms Law
for 2 resistor
i1 is the current
in the current
source
Substitute
and solve:
Na
+ v5 
1A
10V
i1
v2 i2 R 2 i2
i1 1A
i5
v2
4V
2A
R 2 2
+ v2 i3
Nc
(same)
(same)
i3 1A+2A=1A
i2
Same result !
Nb
i4
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Voltage Is a Relative Measure
Voltage describes work done to move charge (battery)
or the work done by moving charge (light bulb).
In a circuit it is the work done to move charge
between 2 points
Must label 2 points in the circuit to describe a voltage
One side with 
N
N
N
One side with + N
3
+

v1
N5
v2
v3
v4
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Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
Sum of the voltage drops around a closed path is zero
N
voltage drops in the
clockwise direction
are positive
vn 0
Algebraic sum
A negative sign is
used to account for a
voltage rise.
Alternatively, we could
consider voltage rises as
positive. Either way works but
we must be consistent
Alternatively, we could have used
the counter clockwise direction.
Must be consistent
In this second case, a
negative sign is assigned to
voltage drops
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Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
N
voltage drops in the
clockwise direction
are positive
vn 0
Algebraic sum
A negative sign is
used to account for a
voltage rise.
A voltage rise means you enter from the  and leave from the + in the
direction of the loop. A voltage drop means you enter from the + and
leave from the .
v1
In the CW direction, enter the + terminal
and leave from  > voltage drop > +
D1
CW Direction
D2
v2
In the CW direction, enter the  terminal and
leave from + > voltage rise > 
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Example 3: Application of KVL (Ex. 2.6)
Given v1=6V,
v4=1V, vs=12V
Find v2
Di device could be a
resistor or something else v
S
vi are the component
voltages
N1
+ v1
D1
KVL Loop 1
 N2
KVL Loop 3
+ v2
D2
N3
KVL Loop 2
D3
v3
+

D4
v4
N4
1. Recognize that D2 and D3 have the same two nodes parallel
2. How many loops in the circuit? three
3. How many loops include v2? Two, Loop 1 and Loop 2
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Example 3 (cont): Application of KVL (Ex. 2.6)
KVL Loop 1
+ v1
N1
+ v2
D2
 N2
D1
D3
vS
v3
N3
+

D4
v4
N4
Apply KVL to Loop 1
Traverse Loop 1 in the clockwise (CW) direction
Use the convention that voltage rises ( to +) will be negative
while voltage drops (+ to ) will be positive
4
v v v v v 0
i 1
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Example 3 (cont): Application of KVL (Ex. 2.6)
N1
+ v1
D1
KVL Loop 1
 N2
+ v2
D2
N3
KVL Loop 2
vS
D3
v3
+

v4
D4
N4
v2 vS  v1  v4 12V 6V1V=5V
Substitute
and solve:
How would I apply KVL to Loop 2? Could I ?
2
v v v 0
i 1
v 2 v3
Parallel elements have the
same voltage
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Parallel Connections
Elements of a circuit which share the same nodes also
have the same voltage.
Use KVL to show that the voltage across all
parallel elements is the same.
N1
L1:
+

v1
KVL
Loop 1
N2
v2
v3
KVL
Loop 2
+

v v1 v2 0 v2 v1
v v2 v3 0 v2 v3
v v1 v3 0 v1 v3
drops, CW
L 2:
drops, CW
L3:
drops, CW
KVL Loop 3
v1 v2 v3
Parallel elements have the
same voltage
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Example 4: Clarification of Parallel Elements
N1
40V +
N6
N2
N3
+
v40
1 
+
40
5
N5
v4

28A
N4
Example of Parallel Elements: 4 and 28A source are in parallel.
New Question: If v40 = v4 does that mean that the 4 resistor and the 40 are
in parallel?
Answer: NO, they must also share the same two nodes to be in parallel.
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Example 5: Use of KVL to Solve A Circuit
RR
You are given this:
vS 12V
vs
vR 5V
KVL loop 1
RL
What is vL?

KVL
N
drops, CW
vn 0
vR
vL
vn v S v R v L 0
drops, CW
vL vS vR 12V(5V)=7V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
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Example 6: Use of KVL to Solve A Circuit (a little more
complicated)
Na
Nd
If v2 = 4V, what is vc?
1A
10V
RC
vn 10V v2 vC 0
drops, CW
vC v2 10V=  (4V) +10V = 6V
KVL loop 1
Nc
Apply KVL to Loop abc
v2
+
6V +
vc
Nb
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
65
Example 7: Use of KVL & KCL Together to Solve a Circuit
Na i1 2
32V
v1
Nb
v3
i3
v2
i2 Nc
20V
Since we are given the source
voltages and resistance values, we
want the current in each branch and
the voltage across each element.
Nd
Steps:
1. Label nodes
2. Label and assign directions for the current in each branch
(arbitrary)
3. Assign unknown element voltages in terms of the arbitrary
assignments made for currents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
66
Example 7 (cont): Use of KVL & KCL Together to Solve a
Circuit
Na
1) KCL at node b:
i i1 i2 i3 0
out of node b
i1
+ v 1
8
32V
KVL loop 1
Nd
2) KVL around loop 1:
vn 32V v1 v3 0
drops, CW
3) From Ohms law we see that:
4) Combine 2) and 3) to get:
Nb
v1 2i1 and v3 8i 3
2i1 (0i2 ) 8i3 32V
v3
v2
i2 Nc
+
20V
i3 KVL loop 2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
67
Example 7 (cont): Use of KVL & KCL Together to Solve a
Circuit
Na
i1
+ v1 
5) KVL around loop 2:
KVL loop 1
Nd
vn v2 20V v3 0
drops, CW
6) From circuit we see that:
7) Combine 5) and 6) to get:
32V
Nb
v2 4i 2 and v3 8i 3
(0i1 ) 4i2 8i3 20V
+
v3

i3
i2
Nc
v2 +
20V
KVL loop 2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
How to Get the Solution?
Three equations with three unknowns gives us a system of simultaneous equations
which are:
i1 i2 i3 0
2i1 (0i2 ) 8i3 32V
(0i1 ) 4i2 8i3 20V
This system of equations can be solved by:
1. Substitution
2. Cramers rule
3. A calculator such as TI 89
4. MATLAB, EXCEL, MAPLE
68
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
69
Solution by Cramers Rule (see pp10831085 of book)
Determinant
D3
D1
D2
i1
; i2
; i3
D
D
D
1 1 1
A Matrix
D 2 0
0 4
1 1 1 1 1
8 D 2 0
8 2 0
8 0 4
0 4
(1)(0)(8) (1)(8)(0) ( 1)(2)(4)
56
(4)(8)(1) (8)(2)(1) (0)(0)(1)
(1)
0 1 1
0 1 1 0 1
A Matrix with b
replacing first
D1 32 0 8 D1 32 0 8 32 0 224 i1 4A
column
20 4 8
20 4 8 20 4
1 0 1
1 0 1 1 0
A Matrix with b
replacing second D2 2 32 8 D2 2 32 8 2 32 56 i2 1A
column
0 20 8
0 20 8 0 20
1 1 0
1 1 0 1 1
A Matrix with b
replacing third
D3 2 0 32 D3 2 0 32 2 0 168 i3 3A
column
0 4 20
0 4 20 0 4
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Solution Using TI 89 Calculator
i1 i2 i3 0
2i1 (0i2 ) 8i3 32V
(0i1 ) 4i2 8i3 20V
TI89 Titanium
zeros x y z , 2 x 8 z 32, 4 y 8 z 20 , x, y, z
ans =
4.0000
1.0000
3.0000
i1
i
2
i3
70
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Solution Using a Matrix Approach
Three equations with three unknowns gives us a system of simultaneous equations
which are:
i1 i2 i3 0
2i1 (0i2 ) 8i3 32V
(0i1 ) 4i2 8i3 20V
These can be written in
matrix form Ai=b as:
1i1 1i2
2i 0i
2
1
0i1 4i2
1i3
8i3
8i3
1 1 1
2 0 8
0 4 8
i1
0
i
2
32
i3
20
71
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
72
Solution Using a Matrix Approach
i1
i
2
i3
4
1 A
i1 = 4 A
i2 = 1 A
i3 = 3 A
By Ohms law:
v1
v
2
v3
2
i1 8
4 i 4 Volts
2
8 i3 24
v1 = 8 V
v2 = 4 V
v3 = 24 V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Solution Using a Matrix Approach  MATLAB Software
General Problem: Ax=b
General Solution: x=A1b where A1 is matrix inverse.
(MATLAB is available for all students to install, license works on
campus or by VPN)
73
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Solution Using a Matrix Approach  MATLAB Software
User Input
>> A=[1 1 1; 2 0 8; 0 4 8]
1 1 1
A= 2 0 8
0 4 8
>> b=[0;32;20]
0
b = 32
20
User MATLAB
output
>> inv(A)*b
ans =
4.0000
1.0000
3.0000
i1
i
2
i3
74
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
75
Solution Using a Matrix Approach  MS Excel
Result
4
1
Enter the coefficients
and constants
Select an area the same size as the constants (3 rows, 1 col)
Click on the formula bar and enter = mmult(minverse(A2:C4),E2:E4)
Then simultaneously press Control, shift and enter.
i1
i
2
i3
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary
Ohms Law: v = iR. The current flow is proportional
the voltage
Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL):
in = 0
The algebraic sum of currents at a node must equal
zero.
Use: Sum of the currents out of a node = 0
Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL):
vi = 0
The algebraic sum of the voltage drops around a closed
loop must equal zero.
Use: Sum of the voltage drops around a CW loop = 0
We use these basic laws to solve a circuit
76
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Calculated Chaos
Eric Fenimore
Description:
The creation of fireworks
involves knowledge of
chemistry (what materials to
include to get the desired
colors), physics/dynamics,
and artistry (what colors,
shapes, patterns, and sounds
should the firework emit such
that it is enjoyable to watch).
This picture is an extremely
clear, focused closeup of the
instant when a firework is
detonating.
77
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 Lecture 3
Power and Energy and Equivalent Resistance
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering Clemson University
78
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
79
Overview of DC Electric Circuits
Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source
Current Source
Switch
Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit
Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 3 Power and
oCurrents
Energy and Equivalent
Resistance oPower
oEnergy
Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Power in Electric Circuits
p vi W
i
Convention
Watts
This is the power dissipated by
the element when voltage and
current are drawn as shown.
v

generic
component
Interpretation: If p > 0 then the device consumes power
If p < 0 then the device supplies power
80
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
81
Example 1: Using the Sign Convention in Power Calculations
Find power consumed by
each component
i
+
v

i 2A
v 5V
p vi 10 W
dissipates
power
i 2A
+ v 5V
p vi
v
5V2A
10 W
device supplies
power, e.g. battery
i 2A
+ v 5V
Because of labeling
p vi
5V 2A
dissipates power 10 W
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
American Wire Gauge (AWG)
82
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
83
Example 2: Power Loss in a Wire
One gauge wire has a resistance of 0.1239/1000ft. Assume 2,000 ft and 1A
current. What is voltage drop along the wire and power consumed by the wire?
i 1A
+
v

V=IR = 1A(0.2478) = 0.2478V
P=VI= (0.2478V)(1A) = 0.2478W
R=2,000ft (0.1239 / 1000ft)
= 0.2478
This is the amount of power
given off from the wire as heat
Simplified two
steps into one
Repeat for 16 gauge wire
4.016/1000ft R = 8.032
Note: 16 gauge
wire is a smaller
diameter than 1
gauge
p=vi and v=iR
p i2 R
(1A) 2 9 9W
Also
p=vi and i=v/R
v2
p
R
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 3: Power Calculation Components Can Supply or
Consume Power
R
(very small,
ignore)
200 mA
R
(very small,
ignore)
1.5V Nominal but it has been
discharged so we dont actually
know this voltage
1.5V
Quick Charge Pack
Cell Phone Battery
For the charger pack:
pconsumed vi 1.5V (200mA) 300mW
For the cell phone battery:
pconsumed vi 1.5V (200mA) 300mW
The charger supplies
power to the circuit
and the cell phone
battery consumes
(stores) that power.
84
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
85
Example 4: Power Calculation Interpreting the Sign of the
Power
Find power consumed by each component
if v1 4V, v2 2V vR 2V, i 0.2A :
pv1 vi (0.2A)(4V) 0.8W (supplies power)
pR i 2 R (0.2A) 2 (10) 0.4W (consumes power)
pv2 vi (0.2A)(2V) 0.4W (consumes power)
Find power consumed by each component
if v1 4V, v2 2V vR 6V, i 0.6A
(None of the reference directions have changed)
pv1 vi (4V)( 0.6A) 2.4W (supplies power)
pR i 2 R (0.6A) 2 (10)
pv2 vi (2V)( 0.6A)
3.6W (consumes power)
1.2W (supplies power)
10
i
+
v1
vR
v2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
86
Energy in Electric Circuits
Energy consumed
tf
E p d p t f p t0 vit
t0
Given constant power
Constant voltage and current
Units
Joules = Ws = VAs VAh >Ah
When the voltage is Implied
s = seconds
h = hours
Example: 5000 mAh for a
remote control car where 12V is
implied
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 5: Energy Calculation
A 12V battery is rated at 1500 mAh. How long can it
power a 10W load?
Realize E 12V(1500mAh) 18VAh
Then using E pt solve for t as
E 18VAh
t
1.8h
p
10W
87
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
88
Resistors in Series
Series Resistors are on the Same Branch > Same Current
Summing voltage drops around mesh 1:
4
m1
+
v1 R 1
+
v2 R 2
+
v3 R 3

v
n=1
= v v1 v2 v3 = 0
Result 1: The total voltage across all of the
resistors gets divided (split) between the
individual resistors:
v v1 v2 v3
Voltage Divider
Result 2: Using Ohms law for each R, the
voltage and current for the whole resistor
branch is related to the sum of the individual
resistances
v i R 1 i R 2 iR 3
i (R 1 +R 2 +R 3 )
Circuit Reduction
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
89
Resistors in Series Voltage Divider
Continuing from previous slide, solve for i
v
i
R1 R 2 R 3
m1
+
v1 R 1
+
v2 R 2
+
v3 R 3

Write each resistor voltage:
R1
v
R1 R 2 R 3
R2
v2 iR 2
v
R 1 +R 2 +R 3
R3
v3 iR 3
v
R1 R 2 R 3
v1 iR 1
Rn
vn
v
R1 R 2 R 3
Each resistor voltage is
a scaled version of v
v is scaled or divided
between the resistors
This result is true for any number (N) of resistors in
series. Resistor voltage for the nth resistor is:
vn
Rn
R
k 1
Voltage Divider Equation
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Resistors in Series Circuit Reduction
i
m1
+
R
v1 1
+
v2 R 2
+
v3 R 3

i
v
R eq
From earlier slide:
v iR 1 iR 2 iR 3 i (R 1 +R 2 +R 3 ) iR eq
where
R eq R 1 +R 2 +R 3
From the voltage source point of view, there is no
difference between the 3 individual resistors in
series and one large resistor
We can redraw the circuit using a single
resistance
We have lost information about the individual
components, e.g. v1, v2, v3
This result is true for any number (N) of resistors in
series. Total resistance is:
N
R eq R k
k 1
Equation for Equivalent
Resistance of Series Resistors
90
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 6: Series Light String
i
+
v1 R 1 1
+
v2 R 2 1
+
R 100 1
v100

100V
Step 2: Individual bulb voltages
v1 iR1 1A(1) 1V= v2 = v3 =...v100
Check:
100
v
k 1
i
100V
v100
R eq
100V v1 v2 v3 ... v100 0V
Step 1: Find equivalent resistance and solve for
the current100
R eq R k 1 1. L 1 100
1
100V
i
1A
100
91
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Resistors in Parallel
Parallel Resistors Share the Same 2 Nodes > Same Voltage
Sum the currents at Node a
Na
i1
i2
R1
R2
i3
n 1
out of a
R3
Nb
in i i1 i2 i3 0
Result 1: The total current into all of the resistors
(i) gets divided (split) between the individual
resistors:
Current Divider
i i1 i2 i3
Result 2: Using Ohms law for each R, the voltage and current for the
whole resistor group is related to the sum of the individual resistances
v
v
v
R1 R 2 R 3
1
1
1
+
+ v
R
R
R 3
2
1
Circuit Reduction
92
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
93
Resistors in Parallel  Current Divider
i
Continuing from previous slide, solve for v in terms of i
Na
i1
i2
i3
R1
R2
R3
Nb
This result is true for any number
(N) of resistors in parallel. Resistor
current for the nth resistor is:
1
k 1 R k
in
Rn
N
Current Divider Equation
1
1
1
v
+
+
R
R
R 3
2
1
Write each resistor current:
1
1
1
+
+
v R 1 R 2 R 3
i1
R1
R1
1
1
1
+
+
R 1 R 2 R 3
v
i2
R2
R2
1
1
1
+
+
v R 1 R 2 R 3
i3
R3
R3
1
1
1
+
+
R
R
R
2
3
in 1
Rn
Each resistor current
is a scaled version of
i
i is scaled or
divided between
the resistors
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
94
Resistors in Parallel  Circuit Reduction
i
Na
i1
i2
R1
R2
From previous slide:
i3
R3
Nb
Na
R eq
Nb
v
R eq
where
1
1
1
+
+
R 1 R 2 R 3
R eq
From the voltage source point of view, there is
no difference between the 3 individual resistors in
parallel and one smaller resistor
We can redraw the circuit using a single
resistance
We have lost information about the
individual components, e.g. i1, i2, i3
This result is true for any number (N) of resistors in
parallel. Total resistance is:
N
1
1
R eq k 1 R k
Equation for Equivalent
Resistance of Parallel Resistors
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
95
Example 7: Parallel Light String
i
i100
i2
i1
R1
R2
100V
In each branch, what is the bulb resistance so
that pi = 1W?
v1
v12
p1 i1v1 v1
1W
R
R
1
1
v12
(100V) 2
R1
10k
1W
1W
i
100V
100
+
vR
i1
R eq
v1 100V
10 102 A 10mA
R 1 10k
Find equivalent resistance of the string and solve
for the current i 100
1
1
1
100
102 /
R eq k 1 R k
10k
R eq 100 i =
100V
1A
100
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
96
Example 8: Compare Series and Parallel Light Strings
i
100V
v1
R1 1
v2
R2 1
+
v100
100V
i1
i2
R1
R2
i100
100
R100 1
R eq 100 i =
100V
1A ptotal 100W
100
Same current and power >
from the Source Point of View,
there is no difference between
the series and parallel strings
R k 1 R k 10k
Parallel requires larger resistance
vk 1V vk 100V
Parallel resistor has higher voltage
ik 1A ik 10mA
Series resistor has higher current
pk 1W pk 1W
All bulbs consume the same power
String failure modes:
If one of the series bulbs breaks (opencircuit), then i = 0 for all bulbs.
If one of the parallel bulbs breaks (shortcircuit), then v = 0 for all bulbs.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Reducing Circuits Using Series and Parallel Equivalent
Resistances
A sequence of series and parallel reductions can be
used in a circuit.
Goal is to simplify the circuit without losing the
identity of the voltage or current of interest.
Procedure
1. Perform a reduction (series or parallel)
2. Redraw circuit
3. A reduction may create the opportunity for a new
reduction.
Repeat
97
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
98
Example 9: Use Both Series and Parallel Reductions to Find Req
Given : R 1 75, R 2 30, R 3 20
Find Req
Step1: R2 and R3 are in series:
R eq1 R 2 R 3 50
The circuit reduces to
Req1
Step 2 : R eq1 and R 3 are in parallel
R eq1
R eq
R eq
R eq
1
1
1
+
R 1 R eq1
75 50
75 50
R 1R eq1
R 1 +R 1eq
30
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
99
Example 10: Using Resistor Reductions to Simplify Circuit
Solution
Find i1 and i2
Given : R 1 75, R 2 30,
R 3 20
Combine R2 and R3 in series:
Req1 R2 R3 50
1A
R3
i1
i2
R2
R1
Req1
Use Current Divider:
1
1
1
1
1
R eq 30 = (7550)/(75 + 50)
R eq R1 R eq1 75 50
i1 = Req1/(R1+Req1) i = 50/(75+50) 1A
= 0.4
i2 = R1/(R1+Req1) i = 75/(75+50) 1A =
0.6
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
100
Example 10 (cont): Using Resistor Reductions to Simplify
Circuit Solution
Use current i2 and Ohms Law
vR2 i2 R 2 0.6 30 18V
vR3 i2 R 3 0.6 20 12V
Find vR2 & vR3
R3
1A
i1
R1
i2
vR 3
vR2
R2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
101
Example 11: Sequence of Series and Parallel Reductions to Find
Req
Find Req
R eq
From inspection:
Where:
xy
x y
x y
R eq R 1 +R 2 R 3 +R 4 R 5 +R 6
1
2
3
4
5
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 11 (cont): Sequence of Series and Parallel Reductions
to Find Req
Given: R 1 2
R 5 2
R 2 4
R 3 5
102
R 4 5
R 6 3
R 5 R 6 5
R 4 R 5 +R 6
5 5
55
2.5
R 3 R 4 R 5 +R 6 5 2.5 7.5
R 2 R 3 +R 4 R 5 +R 6
4 7.5
4 7.5
2.6
R eq R 1 +R 2 R 3 +R 4 R 5 +R 6 2 2.6 4.6
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
103
Potentiometer
Devices
that use
angle
sensing
Idea
Change resistance as
the shaft rotates
This is a
Voltage
Divider
Given
Angle
Circuit
Model
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
104
Potentiometer
Measurement
Measurement
and
and
Analog>
Analog>
Digital
Digital
Conversion
Conversion
Digital
Digital
Computer/
Computer/
Controller
Controller
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary
Power and Energy in DC Circuits
p=vi
For current through a voltage drop, p > 0 means
power is dissipated in the component and the
circuit supplies power to the component
For current through a voltage rise, p<0 means
power is supplied by the component and
component supplies power to the circuit.
In a resistor
v2
pi R
2
E=pt=vit
105
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary (cont)
Equivalent Circuits
The terminal behavior, voltage and current, is
unchanged
Series and parallel reductions can be used to create
simplified, electrically equivalent circuits.
Series resistors combine into an equivalent resistance as
N
R eq R k
k 1
Parallel resistors combine into an equivalent resistance
as
N
1
1
R eq
k 1
Rk
106
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary (cont)
Resistor Results
Series resistors divide a voltage .
Ex: for 2 resistors in series, voltage accross resistor 1 is
v1
R1
v
R1 R 2
Parallel resistors divide a current
Ex: for 2 resistors in parallel, current in resistor 1 is
1
1
R
R
2
i1 1
R1
R 1R 2
R R2
i 1
i
R1
107
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Bamboo Pipeworks
Holly Tuten
Description:
This photo shows a
mosquito breeding habitat in
a South Carolina zoological
park. While collecting
mosquito larvae, the canopy
above was photographed for
later analysis of canopy
coverage with graphic arts
software.
108
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 Lecture 4
The Node Voltage Method
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering Clemson University
109
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
110
Overview of DC Electric Circuits
Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source
Current Source
Switch
Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit
Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 4 The Node
oCurrents
Voltage Method
oPower
oEnergy
Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
111
Explosive Gas Sensor
Gas that
may be
explosive
Gas flows
through sensor
+
No Explosive Gas Present:
1. i heats the resistor (p=vi)
2. i reaches a constant value
Explosive Gas Present:
1. Gas burns on heated resistor > R gets even hotter
2. Heat increases R > i is now reduced (Ohms law)
3. Measure i and a change indicates an explosive gas present
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Creating Node Voltage References
A voltage must be measured between two points in a
circuit, we have been measuring across elements.
+ vR Another possibility: one node is chosen as the
reference point for all other voltages.
The Reference Node is marked by
The Reference Node often (but not required) has a
physical meaning in which case it is called a ground
All node voltages are shown relative to the
reference node.
112
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 1: Choosing a Reference Node and Labeling Node
Voltages
Label the Node Voltages in the Circuit
N1
Vehicle
12V
v1
v1
Frame of the
vehicle is a
conductor
N2
v1
v2
N3
v1
v3
N4
Could consider the frame as a
reference node in analysis
# of node voltages = # of nodes 1
Note: The dashed lines indicate that there are several parallel elements
connected between N1 and N4 and all have the same voltage.
113
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
114
The Node Voltage Approach
Solve the
entire circuit
using the Node
Voltage Method
Find
component
voltages
All
Node
Voltages
Specific
Component
Voltages
Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
current or
power
Current,
Power, etc
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Node Voltage Method Systematic Application of KCL
1. Label all n of the nodes and Select a Reference
node
2. Decide if the remaining n1 node voltages are
dependent or independent. A connected voltage
source will make a node dependent. Count the m
dependent nodes.
3. Write KCL equations at each of the n1m
independent nodes. Write m equations to relate
the dependent node voltages to the source
voltages.
4. Solve n1 equations.
115
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Preliminary  How to Write the Current at a Node Using Node
Voltages
v1
Nb
R1
Na
i1
R3
i2
R2
va
vb
Nd
+
i3
vd
KVL : va v1 vb 0
Solve to yield: v1 vb va
Reference
Node
116
vc
 Nc
v1 vb va
i1
R1
R1
Important Point: The R1 component current was written
in terms of the two node voltages (vb and va)
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Preliminary  How to Write the Current at a Node Using Node
Voltages
117
Now extend the result of the previous slide to any resistor in the circuit
i Out of node of interest
R
Adjacent
Node
+
vadjacent
Reference Node
Node of
Interest
KVL that includes Resistor of
Interest, Node of Interest,
and Adjacent Node
vR
+
vnode of interest
vk vadjacent vR vnode of Interest 0
drops ,CW
vR vnode of interest vadjacent
Ohms Law for Resistor of Interest
iout of node of interest
vR vnode of interest vadjacent
R
R
Can now apply this to all nodes and resistors in the
circuit without thinking about the sign convention
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Preliminary  How to Write the Current at a Node Using Node
Voltages
Special Case where adjacent node is the Reference Node
Adjacent
Node
Reference
Node

vR
iout of nodeR
of interest
Node of
Interest
+
vnode of interest
There is no adjacent
node in this case
KVL that includes Resistor of
Interest, Node of Interest,
and Adjacent Node
0V vR vnode of interest 0
vR vnode of interest
Ohms Law for Resistor of Interest
iout of node of interest
vR vnode of interest
R
R
Can now apply this to all nodes and resistors in the
circuit without thinking about the sign convention
118
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
119
Preliminary Applying KCL Using Node Voltages
Na
Nb
R2
Redraw to
emphasize
nodes
va
is
R3
R1
is
vb
is
R2
Na
+
i1
va
R1
Nb
i2
i3 +
R3
vb
Nc
Nc
# nodes 1  # voltage sources = n1 m = 310 = 2 KCL equations
i is
out of
node a
out of
node b
va va vb
0
R1
R2
vb vb  va
i
+
0
R3
R2
1
1
R 1 R 2
1
R2
R2
va
is
1
vb
1
0
R 2 R 3
Solve simultaneous equations to find the Node Voltages va and vb
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Node Voltage Method
We now know how do all of the steps in the Node
Voltage Method
1. Label all nodes and select Reference Node
# nodes = n
2. Identify dependent nodes (voltage sources)
# dependent nodes = m
3. Write n1m KCL eqns. + m eqns. to describe
dependent nodes (always need a total of n1
eqns)
4. Solve
120
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
121
Example 2: Straightforward NVM, 3 Nodes
1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node
R3
iout of node of interest
n=3
iout of nodeRof interest
2. Identify dependent nodes m=0
(voltage sources)
3. Write n 1 m = 2 KCL
eqns.
Na
iout of node of interest
iout of node of interest
va vb va vb va
va
i
i1
R3
R2
R1
out of node a
i1
vb va vb va vb
i
i2
R2
R3
R4
out of node b
1 1 1
R 1 R 2 R 3
4. Solve
R1
vb
i2

1 1
R 2 R 3 va i1
vb
i2
1 1 1 1 1
R 2 R 3 R 2 R 3 R 4
Nb
Nc
Reference
Node
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
122
Example 3: Four Nodes and a Dependent Source
1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node
vb
va
n=4
2. Identify dependent nodes m=1
(No KCL at node a)
vc
+

3. Write n1m=2 KCL eqns +
1 equation to describe dependent node
vb va vb vc vb
R1
R3
R2
out of node b
vc vb vc
i
is 0
R3
R4
out of node c
Reference
Node
4. Solve
va v s
1
R1
0
1
1
1
1
R
R
R
2
3
1
1
R3
0
1
R3
1
1
R 3 R 4
va
v
b
vc
0
i
s
vs
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
123
Example 4: NVM Complete Circuit Solution
Find voltage at nodes 1 and 2.
2. Identify dependent nodes
(voltage sources)
m=0
n=3
N2
1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node
N1
v1
v2
N3
3. Write n 1  m = 2 KCL eqns.
At node 1
v1
v1 v2
3A
0
2
2
At node 2
v2 v1
v2
2A
0
2
4
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 4 (cont): NVM Complete Solution
4. Solve
At node 1
2v1 v2 6
At node 2
2v1 3v2 8
Add
2 v2 2
v2 1V
v1 2.5V
124
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Using the method you have found all of the Node Voltages in the
circuit.
Any component voltage can be written using one or
two node voltages.
Solve the
entire circuit
using the Node
Voltage Method
Find
component
voltages
All
Node
Voltages
Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
current or
power
Component
Voltages
Current,
Power
125
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Component Voltage from Node Voltage
Use KVL and the labeled node voltages to find the
component voltages
100
v
+ R100 +
+
200
122
v100
v300
vR300
+

v400
+

...
300
...
v110
110
vR400 400
+
+
401
v401
This is a
very big
circuit
Find vR100:
KVL: v100+vR100+ v110=0
vR100=v100  v110
Find vR400:
KVL: v400vR400+v401=0
vR400=v400+v401
Find vR300:
KVL: v300vR300=0
vR300= v300
Only need one node voltage when
component is attached to reference node.
126
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
127
Use Component Voltages to Find Any Other Electrical Quantities
Ohms law, power equation, energy, etc.
Solve the
entire circuit
using the Node
Voltage Method
Find
component
voltages
All
Node
Voltages
Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
current or
power
Component
Voltages
Current,
Power
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
128
Example 5: NVM to Find Component Current
Find i using NVM.
1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node
vc
va
n=4
2. Identify dependent nodes m = 1
(voltage sources)
3. Write n1m=2 KCL eqns. + 1 equation
to describe dependent node
va va vb va vc
i
8
4
2
out of node a
vc v a
i 1A
0
2
out of node c
vb 20V
4. Solve
va 16V, vc 18V
5. Solve
va
i
2A
8
vb
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
129
Example 6: NVM to Find Component Current, 5 Nodes
Find current though the 10 resistor.
va
vb
vc
va
i10

1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node
n=5
vd
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
130
Example 6 (cont): NVM to Find Component Current, 5 Nodes
2. Identify dependent nodes
(voltage sources)
m=1
va
vb
vc
vd
i10
3. Write n1m=3 KCL
eqns. + 1 equation to
describe dependent node
vb va
vb
vb vc
i
2
10
9
out of node b
4. Solve
Could solve by computer or calculator as a
v c vb v c v c v d
i
0 system of 4 equations and 4 unknowns
9
4
8
out of node c
or
easily reduce to 2 unknowns and
v d vc
i
1A 0
2 equations by substituting for vb and v
8
and then solve by hand using
out of node d
c
va 40V
Cramers rule.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
131
Example 6 (cont): NVM to Find Component Current, 5 Nodes
4. Solve (cont)
After substitution:
64Vb 10Vc 1800
4Vb 13Vc 36
Cramers rule:
1800 10
36 13
vb
30V
64 10
4 13
Substitute to find vd:
64 1800
4
36
vc
12V
64 10
4 13
vc vd 9V
20V
8V vc 21V
8V 0 vd 9V
5. Solve
i 10 vb / 10 3A
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 6 (cont): NVM to Find Component Current, 5 Nodes
4. Solve (alternative)
Solve by computer or calculator as a
system of 4 equations and 4 unknowns
vb va
vb
vb vc
2
10
9
out of node b
vc vb vc vc vd
i
9
4
8
out of node c
v d vc
i
1A 0
8
out of node d
TI89
i
va 40V
45 64 10 0
0 8 35 9
0
0
1 1
1
0
0
0
Simultaneous Equations
Application
va
v
b
vc
vd
0
0
40
va
40
v
30
b V
vc
12
v
20
d
132
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
133
Example 7: More NVM Application Practice
+
Find i and vb
1. Label all nodes and
select Reference Node
n=3
2. Identify dependent nodes m=1
(voltage sources)
va
vb
3. Write n 1 m =1 KCL eqns. + 1
equation to describe dependent node
vb va
vb
i
4 0
4
6
Out of node b
va 4V
4. Solve
vb 12V
5. Solve
vb va
i
2A
4
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
134
Example 8: Even More NVM Application Practice
Find the voltage across the 40 resistor using
the NVM. Find the current through the 30 resistor.
2. Identify dependent nodes
(voltage sources)
n=4
1. Label all nodes and select
Reference Node
i30
v0
m=2
3. Write n 1 m = 1 KCL eqns. + 2 equations to
describe dependent nodes
KCL at node b:
vb va vb vb vc
i
10
40
20
Out of b
Voltages of Dependent nodes:
va 10V
vc 32V
i30
4. Solve
104
vb
14.8571V
7
5. Solve
v0 vb 14.8571V
v v
32 10 22
c a
0.73A
30
30
30
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
135
Example 8 (cont): Even More NVM Application Practice
Check: Use Node Voltages to Apply KCL at nodes
i10
v v
b a
10
14.8571 10
10
0.4857A
vc vb
20
32 14.8571
20
0.8571A
i20
i30 0.73A
b
i10 i30 1.219A
i10 i30 i40
i30 i20
14.8571
40
0.3714A
i40
d
i10 i30 i40
1.5904A
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
136
Example 8 (cont): Even More NVM Application Practice
p10V 10 1.219 12.19W
Check: Power
p32V 32 1.5904 50.8928W
p30 0.7333
p30 16.1333W
p10 2.3590W
p20 14.6924W
30 16.1333W
2
p20 0.8571 20 14.6924W
2
p40 0.3714 40 5.5175W
2
p10 0.4857 10 2.3590W
2
Sum all power >0
ptotal (consumed) 50.8922W
p40 5.5175W
p10V 12.19W
Absorbs Power
p32V 50.8928W
Delivers Power
Sum all power < 0
ptotal (delivered) 50.8928W
Check
ptotal ptotal (consumed) ptotal (delivered) 0
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
137
Summary
Node Voltage Method
Solve circuit using Kirchoffs current law to
find all Node Voltages
Use the Node Voltages to find any voltage, current,
power etc. in the solved circuit
Solve the
entire circuit
using the Node
Voltage Method
Find
component
voltages
Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
current or
power
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary (cont)
Steps of Node Voltage Method
1. Label all nodes and select Reference Node
# nodes = n
2. Identify dependent nodes (voltage sources)
# dependent nodes = m
3. Write n1m KCL eqns. + m eqns. to describe
dependent nodes (always need a total of n1
eqns)
4. Solve
5. Solve for component voltages and currents
138
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Close Encounter: Carbon
Nanotube Meets Protein
Sungho Choi & Kurt Geckeler
Description:
The computerassisted
illustration shows the product
of a carbon nanotube
interacting with a protein for
the first time. This novel class
of nanobiocomposites is
designed for biomedical and
sensor applications.
139
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307  Lecture 5
The Mesh Current Method
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
140
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
141
Overview of DC Electric Circuits
Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source
Current Source
Switch
Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit
Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 5 The Mesh
oCurrents
Current Method
oPower
oEnergy
Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Measuring Voltages and Current
A voltmeter/ammeter/ohmmeter is used
to measure voltage/current/resistance in
a real circuit. A $20 meter from the
hardware store is shown.
Voltage is measured between two
points. Here the voltmeter is used to
measure the voltage across the fuse.
va
R
A fuse is simply a resistor, if p=vi is too large
(too much current) the resistor cant dissipate
enough heat and the wire melts.
The ammeter must be put in series
with the fuse to measure current.
Be careful doing this!
142
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
143
Comparison of General Circuit Solution
Techniques
Recall the Node Voltage Approach
Solve the
entire circuit using
the Node Voltage
Method
Find
component
voltages
All
Node
Voltages
Specific
Component
Voltages
All
Mesh
Currents
Specific
Component
Currents
Solve the
entire circuit using
the Mesh Current
Method
Find
component
currents
The Mesh Current Approach
Find
other electrical
quantities such
as current or
power
Voltage,
Current,
Power, etc
Find
other electrical
quantities such
as voltage or
power
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Mesh Current Method (MCM)
Systematic application of KVL
Label all n of the mesh currents in a clockwise direction.
Decide if the each of the n mesh currents are dependent or
independent.
A current source will make a mesh dependent.
Count the m dependent meshes.
Write KVL equations at each of the n  m independent
meshes. Write m equations to relate the dependent mesh
currents to the source currents. Define a supermesh for
the special case of a shared current source
Solve the n equations
144
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
145
Reminder  Kirchhoffs Voltage Law
N
voltage drops in the
clockwise direction
are positive
vn 0
A negative sign is
used to account for a
voltage rise.
A voltage rise means you enter from the  and leave from the + in the
direction of the loop. A voltage drop means you enter from the + and
leave from the .
v1
In the CW direction, enter the + terminal
and leave from  voltage drop +
D1
CW Direction
D2
v2
In the CW direction, enter the  terminal and
leave from + voltage rise 
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
146
Preliminary  What is a Mesh Current?
Draw a Clockwise
Mesh Current around
each Mesh.
Some branches have
one mesh current
Some branches have
two mesh currents
In reality there is only one
current cant physically
separate the two.
i1
i4
i7
i2
i5
i8
i3
i6
i9
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
147
Preliminary Can Write All the Voltages In A Circuit Using
Mesh Currents
Case 1: Branch Current = Mesh Current
Mesh current is selected and used to describe voltages
across resistors
v2
+
KVL : vi v1 v2 v3 0
v drops in
CW direction
Using Ohms Law:
KVL : v1 iR 2 iR 3 0
+
+
+

Key to the Mesh Current Method: Write KVL equations
around all the meshes in the circuit using only constant sources,
resistances, and the mesh currents.
v3
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
148
Preliminary  Can Write All the Voltages using Mesh Currents
Case 2: Branch Current = Difference of Mesh Currents
Mesh currents are selected and used to describe voltages
across resistors
KCL:
i1 ix i2 0
out of
node a
i1
ix i1 i2
a i2
vx ix R 2 (i1 i2 )R 2
vx will be a voltage drop when writing KVL
around the i1 mesh: (i1i2)R2
vx will be a voltage rise when writing KVL
around the i2 mesh: (i1i2) R2= (i2i1)R2
+

i1
vx
ix
i2

ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
149
Preliminary  Can Write All the Voltages Using Mesh Currents
Case 2: (cont)
Writing the KVL equations using vx=(i1i2)R2
Since we are summing voltages, the voltage source is
an easy element to describe.
Drops in
Mesh 1
Drops in
Mesh 2
vn vs i1R 1 i1 i2 R 2 0
vn i2 i1 R 2 i2 R 3 i2 R 4 0
vx will be a voltage drop when writing KVL
around the i1 mesh
vx will be a voltage rise when writing KVL
around the i2 mesh
Now solve the 2 equations
for i1 and i2 to complete
the Mesh Current method.
i1
+

a
i1i
+
1
vx

i2
ix
i2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Preliminary  Can write all the voltages using Mesh Currents
Case 1 and Case 2 show that we can write any
resistor voltage in the circuit using one or two
mesh currents.
Now ready to apply the Mesh Current Method
(MCM)
150
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
151
Example 1: Set up Solution by Applying the Steps of the MCM
n=2
1. Label all meshes
+
2. Identify dependent meshes m=0
(current sources)
+
3. Write nm=2 KVL eqns.
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2
+
i1
vn V1 i1R1 V2 (i1 i2 )R 2 0
i2
Form for resistors in outside branch
Form for resistors in shared branch
vn V2 i2 R 3 V3 i2 R 4 (i2 i1 )R 2 0
General Form in a Mesh of Interest:
(imesh of interest  iadjacent)R
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
152
Example 1 (cont): Set up Solution by Applying the Steps of the
MCM
4. Solve
+

KVL Equations from previous slide:
vn V1 i1R 1 V2 (i1 i2 )R 2 0
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1
+

+
i1
i2
vn V2 i2 R 3 V3 i2 R 4 (i2 i1 )R 2 0
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2
Solve by any means, example of matrix solution:
R 2
R1 +R 2
R
R
+R
+R
2
2
3
4
i1
i
2
V1 V2
V2 V3
i1
i
2
(would need actual
values for the
voltage sources and
resistors to solve)
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
153
Example 2: Solve the circuit by applying the Steps of the MCM.
3
1. Label all meshes
n=2
2. Identify dependent meshes m=0
(current sources)
4V
3V
4
2V
3. Write nm=2 KVL eqns.
1V
5V
i1
i2
vn 1V 2i1 6(i1 i2 ) 3V 5V 5(i1 i2 ) 2V 1i1 0
vn 4V 4i2 6V 5(i2 i1 ) 5V 3V 6(i2 i1 ) 3i2 0
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2
4. Solve
14 11
11 18
i1
i
2
1V
4V
i1
0.2
A
0.34
i2
6V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
154
Example 3: One of the branches has a current source
1. Label all meshes
n=2
2. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=1
3. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation in the
dependent loop
i1 1A
vn 5V 4k i2 0
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2
4. Solve
i2 1.25x103 A
i1 1A
5V
1A
i1
4k
i2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
155
Example 4: One of the branches has a current source (a little
more difficult)
1. Label all meshes
n=2
2. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=1
4k
1A
5V
3. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation in the
dependent loop
i1
i1 1A
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2
4. Solve
Divided by in bottom
equation to make the
units consistent
vn 5V 4k i2 i1 0
0
4000 4000
i1
i
2
i2
1A
5A
1.0
i1
A
1.001
i2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
156
Example 5: Two Meshes Share a Current Source (most difficult)
1. Label all meshes
n=2
2. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=1
3. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation for
the dependent mesh
We have two problems:
1. The model of a current source does not
relate voltage and current cant write
KVL directly ????
2. Cant write that i1 or i2 is equal to the
value of the current source (as in the
previous example) since both go through
it.
4k
+
4k
vx
i1
5V
1A
i2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
157
Example 5 (cont) : Two Meshes Share a Current Source (most
difficult)
4k
1. Label all meshes
n=2
2. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=1
3. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation for the
dependent loop
Solution:
Change one of the
meshes into a supermesh that circles the
two meshes of interest.
+
4k
vx

5V
1A
i1
i2
.What did that change?
Now we can say the i2 is
the current in the current
source.
Proceed with Step 3 of the
MCM using these loops.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
158
Example 5 (cont) :Two Meshes Share a Current Source (most
difficult)
1. Label all meshes
n=2
2. Identify dependent meshes m=1
Create
(current sources)
supermesh
3. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation for
the dependent loop
4k
4k
5V
1A
i1
i2
vn 4k i1 4k i1 i2 5V 0
drops super mesh 1
i2 1A
4. Solve
4k ( 1A) 5V
i1
0.499A
8k
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
159
Using the Mesh Current Method You Have Found All of the
Mesh Currents in the Circuit.
Any branch current can be written using one or two
mesh currents.
Solve the
entire circuit
using the Mesh
Current Method
Find
component
currents
All
Mesh
Currents
Specific
Component
Currents
Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
voltage or
power
Voltage,
Power
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Component (Branch) Current from Mesh Current
i101
i102
i103
Find ia:
ia= i201  i102
i203
Find ib:
ib= i301  i302
ia
id
i200
i201
ic
i300
i301 ib
This is part
of a very
big circuit
i302
Find ic:
ic= i301  i201
Find id:
id = i200
Only one current
needed at the edge of
the circuit
160
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
161
Example 6: Apply the MCM Solution
Given that you have already solved the circuit:
i1
i
2
i3
0.5A
0.95A
0.55A
ia
i3
Find the Branch Currents
Shown:
ib i2 i3 0.95A 0.55A
ic i2 0.95A
id i1 i2 0.5A 0.95A
ie i1 i3 0.5A 0.55A
i f i1 0.5A
if
ib
ie
+

i1
id
+

ia i3 0.55A
i2
ic
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
162
Use Component Currents to Find Any Other Electrical Quantities
Ohms law, power equation, energy, etc.
Solve the
entire circuit
using the Mesh
Current Method
All
Mesh
Currents
Find
component
currents
Specific
Component
Currents
Find
other
electrical
quantities
such as
voltage or
power
Voltage,
Power
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
163
Example 7: Apply the MCM Solution
Given that you have already solved the circuit using MCM:
i1
i
2
i3
17.11A
13.57A
11.26A
+

Find power consumed by R3=16:
i1
p ia 2 R 3 i3 R 3 11.26A 16
2
i3
2,028W 2.028kW
How much power is supplied
by Vs2=110V:
pdelivered pconsumed ibVs 2 i2 Vs 2
13.57A 110V 1, 493W 1.493kW
ia
+

i2
ib
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
164
Example 8: Full Use of MCM to Find a Current of Interest
Use MCM to find the current through the 8 resistor.
1. Label all meshes
n=2
2. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=0
3. Write nm=2 KVL eqns
v drops
Mesh 1
10V 2i1 8 i1 i2 0
8 i
v drops
Mesh 2
i1 4i2 20V 0
10 V
i1
i8
i2
5i1  4i2 = 5V
2i1 + 3i2 = 5V
4. Solve
5. Solve
i1 = 0.714A, i2 = 2.143A
I8 = i1 i2 = 3.857A
20V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
165
Example 9: Full Use of MCM to Find a Voltage of Interest
Use MCM to find the voltage across the 8
resistor.
n=3
1.
Label all meshes
2. Identify dependent meshes m=0
(current sources)
3. Write nm=3 KVL eqns
v drops
Mesh 1
40 2i1 8 i1 i2 0 ;
6 i
i1
8 i
v drops
Mesh 2
i2
i3
i1 6i2 6 i2 i3 0
i2 4i3 20 0
v drops
Mesh 3
4. Solve
zeros
TI89 Titanium
40 2 x 8 x y ,8 y x 6 y 6 y z , 6 z y 4 z 20 , x, y, z
i1 5.6A
5. Solve
i2 2A i3 0.8A
v0 8 i1 i2 8 5.6 A 2 A 28.8V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
166
Example 10: Full Use of MCM to Find a Current of Interest
(more difficult)
Use MCM to find the current through
the 10 resistor.
n=3
1. Label all meshes
2. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
i1
m=1
i10
i2
i3
3. Write nm=2 KVL eqns AND m=1 equation for the dep. loop
v drops
Mesh 1
40 2i1 10 i1 i2 0 ;
10 i
v drops
Mesh 2
i1 9i2 4 i2 i3 0
i3 1A
TI89 Titanium
4. Solve
zeros
40 2 x 10 x y ,10 y x 9 y 4 y 1 , x, y
i1 5A i2 2A
5. Solve
i10 i1 i2 3A
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
167
I have to solve a problem, do I use Node Voltage or Mesh
Current?
Look at circuit, often one will use fewer equations
6 meshes, 2 nodes
Direct use of NVM will have fewer equations
Series and parallel
combinations can be used
In conjunction with MCM
or NVM.
ieq
2 meshes, 11 nodes
Direct use of MCM will have fewer equations
Req
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
168
Summary
Mesh Current Method
Solve circuit using Kirchoffs voltage law to
find all Mesh Currents.
Use the Mesh Currents to find any current,
voltage, power etc. in the solved circuit
Can solve any circuit by Node Voltage Method
or Mesh Current Method but one may be easier for
a given circuit.
Find
Solve the
entire circuit
Find
component
values
other electrical
quantities such
as current,
voltage, or
power
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
169
Histological Processing of Cellbased Fiber with Regenerative
Medicine Application
Willie Jones
This photograph displays fivemicron histological sections of a
hollow fiber with a green
fluorescent protein that labels
epithelial gland cells. The
cellular fiber was sectioned in
order to determine the fiber
morphology, as well as the
cellular distribution throughout.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307  Lecture 6
Equivalent Circuits
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
170
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
171
Overview of DC Electric Circuits
Connections
Terminal
Node
Branch
Loop
Circuit Components Mesh
Resistor
Voltage Source
Current Source
Switch
Reductions
Source Transformation
Parallel
Series
Thevenin
Norton
Similar
Electric Circuit
Electric Circuit
Performs a
function:
oProcess
Information
oTransfer Power
Characterized by:
oVoltages
DC Lecture 6
oCurrents
Equivalent Circuits
oPower
oEnergy
Analysis Tools
Kirchoffs Current Law
Node Voltage Method
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
Superposition
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
172
Temperature Sensing  Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
In a Metal, increasing temperature (T) will increase the resistance (R T)
RT R0 R0 T
Platinum: =+0.00392/C, R0=100 at T= 0C
Several ways to measure R.
5V
+

RL
RT
+
vT
Voltage divider equation:
Measure the resistance R then we know T
This is a means of measuring temperature.
RT
vT
(5V )
RL RT
vT
R0 R0 T
(5V )
RL R0 R0 T
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Temperature Sensing  Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
Measure VT
Solve the voltage equation for T
vT RL R0 (vT 5V )
5V vT R0
Use the resistor
temperature curve to
calculate temperature T
173
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
174
Temperature Sensing  Thermistor
In a Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) Thermistor, increasing temperature will
decrease the resistance.
A Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) refers to materials that experience an increase
in electrical resistance when their temperature is raised.
The material is a semiconductor (later lecture) and not a metal
Measure the resistance R then we know T
This is a means of measuring temperature.
Build a circuit to
measure resistance
(voltage divider is one
possibility)
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Thevenin and Norton Equivalents
Replace part of a circuit with a simpler circuit that is
electrically equivalent.
175
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
176
You Have Already Created Electrically Equivalent Circuits
Series and Parallel reductions create electrically
equivalent circuits.
a
a
i
+i
1
vab R1
i2
i3
R2
R3
+
vab
Some quantities are exactly the same while others are different.
Equivalent means the circuits are the same in some important
aspects but are not identical.
Req
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
177
Electrically Equivalent for Our Work
Electrically Equivalent  from the load perspective,
the same Voltage and Current exist.
The Voltage and Current
dont change if the circuits
are eclectically equivalent.
Note: The load is considered to be
any subcircuit that can be
connected at two terminals
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
178
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
Any part of the circuit with two terminals (a oneport
network) can be replaced by a single voltage source
and a resistor in series.
From the R4
perspective, v and
i, it cant tell
which circuit it is
in.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Procedure to find Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
A. Find Equivalent Resistance
Remove Load (resistor or subcircuit)
Remove Sources
V source > short circuit
I source > open circuit
Find R
B. Find Open Circuit Voltage
Remove Load
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh current)
Find voltage at load terminals (still without the load)
179
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 1: Find Thevenin Equivalent
Find Thevenin Equivalent for circuit to the left of Nodes ab.
A. Find Equivalent Resistance
Remove Load
Remove Sources
V source > short circuit
I source > open circuit
180
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 1 (cont): Find Thevenin Equivalent
A. Find Equivalent
Resistance (continued)
Parallel Combination
Series Combination
R 1  R 2 R 3
R 1R 2
R3
R1 R 2
181
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
182
Example 1 (cont): Find Thevenin Equivalent
i0
v3
i1
1.
2.
3.
4.
vab
v2
Label meshes n=1
No dep meshes n=0
Write nm=1 KVL
Solve
3
n 1
(drops)
B. Find Open Circuit Voltage
Remove Load
Solve Circuit  mesh current
Find voltage at load terminals (still
without the load) use i1 to find
vab
KVL at output loop:
3
vn vs i1 R1 i1 R2 0
i1
vs
R1 R2
Note that this is not a
Mesh since it is not a
window in the circuit
n 1
(drops)
v2 v3 vab 0
R2
vab v2 i1 R2
vs
R1 R2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
183
Example 1 (cont): Find Thevenin Equivalent
R 1R 2
RT
R3
R1 R 2
R2
vT
vs
R1 R2
Placing the Thevenin equivalent into the original circuit:
iL
+
vL

iL and vL will
be the same as when
the original circuit
was connected.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
184
Norton Equivalent Circuit
Any part of the circuit with two terminals (a oneport
network) can be replaced by a single current source
and a resistor in parallel.
From the R4
perspective, v and
i, it cant tell
which circuit it is
in.
iN
RN
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
185
Procedure to find Norton Equivalent Circuit
A.
Find Equivalent Resistance
Remove Load
Remove Sources
V source > short circuit
I source > open circuit
B.
Exactly the same
procedure as finding R
for the Thevenin
Equivalent:
RN=RT
Find RN
Find Short Circuit Current
Replace Load with a Short
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh current)
Find current at the load terminals (still with the short)
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 2: Find the Norton Equivalent Circuit
Find the Norton Equivalent for the circuit to the left of Nodes ab.
R5
A. Find Equivalent
Resistance
Remove Load
Remove Sources
V source > short circuit
I source > open circuit
186
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
187
Example 2 (cont): Find the Norton Equivalent Circuit
A. Find Equivalent Resistance (cont)
RN
R N
R R R  R
1
R5
R 1R 2
R 3  R 4 R 5
R 1 R 2
R 1R 2
3 R 4
R
R
2
1
R5
R 1R 2
R3 R4
R1 R 2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
188
Example 2 (cont): Find the Norton Equivalent Circuit
B. Find Short Circuit Current
Replace Load with a Short
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh
current)
Find current at the load terminals (still
with the short)
N2
N
Solve by Node Voltage
1. Label all Nodes and select
Reference Node
2. Identify dependent nodes
(No KCL at Node a)
R5
N3
R5
m=1
N4
Reference
Node
N1
N3
n=4
N2
isc
N4
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 2 (cont): Find the Norton Equivalent Circuit
3. Write n1m=2 KCL eqns +
1 equation to describe dependent node
3
n 1
(out Node 2)
4
n 1
(out Node 3)
vn
v 2 v1 v 2 v 2 v3
0
R1
R2
R3
v3 v 2
v3 v3
vn
I
0
R3
R4 R5
v1 V
4. Solve
Find v1, v2, v3
5. Solve
Find isc which is the current in R5:
iN isc
v3
R5
189
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 2 (cont): Find the Norton Equivalent Circuit
R 1R 2
R 3 R 4
R1 R 2
RN
R5
R 1R 2
R3 R4
R1 R 2
iN
v3
R5
Placing the Norton equivalent into the original circuit:
IL
+
vL

iL and vL will
be the same as when
the original circuit
was connected.
190
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Source Transformation
Any voltage source in series with a resistance can be
replaced by a current source in parallel with the same
resistance.
191
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Source Transformation Thevenin <> Norton
R is same in both circuits
vT i N R
vT
iN
R
192
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
193
Example 3: Find Thevenin Equivalent
Find Thevenin Equivalent
for the circuit to the left of
nodes a and b
10
1V
A. Find Equivalent Resistance
Remove Load
Remove Sources
V source > short circuit
I source > open circuit
R T 1010 2 5 5
0.1A
10
10 5V
b
10
10
15
b
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
194
Example 3 (cont): Thevenin (cont)
B. Find Open Circuit Voltage
Remove Load
Solve Circuit  node voltage
Find voltage at load terminals (still
without the load)
10
v1
5
v2
1V
10
5
v3
0A
v4
0.1A
Using Node Voltage:
1. Label all Nodes and select
Reference Node
n=5
2. Identify dependent nodes
(No KCL at Node a)
m=1
3. Write n1m=3 KCL eqns +
1 equation to describe dependent node
4. Solve (easily reduce to 2eqn
w/ 2unknowns)
v1 1V , v2 1V , v3 v4 1.5V
v v
v2 v1
v
2 2 3 0
10 10
5
out 2
v3 v2
v3 v4 0
i
0.1A
0
5
5
out 3
v4 v3
i
0 v3 v4
5
out 4
v1 1V
5. Solve
vT vab v4 1.5V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
195
Example 3 (cont): Find Norton Equivalent
Find Norton Equivalent for
the circuit to the left of
nodes a and b
10
1V
A. Find Equivalent Resistance
Remove Load
Remove Sources
V source > short circuit
I source > open circuit
R T 1010 2 5 5
15
Same as
Thevenin
0.1A
10
10 5V
b
10
10
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
196
Example 3 (cont): Find Norton Equivalent (cont)
10
B. Find Short Circuit Current
Replace Load with a Short
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or
mesh current)
Find current at the load
terminals (still with the short)
Using Mesh Current:
1. Label all meshes
n=3
1V
i1
mesh 1
2. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=1, Create
supermesh
3. Write nm=2 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation for the
dependent loop
4. Solve
10
i2
drops super
mesh 2
i3
b
vn 10 i2 i1 5 i2 5 i2 i3 0
i3 0.1A
i1 0.05 A, i2 0 A, i3 0.1A
isc
0.1A
1V 10 i1 10 i1 i2 0
5. Solve
i N =isc i2 i3 0.1A
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
197
Example 3 (cont): Reduce Circuit Using Source Transformations
Find Equivalent for the
circuit to the left of
nodes a and b using source
transformations
10
1V
10 5V
0.1A
10
b
10
10
1V
i N1
vT
1V
0.1A
RT 10
10
0.1A
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
198
Example 3 (cont): Reduce Circuit Using Source Transformations
(cont)
1
1
1
Req1 10 10
Req1 5
10
0.1A
10
0.1A
b
a
veq1 5 0.1A
0.5V
0.1A
0.1A
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
199
Example 3 (cont): Reduce Circuit Using Source Transformations
(cont)
5
Req1
Req1 5 5 10
0.1A
0.5V
b
10
10
0.1A
0.5V
iN 2
vT 0.5V
0.05 A
RT 10
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
200
Example 3 (cont): Reduce Circuit Using Source Transformations
(cont)
a
5
Here were are looking for an
electrical equivalent of two
current sources pointing into
the same node
10
0.1A
0.05A
ieq1 0.05 A 0.1A 0.15 A
b
5
10
veq 2 10 0.15 A
1.5V
10
0.15A
b
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
201
Example 3 (cont): Reduce Circuit Using Source Transformations
(cont)
10
Req1 10 5 15
1.5V
b
15
1.5V
b
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
202
Example 3: Compare Thevenin, Norton, Source Transformation
Results
10
1V
0.1A
10
10 5V
b
Thevenin
Equivalent
Norton
Equivalent
15
a
1.5V
iN
0.1A
15
1.5V
0.1A
Reductions and Source
Transformations
15
a
1.5V
iN
0.1A
15
15
1.5V
b
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
203
Summary
Any subpart of a circuit, which has two terminals
connecting it to the rest of the circuit, can be replaced
by a Thevenin or Norton Equivalent Circuit
Oneport (two
terminal) circuit
Thevenin
Equivalent
RT
Norton
Equivalent
vT
b
a
Source
Transformation
iT
RT
b
Source transformations convert between the Thevenin
and Norton models and can be used to simplify a
circuit.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Carbon Nano Onions
Arno Rettenbacher and Luis
Echegoyen
Description:
Illustration, the colored threelayer structure shown in the
center of a real onion is a
computer model of a fullerene
C60 molecule (yellow) inside a
twolayer onion C240 (blue)
inside a threelayer onion C540
(grey), all together described as
C60@C240@C540
204
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307  Lecture 7
Superposition, Maximum Power
Transfer, and Dependent Sources
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
205
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
206
Overview of DC Electric Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Voltage Source
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Current Source
function:
Switch
oProcess
Dependent Sources
Analysis Tools
Kirchhoff's Current Law
Information
Node Voltage Method
oTransfer Power
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Characterized by:
Mesh Current Method
Superposition
oVoltages
DC Lecture 7 Superposition,
oCurrents
Maximum Power
Transfer,
oPower
Dependent Sources
oEnergy
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
207
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit to Understand Biological System
Journal of Physiology
In order to demonstrate the relative importance of
extracellular shunt pathways upon epithelial
parameters of membrane potential and resistance, a
simple Thevenin equivalent model was used
Thevenin equivalent circuit used
to lump the electrical behavior of
part of the tissue (a subcircuit of
the whole circuit)
Cornea Membrane
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
208
General Definition of Superposition
A general property of any linear system where the
response to a sum of inputs is equal to the sum of the
individual responses.
For the system T( ) and the inputs x1..xN
T ( x1 x2 K xN ) T ( x1 ) T ( x2 ) K T ( x N )
Response to Sum of Inputs
Example Linear System:
T x 3x
?
T (1 2) T (1) T (2)
?
3(1 2) 3g1 3g2
99
Ohms Law
Equations
Sum of Responses to Individual Inputs
Example Nonlinear System:
T x x2
?
T (1 2) T (1) T (2)
?
(1 2) 1 2
2
95
Power
Equations
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
209
Superposition in Linear Circuits
In a circuit, each branch current and voltage is the
cumulative effect of the individual voltage and
current sources.
Electric
Circuit
Source
2
Source
1
Source
N
io
io1
io2
ioN
+
vo
vo1
vo2
voN

Response to Sum
vo = vo1 +vo2+voN
io = io1 +io2+ioN
Sum of Responses
T ( x1 x2 K xN ) T ( x1 ) T ( x2 ) K T ( xN )
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Procedure to Analyze a Circuit Using Superposition
Choose one current or voltage source and remove all
others
Replace voltage source by short circuit
Replace current source by open circuit
Solve for voltages and/or currents of interest.
Repeat for
EVERY source
in the circuit
210
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
211
Example 1 : Compare Superposition to Node Voltage Result
a
Find io and vo by Superposition
Aside: Show solution using a previous
method
1A
2A
b
Use Node Voltage Method:
va
iN 1A 2 A 3 A
0
4
out node a
Solve:
va 1A 4 2 A 4 3 A 4
1 A 2 A 3 A 4
= 24V
v0 va 24V
T(xi)=4*xi
3A
io
vo

Superposition works for this
circuit
T ( x1 ) T ( x2 ) T ( x3 )
T ( x1 x2 x3 )
Matches the original definition
of superposition
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
212
Example 1 (cont) : Compare Superposition to Node Voltage
Result
Repeat using Superposition:
Consider the 1A Source
1A
2A
3A
io
vo

+
1A
io1
vo1

io 1 1A, vo 1 1A 4 4V
Consider the 2A Source
+
2A
io2
vo2

io 2 2 A, vo 2 2 A 4 8V
Consider the 3A Source
+
3A
io3
vo3

io 3 3 A, vo 3 3 A 4 12V
Solve using Superposition
vo=vo1 +vo2+vo3 =24V
io=io1 +io2+io3 =6A
Same as
NVM
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
213
Example 2: Solve Circuit by Superposition
Use superposition to find the current
through the 8 resistor in the circuit.
i8
Find the current in the 8 resistor
due to each source, we consider two circuits:
vb
va
vc
Short
i8
vb
va
i8
Basically we have to
solve the circuit twice.
Superposition may
require more work
vc
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
214
Example 2 (cont): Solve Circuit by Superposition
vb
va
vc
vb
va
Short
i8
i8
Apply NVM:
Apply NVM:
va 10V
vc 0V
vb 10V vb
vb
i
2
8 4
i out node ab
vb 40
Solve:
vc
i8
va 0V
vc 20V
i out node a b
vb
v
v 20V
b b
0
2 8
4
vb 40
vb
5 A
7
8
Solve:
i8
7 A
i8 i8 i8 10
vb
5 A
7
8
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
215
Example 2 (cont): Solve Circuit by Superposition
A Check of the Node Voltage Method Solution using an Alternate Approach
The Superposition approach requires that we consider two circuits:
These are in parallel
4 8 44 88
i8
8
3
8
2 8
2
2 8
5
Use Voltage Divider Rule:
v8
3
10V
8
2 3
8
3
40
7
Use Voltage Divider Rule:
v8
Parallel resistors have same voltage
v8 v4 v8
i8
v8
3
i8
75 A
20V
8
4 5
8
5
40
7
Parallel resistors have same voltage
7 A
i8 i8 i8 10
v8 v2 v8
i8
v8
5
75 A
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 3: Solve Circuit with Voltage and Current Sources by
Superposition
Use superposition to find the current
through the 10 resistor in the circuit.
i10
Find the current in the 10 resistor
due to each source, we consider two circuits:
Open circuit
i10
i10
Short circuit
Turning the current source off results in
an open circuit (zero current) in the branch
containing the 8 resistor.
This is Circuit A
Turning off the voltage source results
in a short circuit in series with the 2
resistor.
This is Circuit B
216
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
217
Example 3 (cont): Solve Circuit with Voltage and Current
Sources by Superposition
Circuit A
Zero current through 8 resistor
means zero voltage drop.
Resistors in series
9 4 13
i10
i10
va
Apply NVM
vb
i10
i10
va 40V
vb 40V vb
v
b 0
2
10 13
solve to get:
vb
2600
V
88
i10
vb
260
A
10 88
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
218
Example 3 (cont): Solve Circuit with Voltage and Current
Sources by Superposition
Resistors in parallel
Circuit B
i10
i10
Next, expand circuit
back out and use
current divider again
to find current
through
10 resistor.
i10
Use current divider
i9
4
12
1A
5
4 9 3
44
Use current divider
i10
By making this parallel
connection we have
lost the identity of i10
2
2 12
1
i9
A
10 2
12 44 22
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 3 (cont): Solve Circuit with Voltage and Current
Sources by Superposition
Circuit B
Circuit A
i10
260
A
88
i10
i10 i10 i10
264
A 3A
88
1
4
A= A
22
88
260
4
A A
88
88
219
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Maximum Power Transfer
Thevenin
Equivalent
Maximum Power Transfer:
Given that the Vth and Rth are
fixed, what is the value of RL
such that PL (power to the
load) is maximized ?
This is also a good model of a real
battery, i.e., a battery has internal
resistance
220
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
221
Maximum Power Transfer
Voltage Divider
Thevenin
Equivalent
RL
Vth
Rth RL
Power Dissipated in load, RL:
2
RL
V
1
2
PL VI
Vth
RL RL Rth RL
2
Differentiate PL and set to zero to find extremum:
dPL
d
dRL dRL
2 Rth RL 2 2 RL Rth R L 2
V
Vth 0
2 th
2
Rth RL
Rth RL
RL
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Maximum Power Transfer
Solve for condition on RL for maximum power transfer:
Rth RL 2 2 RL Rth RL
2
V
0
th
2
Rth RL
Multiply by denominator
Rth RL 2 RL Rth RL Vth2 0
2
R
R
2
th
2
th
2 RL Rth RL2 2 RL Rth 2 RL2 Vth2 0
Expand and collect
RL2 Vth2 0
Condition for Maximum Power Transfer:
Maximum power delivered to load:
Rth
RL Rth
i
Vth
+

RL=Rth
+
va
Vth
2 Rth
PL max
2
2
V
V
i 2 Rth th2 Rth th
4 Rth
4 Rth
222
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 4: Calculate Load Resistance for Maximum Power
Transfer
223
Find the value of the variable
resistor that draws maximum power
from the circuit. Find Pmax.
Approach:
1) Find Thevenin Equivalent
2) Use Formula for R0 and power
Remove load and turn off all sources (open current
sources, short voltage sources) to find Rth
The arrow means that the value
of the resistance can be changed
a variable resistor
Rth 1.25k 10k 2k 4k
1250 10000 6000
10000 6000
1250 3750
5000
5k
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 4 (cont): Calculate Load Resistance for Maximum
Power Transfer
224
Remove load and find open circuit voltage, Voc=Vth.
Mesh Current Method
i1
i2
Mesh 1
i1 9mA
Mesh 2
2000 i2 i1 4000i2 10000i2 50 0
Solve
i2 2mA
Use KVL to find Vth
50 10000i2 v125 k Vth 0
Solve
Vth 50 10000i2
50 10000 2 10 3
50 20 30V
Current in the 1.25k resistor is zero and
therefore the voltage is v125k=0V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
225
Example 4 (cont): Calculate Load Resistance for Maximum
Power Transfer
Rth=5k
i
Vth=30V
+

R0=Rth
Formula for maximum power transfer:
R0 Rth 5k
30
Vth2
4 Rth 4 5000
2
Pmax
0.045W
45mW
Power Transfer:
Vth
i
R0 Rth
2
Vth
P0 i 2 R0
R0
R0 Rth
30V
R0
R
5000
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 5: Calculate Load Resistance for Maximum Power
Transfer (a little more difficult)
Find the value of load
resistance that results in
maximum power transfer to the
load from the circuit.
Recall what we know about
maximum power transfer:
Pmax
Vth2
4 Rth
if
RL Rth
Approach:
1) Find Thevenin equivalent Circuit
2) Formula for RL and power
226
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 5 (cont): Calculate Load Resistance for Maximum
Power Transfer (a little more difficult)
Remove load and find Vth
Use Mesh Current Method
vk 100 4 ia ib 4ia 20 0
vk 30 4ib 4ib 4 ib ia 0
drops, CW
ib
drops, CW
Solve
ia
Possibly confusing point:
The purple line does not define a Mesh
Current and does not contribute to the
voltages in the 4 resistors.
227
27
A
2
ib 7A
ia
Use KVL for Vth
20 4ia 4ib Vth 0
Vth 20 4 ia ib
Vth 102V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
228
Example 5 (cont): Calculate Load Resistance for Maximum
Power Transfer (a little more difficult)
Turn off sources and find Rth
4 4 2
These are resistors
in parallel
4 4 2 2.4
Resistance for
maximum power
transfer:
Rth 2.4
RL
Maximum Power
Delivered to the Load
Pmax
Vth2
4 Rth
102
4 2.4
2
1084W
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
229
New Components Dependent (or Controlled) Sources
The constant source values are dependant on a
voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit
Dependent (Controlled) Voltage Source
Dependent (Controlled) Current Source
v X
or
iX
or
iX
vX
Controlled
Voltage Source
Controlled
Current Source
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
230
Dependent (Controlled) Voltage Source
Behavior: produces voltage proportional to a voltage or
current in the circuit
Voltage Controlled Voltage Source
IX
v X
you must be given
this location in the
same circuit
number
+
vx
Current Controlled Voltage Source
you must be given
this location in the
same circuit
number
ix
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
231
Dependent (Controlled) Current Source
Behavior: produces current proportional to a voltage or
current in the circuit
Voltage Controlled Current Source
IX
v X
you must be given
this location in the
same circuit
number
+
vx
Current Controlled Current Source
you must be given
this location in the
same circuit
number
ix
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Circuit Analysis With Dependent Sources
Each of these device will add another equation to the
Mesh Current or Node Voltage analysis.
Extra equation describes the controlling
relationship, e.g. ix
Extra equation for each dependent device in the
circuit, e.g., 2 dependent sources will add 2
equations
232
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 6: Example 3.12 from Textbook
Find the Node Voltages
vx=2v3
The value of v3 determines the value
of vx.
Example: If v3=2.5V then vx=5V
233
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
234
Example 6 (cont): Example 3.12 from Textbook
1. Label all Nodes and select
Reference Node
n=4
2. Identify dependent nodes
No KCL at Node 1 since it is a
dependent node (Note that
vx is a dependent source )
m=1
A dependent node is not the same
as a dependent source
v X 2v3
3. Write n1m=2 KCL eqns +
1 eqn to describe dependent node + 1 eqn to describe dependent source
in
v v
v2 v1
I 2 3 0
R1
R2
in
v3 v2 v3
0
R2
R3
out Node 2
out Node 3
Reference
Node
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
235
Example 6 (cont): Example 3.12 from Textbook
Equation for the
dependent node:
v1 v X
v1 v X 0
for use in simultaneous
equations
New equation for
dependent source:
v X 2v3
v X 2v3 0
4. Solve
1
1
R1 R2
R2
R2
1
0
0
0
1
1
R1 R2
0
2
1
R1
v X 2v3
4
Reference
Node
4 equations / 4 unknowns
1
1
v1
I
v
0
2
v3
0
v
0
X
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 7: Example 3.13 from Textbook
Find the Mesh Currents
1. Label all meshes
n=3
2. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=0
3. Write nm=3 KVL eqns. + 1 eqn to
describe dependent sources
The value of v determines
the value of source (2v)
236
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 7 (cont): Example 3.13 from Textbook
M1:
M2:
M3:
vk v1 i1 R1 (i1 i2 ) R2 0
vk (i2 i1 ) R2 i2 R3 (i2 i3 ) R4 2v 0
vk (i3 i2 ) R4 i3 R5 2v 0
v drops, CW
v drops, CW
v drops, CW
New: Describe
dependent source in
terms of loop
currents
v (i1 i2 ) R2
4. Solve
4 equations with 4 unknowns
237
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary
Superposition
Total response = sum of response to each
individual source.
Maximum Power Transfer
In a Thevenin equivalent circuit, maximum power
is transferred to an adjustable load when RTH=RL
Dependent Sources
Circuit elements
An external voltage or current controls the amount
of voltage or current produced by the source.
238
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Molten Carbon Material
Santanu Kundu and Martin
Beagley
Description:
Photograph, this material is
called mesophase pitch, a
liquidcrystalline material
that is used to manufacture
carbon fibers and composites.
239
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 AC Lecture 1
AC Circuit Elements
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
240
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
What is an AC Circuit?
In the first part of this course we considered Direct
Current (DC) circuits where the current was constant
for all time
Note that the voltages must also be constant if the
currents are constant.
241
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
What is an AC Circuit?
Alternating Current (AC) circuits where the current
can change magnitude and direction over time.
Note that the voltages must also change with time as
the currents change in time.
242
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
243
Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
by:
AC Lecture 1Characterized
AC Circuit
Elements oVoltages
oCurrents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?
Related to the way that electric power is generated.
Mechanical Energy is converted into Electrical Energy
by a Generator
A steam turbine used to provide electric power
244
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Diagram of an electrical system
Contiguous United States power transmission grid
consists of 300,000 km of lines operated by 500
companies.
A transmission substation
Nikola Tesla's
Alternating current
polyphase generators
on display at the 1893
245
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
246
Overview of Power Generation, Distribution, and Consumption
Using Alternating Current
Inductor
3Phase Distribution
Generator
Motor
Sinusoidal Source
Resistor
Generation
Power Supply
Capacitor
Transformer
Distribution
Consumption
World renewable energy share (2008), with hydroelectricity more than
50% of all renewable energy sources
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
247
Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?
Generator Operation
Winding of the
generator (coil of wire)
is turned in a magnetic
field.
A voltage is induced in
the moving coil by the
magnetic field.
The voltage causes
current flow.
Torque Input
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
248
Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?
Amount of voltage induced is related to
the orientation of the winding relative
to the magnetic field.
Induced Voltage sin(normal to coil  direction of magnetic field)
Voltag
e
0  180
180  360
One cycle
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
249
Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?
Sources of energy to turn a generator
Nuclear
Coal
Solar
Steam
Turbine
Water
Wind
Waves
Combustion Engine
Turbine Engine
Electric
Generator
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
250
Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?
Sources of energy to turn a generator
Coal Power Station in Tampa,
United States.
Nellis Solar Power Plant in the United States
The Gordon Dam in Tasmania is a large hydro
facility, with an installed capacity of 430 MW.
Cogeneration Combined Heat and Power, CHP Plant,
Massachusetts
Geothermal power station in Iceland.
Wind power, Poseidon seen from above in
Onsevig, Denmark.
Lillgrund Wind Farm, Sweden
Artist's impression of tidal turbines on
a different type of support structure
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Why Do Alternating Currents Occur?
Sources of energy to turn a generator
Biomass
251
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 1: An AC Generating System
Diesel Engine
Electric Generator
252
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 1: An AC Generating System
The Hoover Dam in the United States is a large conventional
dammedhydro facility, with an installed capacity of 2,080 MW.
253
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Introduction to the Inductor
254
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
255
Introduction to the Inductor
Energy stored in
the magnetic field
A=area of coil
l= height of coil
o = magnetic permeability = 4 107[H/m]
r = relative permeability = 1 in air
N = number 2of turns of coil
N A
in units of Henry (H)
L o r
Physical Device
Intentional Inductor, e.g.,
Circuit Device
Unintentional Inductor, e.g.,
Coiled Cord
iin (t )
+
vin (t )
diL (t )
vL (t ) L
dt
Circuit Model
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
256
Combining Inductors
iin (t )
iin (t )
L1
vin (t )
vin (t )
L2
L1
Series inductors combine
similar to series resistors
Parallel inductors combine
similar to parallel resistors
1
1
1
LEQ L1 L2
LEQ L1 L2
These relationships are true for any number of inductors.
Series
Connected:
LEQ Li
i 1
Parallel
Connected:
N
1
1
LEQ i 1 Li
L2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
257
Inductance for Distance Measurement
A=area of coil
l= height of coil
or = property of core material
N = number of turns of coil
o r N 2 A
L
l
r changes as
the core moves
out of the coil.
Position Measurement
System: Measure the
inductance to know
position
Attach moving
system to the
inductor core
L changes as
the core moves
out of the coil.
iin (t )
+
Inductance
Measurement vin (t )
System

ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Introduction to the Capacitor
258
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
259
Introduction to the Capacitor
+
iC (t )
Energy stored in
the electric field
between plates
vC(t)
A=area of plates
D= distance between plates
o = permittivity of air
= 8.8541012[F/m]
r = relative permittivity = 1 (air)
o r A
C
in units of Farad (F)
Physical
D
Device
Intentional Capacitor, e.g.,
Circuit Device
iC (t )
vC(t)
dvC (t )
iC (t ) C
dt
Circuit
Model
Unintentional Capacitance, e.g.,
Long parallel wires act as the
plates in a capacitor
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
260
Combining Capacitors
Series
Connected
iin (t )
iin (t )
C1
vin (t )
C2
1
1
1
CEQ C1 C2
vin (t )
Series capacitors combine
similar to parallel resistors
CEQ
Equivalent the relationship between voltage and current is preserved.
iin (t )
Parallel
Connected
+
vin (t )
These relationships are
true for any number of
capacitors:
iin (t )
C2
C1
CEQ C1 C2
Parallel capacitors combine
similar to series resistors
Series
Connected:
N
1
1
CEQ i 1 Ci
vin (t )
CEQ
Parallel
C EQ
Connected:
C
i 1
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
261
Capacitance for Distance Measurement
0 r A
C
d
A = area of plates
Measure C and Change A
> displacement sensor
Ex. Rotation
Sensor
d = distance between
plates
Measure C and Change d
> distance measurement
r= property of
material between plates
Measure C and Change r
> material property measurement
d
r1
r2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
262
Device Power and Energy
A resistor dissipates power as heat
Inductors & Capacitors store (or supply) power
Inductor in the magnetic field
Capacitor in the electric field
p (t )supplied to device v (t )i (t )
t
W (t )stored or dissipated p (t ')dt ' v(t ')i (t ')dt '
i(t)
+
v(t)

ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
263
Device Power
A resistor always dissipates power
v(t ) v 2 (t )
v (t )
0
R
R
p (t )supplied to device
Inductor
p (t )supplied to device
?
di (t )
L
i (t ) ( , ,=) 0
dt
i(t)
+
Capacitor
p (t )supplied to device
Depending on the form of i(t), at
any time the device could absorb
power (p>0) OR supply power
back to the circuit (p<0).
?
dv(t )
v (t )C
( , ,=) 0
dt
v(t)

ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
264
Device Energy
Resistor
Wdissipated
All energy is dissipated as heat
2
t v (t ')
v(t ')
v (t ')
dt '
dt '
0
0
R
R
t
Inductor
Wstored
di (t ')
1 2
1 2
L
i (t ')dt ' Li (t ') Li (t ) if i 2 (0) 0
0
dt '
2
2
0
t
All energy is stored in the
electric field, no energy stored
if voltage is zero
Capacitor
Wstored
All energy is stored in the
magnetic field, no energy stored
if current is zero
dv(t ')
1 2
1 2
v(t ')C
dt ' Cv (t ') Cv (t ) if v 2 (0) 0
0
dt '
2
2
0
t
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
265
Voltage and Current Sources That Vary With Time
v(t )
+

i(t )
v(t )
+

Recall: In
DC circuits
the voltage
and current
are constant
Sinusoids are used in the generation
and distribution of power worldwide
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
266
Properties of Sinusoids
Amplitude
Reference Cosine
Period
T
Frequency
t
A
Phase Angle
fraction of a
period
t
) rad
T
or
2 (
t
360( ) deg
T
1 1 1
f
Hz
T sec T
2
2 f rad / s
T
t
A
General Description of an
Arbitrary Sinusoid:
x(t ) A cos(t )
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Properties of Sinusoids
Phase angle may be positive or negative
Wave lags or is delayed from reference cosine
Reference Cosine
t
A
x(t ) A cos(t )
4
Wave leads or occurs before reference cosine
A
Reference Cosine
t
A
x(t ) A cos(t )
4
267
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
268
Properties of Sinusoids
where Vnlnl is voltage at no load and Vflfl is voltage at full load.
Common Power Sinusoids
170V
120Vrms
US: f=60Hz, Vpeak= 170V
Europe, Asia, Africa:
f=50 and 60Hz, Vpeak=325V
Vrms root mean square (rms)
1 T 2
x (t )dt
0
T
Vmax
US:
Vrms
170V
Vrms 120V
2
Europe, Asia, Africa:
for sinusoid
Vrms
325V
230V
2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Basic Circuit Principles and Techniques Still Work With the New
Components
Circuit Connections
KCL Node Voltage
KVL Mesh Current
Superposition
Thevenin and Norton
Power and Energy
However: The time
dependent sources and the
differential equations
describing inductors and
capacitors will make
applying these principles
more difficult.
269
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
270
Resistor in an AC Circuit
Vmax
Resistor
Imax
+
vs(t)
+

vR
R
i
vR=vS
vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
Using KVL:
v v
iR 0
drops
vS Vmax
i
cos(t )
R
R
V and I have same
frequency and same
phase angle but
different magnitudes
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
271
Inductor in an AC Circuit
Inductor
Vmax
90o phase shift, Current lags voltage
Imax
vs(t) +

di
vL L
dt

i
t
vL=vS
vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
di
0
KVL: vS L
dt
Vmax
1
1
i vs dt Vmax cos(t )dt
sin(t )
L
L
L
V
max cos(t )
L
2
V and I have same
frequency but
different phase angles
and magnitudes
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
272
Capacitor in an AC Circuit
90o phase shift, Current leads voltage
Capacitor
Vmax
vs(t) +

vC
vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
KVL: vS
Imax
dV
dt
iC
i
dt
0 C
vC
i
0 C dt 0
t
Differentiate and solve for i(t)
dvS
d
C [Vmax cos(t )] CVmax sin(t )
dt
dt
CVmax cos(t )
2
iC
vC=vS
V and I have same
frequency but
different phase angles
and magnitudes
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary  AC Wave Forms and Components
Introduced three new circuit models
Sinusoidal Source x(t ) A cos(t )
Inductor (stores energy)
Capacitor (stores energy)
diL (t )
dt
dv (t )
iC (t ) C C
dt
vL (t ) L
Can solve circuits using same basic techniques we used in DC
circuits
The frequency remains the same in all of these examples
and will in general be true.
Only the phase and magnitude change.
273
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
274
Secret of the RockClimbing Ability in Fishes
Takashi Maie and Eric
Livingston
Description:
During migration, juveniles
reach upstream habitats by
climbing rock surfaces of
waterfalls up to 100 feet high.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 AC Lecture 2
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
275
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
276
Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
by:
AC Lecture 2Characterized
Phasors and
Complex Numbers
oVoltages
oCurrents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Power Inverter
DC Voltage
(e.g. 12V car
battery)
Inverter
(convert DC
to AC)
170V
AC Voltage
(e.g. 120V
(rms) to
power a tool)
12V
+
12V
Approximated
Sinusoid
277
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
278
Review of Sinusoids
v(t )
+

A = Maximum
Value
Sinusoidal
Source
T = Time between similar points
t = Time shift
from standard
cosine
2 (
Amplitude
t
) rad
T
Phase
Angle
Period
1 1 1
Hz
Frequency
T sec T
2
2 f rad / s
T
f
Radian Frequency
v(t ) A cos(t )
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
279
Review of Circuit Elements
+
vL
iL
Inductor
vL (t ) L
diL (t )
dt
+
vC
Basic Circuit Laws Still Apply:
Circuit Connections
KCL Node Voltage
KVL Mesh Current
Superposition
Thevenin and Norton
Power and Energy
iC
Capacitor
iC (t ) C
dvC (t )
dt
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Motivation: Solving AC Circuits
A
dv
iC
dt
Node Voltage method:
Label all nodes and choose a reference node
Node A
Dep Source:
vs (t ) V cos t
Solve to find
vB(t):
Result has the
same frequency
as the source
v A (t ) vs (t )
vB (t ) v A (t )
dv (t )
C B 0
R
dt
V RC
V
vB (t )
sin
cos t
2
2
2
2
1 RC
1 RC
Node B
KCL:
vB (t ) VBmax cos t 2
280
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
AC Waveforms and Components
Any voltage or current in a circuit is a sinusoid
with the same frequency as the source(s).
Will introduce a method to keep track of only the
phase and magnitude (since frequency does not
change it is not included)
Need to review complex numbers to use this
method.
281
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Complex Numbers
In mathematics an imaginary number (i) is defined as
1
1
i
j
We need to use complex
numbers but we have been
using i to represent current so
we will redefine using j
b
4ac
2
The solution to ax bx c 0 is x
2a
The general solution to the quadratic equation may be
a complex number
x A jB
Real
Complex
282
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Complex Numbers
Reminder: the term imaginary does not mean that
the information does not apply in the real world.
Given a parabola:
y x2 1
y
x
Find the roots, i.e. the xaxis intercepts
x 1 0 x 1 j
2
This imaginary number tells use concrete
information the parabola does not
intersect the xaxis
283
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
284
Complex Numbers
Can plot complex numbers in the complex plane, for
x A jB
Rectangular Form
Plot real part, A, on horizontal axis
Plot imaginary part, B, on the vertical axis
x A jB
Im (Imaginary Axis)
C A2 B 2
tan 1 B / A
x Ce j C
Re (Real Axis)
The two forms, polar and
rectangular, are both needed
when using complex numbers.
Polar Form
180o 180o or
Back to Rectangular
Form
x C cos jC sin
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
285
Example 1: Converting Between Forms
Convert Rectangular to Polar:
i 10 j 20
Im
i 102 202 tan 1 20 /10
20
22.3663.4o
v 2 3 j
' tan
10 Re
3 / 2 56.31
180o ' 180o 56.31o 123.69o
v
2 3
2
3.6123.69o
'
2
Im
Re
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
286
Example 1: Converting Between Forms (cont)
Convert Polar to Rectangular :
i 105o
Im
20
i 10cos 5o j10sin 5o
9.96 j 0.87
v 7 120o
10 Re
v =7 cos 120 j 7sin 120
o
7 0.5 j 7 0.866
3.5 j 6.06
Im
'
7
120
Re
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
287
Complex Numbers  Adding and Subtracting
Use rectangular form (convert from polar form if
necessary)
V1 A1 jB1
V2 A2 jB2
V1 V2 ( A1 A2 ) j ( B1 B2 )
V1 V2 ( A1 A2 ) j ( B1 B2 )
Im
V2
V1 V2
V1
Re
V1 V2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 2: Adding and Subtracting Complex Numbers
Given: i 10 j 20 , v 2 3 j , z 4 j12
i v 10 j 20 +2 3 j (10+2) j (20 3) 12 j17
i v 10 j 20 (2 3 j ) (10 2) j (20 3) 8 j 23
i v z 10 j 20 +2 3 j 4 j12
(10+2 4) j (20 3 12) 8 j 29
288
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 2: Adding and Subtracting Complex Numbers (cont)
i1 j 20 A and i2 4 j12 A
Note that the complex
numbers have units of
Amperes.
i1 +i2 j 20 4 j12 A= 4 j (20 12) A= 4 j32 A
289
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
290
Complex Numbers  Multiplying and Dividing
Use polar form (recommend converting if not in polar
form)
V1 C11
V2 C2 2
V1 V2 C1 1 C2
2
C1C2 (1 2 )
V1
C11
C1
(1 2 )
V2 C2 2 C2
Multiple magnitudes and add angles to
multiple (based on the exponent form)
j 1 2
j1
j 2
C1e C2 e
C1C2 e
Divide magnitudes and subtract divisor
angle to divide (based on the exponent
form)
C1e j1 C1e j1 e j2 C1 j 1 2
e
j 2
C2 e
C2
C2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Complex Numbers  Multiplying and Dividing
May multiply in rectangular form
V1 A1 jB1
V2 A2 jB2
V1 gV2 A1 jB1 A2 jB2
A1 A2 j 2 B1 B2 j A1 B2 A2 B1
A1 A2 B1 B2 j A1 B2 A2 B1
291
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
292
Example 3: Multiplying and Dividing Complex Numbers
Given: i 105o ; v 7 90o ; z 1190o
i 105o 10
o
o
o
=
90
1.43
95
v 7 90o 7
ivz 105o 7 90o 1190o 10g7g11 5o 90o 90o 7705o
o
o
10
5
11
90
iz
10g11
o
o
o
90
90
v
7 90o
7
15.7185o
15.7 175
185
Im
Re
175o
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
293
Example 3: Multiplying and Dividing Complex Numbers (cont)
Given: i 105o ; v 7 90o ; z 1190o
i =(1)(i)= 1180o 105o 10 5o 180o 10 175o
185o
Im
i
Re
i
175o
Given: v 20o V and i 135o A
v 20o V
o
35
o
i 135 A
Note that the complex
numbers have units of
Amperes and Volts. V/A
yield the units of Ohms.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
294
Complex Numbers Complex Conjugate
Reflect about the real axis
Operation on a single number and denoted by *
Rectangular form change sign of complex part
Polar form change sign of angle
Im
V1 A1 jB1 or V1 C11
V1* A1 jB1 or V1* C1 1
V2*
V1
Re
V2 A2 jB2 or V2 C2 2
V2* A2 jB2 or V2* C2 2
Note that V* V, this is an easy mistake to make.
V2
V1*
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 4: Complex Conjugates
i 105o
i * 10 5o
v 7 90o
v* 790o
z 1190o
z * 11 90o
i 10 j 20
v 2 j3
z 4 j12
i* 10 j 20
v* 2 j 3
z* 4 j12
295
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
296
Total System Response
DC circuit (constant sources) with resistors
time when
switch is closed
5V
VR1
Voltage
source
5V
VR1
time
steady
state
i=0
v=0
voltage
divider
AC circuit (sources change with time) with resistors
5V
V(t)
time when
switch is closed
V(t)
VR1 voltage
divider
VR1
time
5V
steady
state
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Total System Response (cont)
Steady state:
All voltages and currents are constant in DC
circuits
All voltages and currents are constant sinusoids in
AC circuits
297
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
298
Total System Response (cont)
DC circuit (constant sources) with energy storage
V (t)
VC(t)
vC
Steady state:
all voltages and currents
are constant but this
occurs some time after
the circuit has settled (in
this case after the
capacitor has charged).
C
time when
switch is
closed
transient
must be considered
because often have
larger currents or
voltages during this time
steady state
We will analyze circuit in
the steadystate region
assume the switch was
closed a long time ago to
perform steady state analysis
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
299
Total System Response (cont)
AC circuit (sources change with time) with energy storage devices
V(t)
Initial condition
on capacitor
V (t )
Energy storage
component
Steady state:
all voltages and
currents are constant
sinusoids in AC circuits
but this occurs some
time after the circuit
has settled.
vC
time when
switch is
closed
Motivates use of
complex numbers
transient
steady
state
AC Analysis
must be considered
because often have
larger currents or
voltages during this time
assume the switch was closed a
long time ago to perform steady
state analysis
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Total System Response (cont)
Summary
Transient response is very important when switching
circuits on and off
Must be considered when sizing circuit breakers
and switches
Looking forward, we will only consider the steady
state response
300
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Phasors
Assume a steadystate circuit powered by sinusoidal
sources
Phasors will be introduced as a method to keep track
of only the phase and magnitude of sinusoids in
circuit analysis (since frequency does not change)
301
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
302
Phasors to Represent Sinusoids
Eulers identity
v(t ) A cos(0t )
V ( j ) Ae j A cos jA sin A
Frequency is implied
but not directly included
V(jw)
complex plane
Rectangular
form
Polar form
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 5: Creating Phasors
v(t ) 10cos 10t V V ( j ) 10 V 5 j8.66 V
3
3
v1 (t ) 15cos(377t )V V1 ( j ) 15 V
4
4
v2 (t ) 15cos(377t )V V2 ( j ) 15 V
12
12
Note: This radian frequency
corresponds to 60 Hz which
is the normal US frequency
303
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
304
Example 6: Using Phasors in a Circuit
vs (t )
v1 (t ) 15cos(377t )V V1 ( j ) 15 V
4
4
v2 (t ) 15cos(377t )V V2 ( j ) 15 V
12
12
KVL : V1 ( j ) V2 ( j ) VS ( j ) 0
VS ( j ) V1 ( j ) V2 ( j ) 15

V 15 V
12
4
Convert to rectangular form for addition
15cos( ) j15sin( ) 15cos( ) j15sin( )
12
12
4
4
25.1 j14.5 V
Convert to polar form
25.12 14.52 tan 1 (
Convert to a function of time
14.5
) 28.9830oV
25.1
vS (t ) 28.98cos(377t )
6
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
305
Summary
Complex Numbers
Two forms: rectangular and polar
Described addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division
Introduced Complex Conjugate
Plotted complex numbers in the complex plane
Im
V2
V1
Re
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary (cont)
When we change a circuit, e.g. close a switch, the
circuit has a response that lasts for a short time and
then it settles into a longterm behavior
Transient response is the shortterm response and
will not be considered in our analysis.
Steadystate response is the longterm behavior
of the circuit
We have seen that the frequency remains the same in an
AC circuit
Introduced phasors as a shortcut to keeping track of the
angle and magnitude of a sinusoid
306
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Mimicking Nature: Fiber Based Microprobe
Daria Monaenkova, Marius Chyasnavichys and Taras Andrukh
Description:
This image of a butterfly feeding and a nanofiber yarn absorbing a microdrop illustrates a promising application
of electrospun nanofiber yarns. The fiber based probe is designed to absorb droplets of fluid as small as the eye
of an ant. This probe could have important biomedical applications, where the extraction and analysis of tiny
amounts of fluid from glands, pores, or, ideally, from cells are necessary for accurate and early diagnosis of
diseases. The probe under development could sample biofluid without causing pain to the patient!
307
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
The Old Engineering Building
(circa 1912, no longer standing)
Clemson University
308
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 AC Lecture 3
Phasors, Impedance, and AC Circuit Analysis
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
309
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
310
Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 3 Phasors, Impedance
oVoltages
and AC Circuit
Analysis
oCurrents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
311
Transients Switching Considerations
R
V (t )
Inductive
Load
di
V L
dt
i(t)
Open
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Transients Switching Considerations
Transients when the Power Company Opens a Switch
312
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Transients Switching Considerations
More Typical Example Switch from house used to switch fluorescent lights.
313
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
314
Overview
vR (t ) RiR (t )
Z R ( j ) R0o
VR ( j ) Z R ( j ) I R ( j )
vs (t ) V cos t
dv (t )
iC (t ) C C
dt
Phasor
Use circuit theorems
(KVL, KCL) to write
system of equations
Solve differential
equations
Circuit solution (voltages
and currents)
1
90o
C
VC ( j ) ZC ( j ) I C ( j )
Z C ( j )
V ( j ) V
Use circuit theorems
(KVL, KCL) to write
system of equations
All voltages and
currents have same
frequency as the
source
Solve LINEAR
equations
Circuit solution (voltages
and currents)
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
315
Review of Phasors
Showed Phasors to represent sinusoidal sources
v(t ) A cos(t )
V ( j ) Ae j A cos jA sin A
Rectangular
form
We will always use the
radian frequency
Frequency is implied
but not directly included
Any voltage and current in the circuit (eg node
voltages, mesh currents) can be represented by
phasors
Polar form
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
316
Example 1: Circuit Voltages in Phasor Form
Given the node voltages in a circuit, any
component voltage can be found.
+
+
 V1
Vx
+
V2
+
V3
Given
Node
Voltages:
V1 2030o V, V2 10 30o V
V3 5120o V
Vx + V1 + V2 = 0
Find Vx :
KVL:
If we skip V2
Vx V1 0 Vx V1
Vx 2030o 1180o 2030o
20210o 20 150o V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
317
Example 1: Circuit Voltages in Phasor Form (cont)
 Vy
V2
V1
Given the node voltages in a circuit, any
component voltage can be found.
V3
Given
Node
Voltages:
V1 2030o V, V2 10 30o V
V3 5120o V
Find Vy:
o
o
120
10
30
2
y
3
y
3
2
y
KVL:
Rectangular
form to add:
Back to polar:
Vy 5cos(120o ) j 5sin(120o ) 10cos( 30o ) j10sin( 30 o )
2.5000 j 4.3301  8.6603  j5.0000 11.1603 j 9.3301 V
14.55 140.1o V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
318
Example 2: Circuit Currents in Phasor Form
Given the mesh current in a circuit, any
component current can be found.
N2
I1
I1 1
Given
Mesh
Currents:
I2
I 2 1.5 A
5
Ix
Find Ix:
KCL:
Rectangular
form to add:
Back to polar:
A
3
I1 I x I 2 0 I x I1 I 2
I x 1 1.5
3
I x 1cos( ) j1sin( ) 1.5cos( ) j1.5sin( )
3
3
5
5
0.5000 + j0.8660 1.2135  j0.8817 0.7135 + j1.748 A
0.7135
1.748
1.89 1.18 A
0.7135
+ 1.748 tan 1
2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
How are Phasor Voltages and Currents Related in a Component?
Any voltage and current in the circuit can be written
as a phasor.
How do we describe the voltage and current
relationships in devices such as resistors, capacitors,
and inductors?
I(j)
+
Component: Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor
V(j)

V(j)
I(j)
?
319
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
320
Phasor Voltages and Currents in a Resistor
Vmax
Imax
+
vs(t)
+

vR
vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
Using KVL:
v vS iR 0
drops
vS Vmax
i
cos(t )
R
R
I max cos(t )
Time Domain
time
i
vR
Phasor form of voltages and current:
VR ( j ) VS ( j ) Vmax 0o Volt
Vmax
I R ( j )
0 Ampere
R
Divide voltage and current for the resistor:
VR ( j ) Vmax 0
R0
I R ( j ) Vmax 0
Relationship
R
Frequency Domain
between phasor
voltage and current
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
321
Example 3: Use Phasors and Resistor Impedance to Solve a
Circuit
Given: R1 100
Find i1
R2 100
Label nodes to see that all three
elements are in parallel and have the
same voltage.
Convert voltage source to a phasor:
Na
+

v(t )
i1
Nb
v(t ) 30cos t (10t 2 ) V
V ( j ) 3090 V
Use the relationship between voltage and current on the previous slide:
I1 ( j )
V ( j ) 3090 V 3090 V
0.3090 A
Z ( j )
R10
1000
Convert current back to the time domain:
i (t ) 0.3cos t (10t 2 ) A
R1
i2
R2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
322
Phasor Voltages and Currents in an Inductor
Vmax
+

vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
vL L
di
dt
di
0
KVL: vS L
dt
1
1
iL vS dt Vmax cos(t )dt
L
L
V
V
max sin(t ) max cos(t )
L
L
2
Time Domain
90o phase shift, Current lags voltage
Imax
i
vS
time
Phasor form of voltages and current:
VL ( j ) VS ( j ) Vmax 0o V
I L ( j )
Vmax
90 A
L
Divide voltage and current for the inductor:
Vmax 0
VL ( j )
L90
V
I L ( j )
max
90
Relationship
L
Frequency Domain
between phasor
voltage and current
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
323
Phasor Voltages and Currents in a Capacitor
Vmax
dV
iC
dt
+
vs(t)
vC
vS (t ) Vmax cos(t )
t
KVL: vS 0
i
vC dt
0 C
Differentiate and solve for i(t)
dvS
d
C [Vmax cos(t )]
dt
dt
CVmax sin(t )
CVmax cos(t
)
2
Time Domain
Imax
iC
dt 0
C
iC C
90o phase shift, Current leads voltage
time
vS
Phasor form of voltages and current:
VC ( j ) VS ( j ) Vmax 0o V
I C ( j ) CVmax90 A
Divide voltage and current for the inductor:
VC ( j )
Vmax 0
1
90
I C ( j ) CVmax90 C
Frequency Domain
Relationship
between phasor
voltage and current
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Impedance The Impedance Equation
Can write a general expression to relate phasor
voltage and current in a device
I(j)
+
V(j)

Component: Resistor,
Inductor, Capacitor
V(j)
I(j)
V ( j )
Z ( j )
I ( j )
or
V ( j ) Z ( j ) I ( j )
This looks similar to Ohms Law.
We can use it in the ways we
used Ohms Law:
Node Voltage
Mesh Currents
Thevenin and Norton
Series and Parallel
Superposition
324
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
325
Impedance  Summary
Impedance
(degrees)
is determined by the
sources in the circuit.
All sources in a circuit
must have the same .
Z(j) in
Impedance
(radians)
Impedance
(rectangular)
R0
R0
L90
L
2
j L
1
90
C
C
2
j
C
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
326
Impedance Effect of Impedance
Impedance
(degrees)
R0
VR ( j ) Z R ( j ) I R ( j ) R0 I max I A
RI max I +0 V RI max I V
L90
VL ( j ) Z L ( j ) I L ( j ) L90 I max I A
LI max I +90 V LI max I +90 V
1
90
C
90 I max I A
C
I
1
I max I 90 V max I 90 V
C
C
VC ( j ) Z C ( j ) I C ( j )
complex plane
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 4: Calculating Impedances
Find the impedances for the portion of the circuit shown
Must first know the frequency,
assume it is given as f=159.15Hz
Find radian frequency:
2 f 2 159.15 1000 rad / s
Z R1 1000
Z R 2 500
ZC
( )
100
) j100
C
2 10 106 103
2
2
Z L L( ) 10 103 103 ( ) 10 ( ) j10
2
2
2
327
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
328
Example 5: Calculating Voltages and Currents Using The
Impedance Equation
Find current
I(j)
+
if :
Z ( j )
V(j)
Complex Plane
Z 1000
I
if :
Given:
V 0.10 V
if :
I,V,Z
V 0.10 V
10 mA
Z 1000
Z 10( )
2
0.10 V
I
10 mA
2
10( )
2
Z 100( )
2
I
0.10 V
1 mA
2
100( )
2
Resistor
Z
V
I Inductor
I
V
Capacitor
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
329
Example 6: Calculating Voltages and Currents Using Impedance
Equation Reversed Reference Direction
Changed the reference direction for current, now:
V ( j ) Z ( j ) I ( j )
Complex Plane
Find current
I(j)
+
if :
I'
Z ( j )
V(j)

Z 1000
if :
Given:
V 0.10 V
if :
Add
V,Z
0.10 V
1 mA
1000
Z 10( )
Add
2
0.10 V
I'
10 mA
2
10( )
2
Z 100( )
2
I'
Resistor
Z
I
V
Inductor
Add , resolve to
 <
0.10 V
1 mA
2
100( )
2
I
Z
V
Capacitor
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
330
Combining Impedances
Series Combinations (similar to resistors)
These impedances
can be any device,
i.e., inductors,
resistors, or
capacitors
Z1
Z EQ Z1 Z 2 K Z N
Z2
ZN
Z3
Zi
ZEQ
i 1
Parallel Combinations (similar to resistors)
Combining
impedances NOT
resistances,
inductances or
capacitances.
Z1
Z2
1
1
1
1
K
Z EQ Z1 Z 2
ZN
ZN
ZEQ
i 1
1
Zi
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 7: Combining Two Series Impedances
Z Z1 Z 2
Z1
Z
Z2
L
( )
2 C
2
1
j ( L
)
C
1
( L
)
C 2
331
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
332
Example 8: Combining Series and Parallel Impedances
Given the
impedances at
1000 rad/s
, Z L 10 , Z R1 1000, Z R 2 500
2
2
Z C j100, Z L j10, Z R1 100, Z R 2 50
Z C 100
Za:
1
1
1
j2 1
Z a 50 j100
j100
Za
j100
j2 1
2
22 12 tan 1 ( 2)
100
44.72 0.4636
2.24 1.107
40 j 20
100
1000 rad / s
Za
Z EQ Z a 100 j10 40 j 20 100 j10
140 j10
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Node Voltage Method Systematic Application of KCL
Transform using phasors and impedances
Label all n of the Nodes and Select a Reference
Node
Decide if the remaining n1 Node Voltages are
dependent or independent. A connected voltage
source will make a node dependent. Count the m
dependent nodes.
Write KCL equations at each of the n1m
independent nodes. Write m equations to relate the
dependent node voltages to the source voltages.
Solve n1 equations.
333
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
334
Example 9: Node Voltage Method with Impedances and Phasors
jL j1
0.1H
0.1F
+
VC
10
20 cos(10t )V
j
j
j
C
1
2. Label all Nodes and select
Reference Node (n = 4)
10
10 rad / s
3. Identify dependent nodes
(m = 1)
4. Write n1m = 2 KCL eqns +
1 equation to describe dependent node
VS 200V
1. Transform sources and
impedances
V2 V3
V2 V1 V2
In
j1 10
j
out of
node2
V3 V2 V3
In
j 10
out of
node3
V1 200V
Same as DC
but now use
impedances
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 9: Node Voltage Method with Impedances and Phasors
(cont)
5. Solve
This step is a lot more tedious to do by hand with the complex numbers.
1
1
1
1
1
)V1 (
)V2 (
)V3 0
j1
j1 10 j
j
1
1
1
(
)V2 (
)V3 0
j
j1 10
V1 20V
(
Arrange KCL
Equations
Put in Matrix
Form
1
1
1
1
1
(
)
(
)
j1
j1 10 j
j
1
1
1
0
(
)
( )
j
j 10
1
0
0
Solve
(MATLAB)
V1 0
V 0
2
V3 20V
V1
V
2
V3
20V
200
19.4 j 3.9V
19.8 11.36
19.6 j1.94V
19.7 5.65
335
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 9: Node Voltage Method with Impedances and Phasors
(cont)
0.1H
0.1F
+
VC
10 rad / s
V2 VC V3 0
10
10
20 cos(10t )V
6. Find VC using the
node voltages
VC V2 V3
j 2 V 2 90o V
4
Im
Convert phasor to time domain
vC (t ) 2cos(10t )V
2
V1
V3
Re
V2
VC V2 V3
336
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary
Impedances
Complex form for any resistor, capacitor, inductor
Series and Parallel Reduction
Impedance Equation: V=ZI
Node Voltage Method for AC circuits
Transform circuit then proceed as DC circuit
337
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Layout of an Integrated Circuit
Nishant Gupta and Githin Alapatt
Description:
The design of an integrated circuit
(IC) starts with the functional
description of the circuit and ends
with the fabrication of different
layers on a silicon wafer. There are
about 700 steps involved in this
process, and every step is critical
for the successful operation of the
IC.
338
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Outdoor Theater (Amphitheater)
(circa 2003)
Clemson University
339
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 AC Lecture 4 Phasors,
Impedance, and AC Circuit Analysis
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
340
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
341
Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 4 Phasors, Impedance
oVoltages
and AC Circuit
Analysis
oCurrents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Power Supply Converting AC > DC
Bridge Rectifier
(lowpass)
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
343
Review
Z3
Time
Domain
Z2
Transform
using
Phasors
Frequency
Domain
Impedances
Combine in series and parallel like resistors
VI relationship:
V ( j ) Z ( j ) I ( j )
KCL and KVL still apply Node voltage / Mesh current analysis
Superposition
Thevenin, Norton, Source Transformation
Z4
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344
General Circuit Solution Techniques for AC Circuits
Node Voltage Approach
Transform
to
frequency
domain
Solve the
Entire Circuit using
the Node Voltage
Method
All
Node
Voltages
All
Mesh
Currents
Solve the
Entire Circuit using
the Mesh Current
Method
Find
Component
Voltages
Specific
Component
Voltages
Specific
Component
Currents
Find
Component
Currents
Mesh Current Approach
Find
Other
Electrical
Quantities
such as current
or power
Voltage
Current,
Power, etc
Find
Other
Electrical
Quantities
such as voltage
or power
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Mesh (Loop) Current Systematic application of KVL
1. Transform using phasors and impedances
2. Label all n of the mesh currents in a clockwise
direction
3. Decide if the n mesh currents are dependent or
independent. A connected current source will make
a mesh dependent. Count the m dependent meshes.
4. Write KVL equations at each of the nm
independent nodes. Write m equations to relate the
dependent mesh currents to the source currents.
Define a supermesh for the special case of a shared
current source
5. Solve n equations
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
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Example 1: MCM for Circuit with Single Mesh
C
+
Find vR(t) and vC(t) :
1
F
5

1. Transform to frequency domain
vC (t )
+
vS (t )
I1
vR (t )

vS (t ) 30cos(20t )V
VS 300V, Z R 5
1
ZC j
j
C
1
1
20
5
j 0.25
2. Label all meshes n=1
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources) m=0
4. Write nm=1 KVL eqns.
voltage drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1
Vdrops Vs VC VR 300V I1 ( j 0.25) I1 (5) 0
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
347
Example 1: MCM for Circuit with Single Mesh (cont)
Im
VR
5. Solve
I1 (5 j 0.25) 300o V
I1
300
A 5.992.86A
5.01 2.86
Find component voltages
VS
Re
VC
Visual Check of KVL: VS=VR+VC
VC I1Z C (5.992.86)0.25 90 1.5 87.14V
=1.5 1.52rad V
vC (t ) 1.5cos 20t 1.52 V
VR I1 R 5(5.992.86) 29.952.86V
29.950.05rad V
vR (t ) 29.95cos 20t+0.05 V
+
vS (t ) 
vC (t )
vR (t )
I1
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
348
Example 1: MCM for Circuit with Single Mesh (cont)
Note about units:
VC =1.5 1.52rad V
vC (t ) 1.5cos 20t 1.52 V
Can evaluate the cosine
function at any time by
substituting t
rad
rad
sec rad
sec
deg
VC 1.5 87.14V
vC (t ) 1.5cos 20t 87.14 V
To evaluate the cosine
function:
1) Convert deg to rad
2) Substitute t and add
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
349
Example 2: MCM for Circuit with Two Meshes
5k
2H
5103
+

j754
1F
j2652.5
vS (t )
I1
Ix
Find Ix(j)
vS (t ) 120cos(377t 20)
1. Transform to frequency domain
1k
VS ( j ) 12020 113 j41.04V
103
ZC
I2
Note: 377 rad / s f 60 Hz
4. Write nm=2 KVL eqns.
j
j 2652.5
C
Z L j L j 2 377 j 754
2. Label all meshes n=2
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources) m=0
Vdrops 113 j41.04V I1 (5 103 ) ( I1 I 2 )( j 2652.5) 0
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 1
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2
Vdrops ( I 2 I1 )( j 2652.5) I 2 ( j 754) I 2 (103 ) 0
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 2 (cont): MCM for Circuit with Two Meshes
5. Solve
5 103 j 2652.5
I1
j 2652.5
113 j41.04V
3
I
0
j
2652.5
10
j
754
j
2652.5
0.01817.82o
I1
0.0175 + j0.0056
A
I 0.0224  j0.0039 A
o
0.0239.96
2
Find current of interest
Ix =  I1 = 1(17.82+180) = 0.018
+
Ix
I1
I2
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
351
Example 3: MCM Where One of the Branches has a Current
Source
1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
2. Label all meshes
n=2
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=1
4. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation in the
dependent loop
1 A
4
I1 1 A
4
Vn 5 V 20 I 2 0
3
2
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2
5 V
3
20
I1
I2
5 V
3
I2
20
2
5. Solve
4
A
5
0.25
6
I1
I
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
352
Example 4: MCM Where One of the Branches has a Current
Source (a little more difficult)
1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
n=2
2. Label all meshes
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
4. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation in the
dependent loop
m=1
20
A
4
3
I1 1 A 1
A
4
4
Vn 5 V 20 I 2 I1 0
3
2
drops in
CW direction
in mesh 2
5. Solve
0 I1
1
j 20 j 20 I
3
1
5 2 V
I1
5 V
3
I2
I1
1.0 2.4
0.97  2.1
I2
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353
Example 5: Two meshes share a current source (most difficult)
1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
2. Label all meshes
n=2
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=1
20
4. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
2
AND m=1 equation for the
dependent mesh
We have two problems:
1. The model of a current source does
not relate voltage and current >
cant write KVL directly ????
2. Cant write that I1 or I2 is equal to
the value of the current source (as in
the previous example) since both go
through it.
20
+
Vx
 1 A
4
I1
I2
5 V
3
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354
Example 5 (cont): Two meshes share a current source (most
difficult)
1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
2. Label all meshes
n=2
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
m=1
20
4. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
2
AND m=1 equation for the
dependent loop
Solution:
Change one of the meshes
into a supermesh that
circles the two meshes of
interest.
20
+
Vx
 1 A
I1
4
Now proceed
with Step 3 of the
MCM.
I2
5 V
3
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355
Example 5 (cont): Two meshes share a current source (most
difficult)
1. Transform to frequency domain (already completed)
2. Label all meshes
3. Identify dependent meshes
(current sources)
4. Write nm=1 KVL eqns
AND m=1 equation for the
dependent loop
20
n=2
m=1
Create
Super mesh
20
2
I1
A
4
I2
5 V
3
Vn 20 I1 20 I1 I 2 5 V 0
2
2
3
drops super mesh 1
I 2 1 A
4
5. Solve
I1
0.54590.5624
I 1.00002.3562 A
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356
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
Any part of the circuit with two terminals (a oneport
network) can be replaced by a single voltage source
and an impedance in series.
Z3
Z1
Z2
From the Z4
perspective, V
and I, it cant tell
which circuit it is
in.
Z4
ZT
VT
ZT
VT=VOC
VT
Z4
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Procedure to find Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
A. Find Equivalent Impedance
Remove Load (impedance or subcircuit)
Remove Sources
V source > short circuit
I source > open circuit
Find Z
B. Find Open Circuit Voltage
Remove Load
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh current)
Find voltage at load terminals (still without the load)
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Norton Equivalent Circuit
Any part of the circuit with two terminals (a oneport
network) can be replaced by a single current source
and an impedance in parallel.
Z1
Z3
Z2
IN
From the Z4
perspective, V
and I, it cant tell
which circuit it is
in.
Z4
ZN=ZT
IN
ZRNN
Z4
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Procedure to find Norton Equivalent Circuit
A.
Find Equivalent Impedance
Remove Load
Remove Sources
V source > short circuit
I sourve > open circuit
B.
Exactly the same
procedure as finding Z
for the Thevenin
Equivalent:
ZN=ZT
Find Z
Find Short Circuit Current
Replace Load with a Short
Solve Circuit (node voltage, or mesh current)
Find current at the load terminals (still with the short)
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Source Transformation
Any voltage source in series with an impedance can
be replaced by a current source in parallel with the
same impedance.
ZT
VT
IN
ZN
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361
Source Transformation Thevenin <> Norton
Z is same in both circuits
ZT
VT
IN
`
VT I N Z
VT
IN
Z
ZN
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Example 6: Thevenin Equivalent
VS 1100
Voc
Z1 5
Z 2 j 20
Voltage Divider
Z 2VS
20901100
Voc
106.714.04V
Z1 Z 2
20.6275.96
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 6 (cont): Thevenin Equivalent
Z in
Z in Z1 / / Z 2
Z1Z 2
50 2090
10090
4.8514
Z1 Z 2
5 j 20
20.6275.96
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 6 (cont): Thevenin Equivalent
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Procedure to Analyze a Circuit Using Superposition
Choose one current or voltage source and remove
all others
Replace voltage source by short circuit
Replace current source by open circuit
Solve for voltages and/or currents of interest.
Repeat for
EVERY source
in the circuit
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Example 7: Superposition
Find Io and Vo by Superposition
110o
2 10o
380o
+j4
Vo
Consider the 1A Source
Io
110o
j4
Io1
Vo1

I o 1 110o , Vo 1 110o 490o 4100o V
Consider the 2A Source
2 10o
Io2
j4
Vo2

I o 2 2 10o , Vo 2 2 10o 490 o
880o V
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367
Example 7 (cont): Superposition
Repeat using Superposition:
110o
2 10o
380o
Consider the 3A Source
380
j4
Io3
Io
j4
Vo3

I o 3 380o A, Vo 3 380o A 490o 12170o V
Solve using Superposition
Vo Vo 1 Vo 2 Vo 3 4.450938.6646oV
I o I o 1 I o 2 I o 3 17.8038128.6646o A
Vo

ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary
Transform circuit to frequency domain then proceed
as DC circuit
Series and Parallel Reduction for Impedances
Mesh Current Method for AC circuits
Node Voltage Method
Thevenin Equivalent
Superposition
Transform back to find time domain signal
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Fractal Plastic
Ian Stocks
Description:
This composite image was
created by duplicating a pattern
that was formed as an accidental
byproduct of a process for slide
mounting mites. Fractal patterns
are selfsimilar at different scales,
snowflakes are examples of
fractal patterns. Pure fractals are
mathematical objects that repeat
infinitely; the fractal structures
seen in nature are models of these
patterns.
369
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Old Hospital
(circa long ago)
Clemson University
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
MATLAB Code for Examples in this Lecture
% AC Mesh Current Lecture Example
%MCM 2
VS=120*cosd(20)+j*120*sind(20) %angles in degrees
ZC=j*1/(377*1E6)
ZL=j*377*2
ZR1k=1000
ZR5k=5000
A=[ZR5k+ZC ZC;ZC ZC+ZR1k+ZL]
B=[VS; 0]
I=inv(A)*B
% Convert to polar
Ipolar=[abs(I(1)) angle(I(1))*180/pi ; abs(I(2)) angle(I(2))*180/pi] %This is not a
polar form in matlab
% MCM 4
A=[1 0;20*j 20*j]
B=[1*cos(3*pi/4) + j*1*sin(3*pi/4);5*cos(2*pi/3) + j*5*sin(2*pi/3)]
I=inv(A)*B
% Convert to polar
Ipolar=[abs(I(1)) angle(I(1)); abs(I(2)) angle(I(2))] %This is not a polar form in
matlab
% MCM 5
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
MATLAB Code for Examples in this Lecture
ZC=j*20
A=[2*ZC ZC;0 1]
B=[5*cos(pi/3)  j*5*sin(pi/3);1*cos(pi/4)  j*1*sin(pi/4)]
I=inv(A)*B
% Convert to polar
Ipolar=[abs(I(1)) angle(I(1)); abs(I(2)) angle(I(2))] %This is
not a polar form in matlab
%Thevenin
Z1=5
Z2=j*20
VS=110
VOC=(Z2*VS)/(Z1+Z2)
VOCpolar=[abs(VOC) angle(VOC)*180/pi] %This is not a
polar form in matlab
%Superposition
Io=4*cosd(100)+j*4*sind(100) + 8*cosd(80)+j*8*sind(80) +
12*cosd(170)+j*12*sind(170)
Iopolar=[abs(Io) angle(Io)*180/pi]
Vo=1*cosd(10)+j*1*sind(10) + 2*cosd(10)+j*2*sind(10) +
3*cosd(80)+j*3*sind(80)
Vopolar=[abs(Vo) angle(Vo)*180/pi]
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 AC Lecture 5
AC Power
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
374
Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 5 AC Power
oVoltages
oCurrents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Energy at Clemson
BTU (British Thermal Unit)s are measurements
of energy consumption (english units), they can
be converted directly to:
3412 BTUs = 1 kWh (metric unit)
MMBTU is an english system abbreviation for
106BTU (not to be confused with M=106 in the
metric system)
Clemson University energy consumption in a
year (2008):
Fossil Fuel (cost ~$3,000,000)
Electric (cost ~$5,500,000)
900,000 MMBTU 900,000 x106 BTU
1kWh
8
2.64 x10 kWh
3, 412 BTU
9 x1011 BTU
Mix is about fossil
fuel and AC
electric from power
company
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Energy at Clemson
Energy reduction goal is 20% by 2020
(.2)2.64 x108 kWh 5.28 x10 7 kWh 5.28 x10 4 MWh
What does that mean?
Turn off light bulbs
100W light bulb running continuously for a year
Energy used in 100W 24h
876kWh
365
day
a year by one
bulb
day
bulb
bulb
Number of bulbs (operating
bulb
continuously) that would 5.28 x107 kWh
60,000 bulbs
876kWh
need to be turned off
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Energy at Clemson
Energy reduction goal is 20% by 2020
(.2)2.64 x108 kWh 5.28 x107 kWh 5.28 x10 4 MWh
What does that mean?
Replace this 20% with solar : An average for a
solar cell over a day in the south is 200W/m2 and
20% efficient in converting solar to electrical
Total energy
generated per
area in 1 year
Total area
required
200W
0.2
2
m
24h
0.35MWh
365
day
day
m
m
4
2
5.28 x10 MWh
150,857
m
0.35
MWh
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ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Energy at Clemson
Approximate size of solar array needed to replace 20% of purchased energy
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379
Instantaneous and Average Values of a Waveform
Instantaneous Value a
constant that describes the
waveform at a specific time.
Voltage (V)
Instantaneous value at
t=11.1 sec is 2.1V
Instantaneous value at
t=5.0 sec is 4.8V
Average Value a constant that
describes the waveform over a time
span.
Average voltage from
5.0 to 6.7 is 3.99V
Average voltage from
6.7 to 11.1 is 4.1V
4.8
4.1
3.99
2.1
5.0
6.7
11.1 Time (seconds)
Average value of a
sinusoid over one
period is zero
Today we will consider the
instantaneous and average
values of power waveforms
in AC circuits.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
380
Example 1 Calculating Average Values of a Periodic Waveform
From a plot
From function
v(t) cos(2 t )V
T 1s
Voltage (V)
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
1 2 3 4
Vavg
Time (seconds)
Average Value
Vavg
1 T
cos(2 t )Vdt
T 0
3V 1s 1V 1s 2V 1s
4s
1V
1
sin(2 t )
2 (1)
o
sin(2 ) sin(0) 0V
2 (1)
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
381
Impedance and Phase Shift
I j
V j
v(t ) V cos(t V )
i (t ) I cos(t I )
(V=0 for the plot)
V
I
Z j
V j V V
I j I I
V j V V
Z j
I j
I I
V
V I Z
I
Impedance causes phase shift, ,
between voltage and current
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
382
Instantaneous Power
Given the voltage and current
v(t ) V cos(t )
i (t ) I cos(t )
In order to simplify the following
definitions assume that V=0 then
V I
The instantaneous power is written as
p (t ) v(t )i (t )
VI cos t cos t
Trig.
Identity
+
v(t)
VI
VI
cos cos 2t
2
2
constant
Time varying sinusoid,
twice original frequency
i(t)
Note: The standard
reference direction for v
and i is still used; thus,
this describes power
consumed by the device
= power supplied by
the circuit to the device
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
383
Instantaneous Power in a Resistor
VI
VI
o
p (t ) cos 0 cos 2t 0o
2
2
resistor always
VI
=
1
cos
2
consumes power
2
Resistive Load
1
0.8
v(t ) V cos(t )
i (t ) I cos(t )
Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt
Z j R0
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Voltage
Voltage
Current
InstantaneousCurrent
Voltage
Power
0.8
1
Time
10
12
Plot assumes V 0o
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384
Instantaneous Power in an Inductor and Capacitor
Capacitor; = 90
1
90
C
0
Inductor; = +90
v t V cos t
i t I cos t 90o
Z L90 v t V cos t o
i t I cos t 90
0
VI
VI
o
p (t ) cos 90 cos 2t 90o
2
2
VI
=
sin 2t
VI
VI
o
p (t ) cos 90 cos 2t 90o
2
2
VI
=  sin 2t
2
Capacitive Load
0.8
0.8
sometimes p(t)0 or p(t)0
0.6
Current Leads the Voltage
0.4
Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt
Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt
0.6
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time
10
12
Current Lags the Voltage
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Voltage
Voltage
Current
InstantaneousCurrent
Voltage
Power
0.8
1
Inductive Load
1
Store or supply energy?
Voltage
Voltage
Current
InstantaneousCurrent
Voltage
Power
0.8
14
1
Time
10
12
14
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385
Average Power
Average power is the integral of instantaneous power over one
period
Substitute power equation from previous slide and
1 T
Pav
p t dt
integrate each term in the sum separately
0
T
T
1 VI
1 VI
VI
cos dt
cos 2t dt cos
T 0 2
T 0 2
2
constant
VI
Resistor
VI
2
Pav cos
0 Capacitor
2
0 Inductor
time
Does the power company charge you to
use a capacitor since the average power
is zero?
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Comparison of Instantaneous Power in Resistor, Inductor, and
Capacitor
Instantaneous Power
Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt
0.8
0.6
Average Power
Resistor > 0
0.4
Average Power
Capacitor and
Inductor = 0
0.2
0
Resistor
Inductor
Capacitor
0.2
0.4
Time
10
12
14
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387
Example 2: Motor Load (Inductive and Resistive)
Motor Load (Inductive and Resistive)
1
0.8
Magnitude (Volt/Amp/Watt
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Voltage
Voltage
Current
InstantaneousCurrent
Voltage
Power
0.8
1
Time
10
Average power > 0, but still sometimes p(t)0 or p(t)<0
12
14
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388
Reminder: Root Mean Square (RMS)
Common Power Sinusoids
170V
120Vrms
US: f=60Hz, Vpeak= 170V
Europe, Asia, Africa:
f=50Hz, Vpeak=325V
Vrms root mean square (rms)
1 T 2
x (t )dt
0
T
Vmax
for sinusoid
US:
Vrms
170V
Vrms 120V
2
Europe, Asia, Africa:
Vrms
325V
230V
2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
389
RMS Phasor
Assume = 377rad/s (f = 60Hz) and we introduce phasors with rms value
v t Vmax cos t V
i t I max cos t I
Vmax
V ( j )
%
V ( j )
V
2
2
I max
I ( j )
%
I ( j )
I
2
2
RMS Phasor quantities & power related to peakvalue and power
Notation for an
RMS Phasor
Vmax I max
V I
%
%
Pav
cos V I cos
2
Notation for the
%cos t
2
v
t
2
V
%
2
V
Magnitude of an
1 Vmax
cos
cos
RMS Phasor
2 Z
Z
i t 2 I%cos t
2
1
2
%
Z I max cos Z I cos
2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Impedance Triangle
Im
Z
jX
Re
Resistors
X is called the Reactance
and it comes from the
Capacitors and Inductors:
X>0 if the load is more
inductive
X<0 if the load is more
capacitive
V% j V v V
Z
v i Z R jX
%
I j
I i
I
Z is the magnitude of Z, i.e. Z= Z
The real part of the impedance, R, affects the power differently than the
complex part, X.
390
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Power Factor (pf)
v i
Pav
VI
cos V I%cos
2
Pav
pf
cos
V I%
The phase angle of the load plays a very important role in the absorption of
power by the load impedance.
0 pf 1
pf 0
Purely inductive or capacitive load
No average dissipated power
pf 1
Purely resistive load
All power is dissipated power
A pf between 0 and 1 means combination of resistive and
reactive load.
391
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
392
Power Factor (pf)
Pav
pf
cos
V I%
if 0
Im
pf 0
Z
Inductive load
Re
pf= **, lagging
if 0
pf 0
Capacitive load
pf= **, leading
Add the terms leading and lagging to describe the sign of
XL
X
XC
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
393
Complex Power
*
%
S V ( j )I ( j )
V I%
The * means complex conjugate
V I% V
*
S
Convert
To Rect.
V I%cos j V I%sin
Im
S  apparent power
 units voltamperes (VA)
Pav jQ
where
Pav V%I%cos
Q V%I%sin
Recall power factor:
pf
Pav
cos
S
I% v i V I%
Q  reactive power
 voltamperes reactive (VAR)
Re
Pav  real power (absorbed by load resistance)
 watts (W)
The pf tells us how much real
power is consumed as a
fraction of total power
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Complex Power (Alternate Forms)
In terms of rms values
*
%
S VI
Z I% or
V
/Z
I% V
2
2
*
%
%
%
%
S Z II Z I R jX I
Pav jQ
2
%
Pav R I
V
/Z
S V
Pav jQ
2
%
QX I
V / Z*
1 2
V
R
1 2
if Z jX Q
V
X
if Z R Pav
394
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
395
Example 3 Calculating Real and Reactive Power
If
s 20150V
V
Inductive load
and Z L 6 j 6 7245o
v 150o
Find the real & reactive power dissipated in the load.
s 20150V
V
%
Is
2.357105A
o
Z
7245
I 105o
V I 150 105 45
o
%
%cos 20 2.357 cos 45 33.3W
Pav VI
%
%sin 20 2.357 sin 45 33.3VAR
Q VI
pf angle > 0, lagging
Pav V%I%cos
Q V%I%sin
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary
Introduced RMS Phasors
Introduced complex power
Real component (average power)
Complex Component (reactive power)
Phase shift angle between voltage and current (ie
impedance angle) determines the ratio of real to
reactive power.
Power Factor is the ratio of average power to
magnitude of complex power.
396
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
397
Amphitrite
Goddess of the Sea
Joshua Mount, Neeraj Gohad, Andrew
Mount
Description:
A pseudocolored scanning electron
micrograph shows the presence of
chloride transport epithelium involved in
salt balance on the cirri (feeding
apparatus) of the adult barnacle
(Amphibalanus amphitrite). To feed,
barnacles extend the cirri into the ocean
to catch small organism like tiny shrimp.
As the ciiri extend out in the ocean the
chloride ephithelium on the cirri may be
involved in helping the barnacle maintain
osmotic balance (salt balance) in its body.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
The Agriculture Train (Built circa 1911)
Clemson University
398
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 AC Lecture 6
Power Factor Correction
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
399
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
400
Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 6 Power Factor
Correction oVoltages
oCurrents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Buying Power for a Factory
Duke Energy Website: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
When the average monthly power factor of the Customers power requirements is less
than 85 percent, the Company may correct the integrated demand in kilowatts for that
month by multiplying by 85 percent and dividing by the average power factor in
percent for that month.
Im
.85 pf cos
pf cos
cos 1 ( pf ) cos 1 (.85) 31.788o
Billable .85 Billable .85
Billable
new pf
cos
Corrected
Pay Extra
Re
Pay Extra
Suppose bill would be $100,000 for the month
with pf<.85.
But you added inductive reactance to your
plant so that increased
to 33o your bill just increased by $13,509
to 43o your bill just increased by $16,223
to 53o your bill just increased by $
41,239
401
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Examples of Inductive Loads
Motors, solenoids, and relays. If it moves, it's
probably an inductive
power drills, electric mixers, fans, sewing machines,
and vacuum cleaners. Transformers also produce
inductive loads.
Some lighting
402
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Reminder
RMS Phasors
Vmax
V ( j )
%
V ( j )
V
2
2
I max
I ( j )
%
I ( j )
I
2
2
403
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
404
Motivation
Complex Power:
%
S VI
V
Im
S  apparent power
 units voltamperes (VA)
I% i
V I% v i V I%
V I%cos j V I%sin
Pav jQ
Q  reactive power
 voltamperes reactive (VAR)
Re
Pav  real power (absorbed by load resistance)
 watts (W)
Pav does work such heating water in an electric water heater (resistor)
Q describes the storage and return of power to the network in the reactive
components (inductors and capacitors)
Typically unwanted such as the inductance of an electric motor
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Motivation
405
Im
s
Re
Pav
The power company will charge the industrial user for
S V I%
We would like to find a way to perform the same amount of work, PAV, but
pay less, reduce S. We want to make the power factor close to unity:
Phase shift caused by the load impedance
Pav
pf
cos
Yes.
Add capacitance to cancel
inductive load
Add inductance to cancel
capacitive load
v i 0
Can we remove the phase shift caused
by the load impedance?
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
406
Impedance Triangle (from previous lecture)
Im
R
Z
jX
Re
j V
V
v
V
Z
v i Z R jX
I
I% j
I% i
*
%
S VI
2
2
*
%
%
%
%
Z II Z I R jX I
2
1 2
1
*
V /Z j V
X
R
Pav jQ S
V
/Z
V
This is the same angle in
the impedance triangle and
in the complex power > we
can change the impedance
angle to change the power
angle.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Power Factor (pf) (from previous lecture)
%
S VI V v
I%
i
V I% v i V I%
V I%cos j V I%sin
Pav
Pav
pf
cos
V I% S
Pav jQ
The phase angle of the load plays a very important role in the absorption of
power by the load impedance.
Purely inductive or capacitive load
pf
0
0 pf 1
No average dissipated power
0 pf 1
pf 1
A pf between 0 and 1 means combination of
resistive and reactive load.
Purely resistive load
All power is dissipated power
407
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
408
Example 2
Given
v t 10 2 cos 25t / 8 V
i t 3.5 2 cos 25t / 4 A
Find
1. The pf for the load with this voltage and current
2. The average power and reactive power of the load
Solution
Convert to phasor rms form:
Determine the load
impedance:
10 V
V
8
I% 3.5 4 A
10 8
V
2.86
2.86
8
4
8
%
I 3.5 4
/ 8 22.5 0
Pav 10 3.5 0.924 32.3W
pf cos 22.5 0.924
Capacitive load
pf leading
Q 10 3.5 0.3826 13.4VAR
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
409
Example 3
I%
Find the real average power
dissipated in the circuit shown here.
Z eq1 j 6 P j 4
j6 j4
j6 j 4
20
j 6
50120V
rms
j12
Z eq 2 20 j12 23.32 31
50120
%
I
2.144151A
23.32 31
Pav 50 2.144 cos 31 91.9W
Q 50 2.144 sin 31 54.34VAR
Z eq 2
Z eq1
Capacitive load
pf angle < 0
leading
j 4
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
410
Observations on pf angle
Z Z R jX
2
Pav V%I%cos I%
R
2
Q V%I%sin I%
X
V
V
R Z cos cos cos
I
I%
V
V
X Z sin sin sin
I
I%
Since
R0
0 90 X 0
90 0 X 0
pf
Pav
cos
S
90 0
inductive load
capacitive load
Q0
Q0
Lagging Power
Factor
(I Follows V)
Leading Power
Factor
(V Follows I)
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
411
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 4.
412
Find the complex power delivered
to the load Z.
1100V
10
j 6
Z L 10 P j 6 5.14559.04
Find the voltage across the load (use voltage divider):
V L 5.14559.04 110 70.925.5 V
4 5.14559.04
L
V
70.925.5
%
IL
13.8 33.59 A
Z L 5.14559.04
I% 70.925.5 13.8 33.59 97859.1
S V
*
L L
503 j839 W
ZL
Load is resistive &
Inductive. pf lagging.
Pav 503 W
Q 839 VAR
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
413
Example 4. What if inductor is removed?
4
What is the power situation like now?
Z L 10
1100V
10
Find the voltage across the load (use voltage divider):
V L 10 110 78.60 V
4 10
L 78.60
V
%
IL
7.860 A
ZL
10
*
%
S V L I L 78.60 7.860 6170
617 W
ZL
Pav 617 W
Q 0 VAR
pf = 0
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
414
Example 5a
Find the complex power delivered
to the complex load.
50
1170V
j86.7
Note, the load is partially resistive
and partially inductive, as are many industrial
loads (things which have motors generally
present partially inductive loads).
Inductive load, lagging pf
Z L 50 j86.7
10060
60 0
pf cos 60 0.5
L 1170
V
%
IL
1.17 60 A
Z L 10060
L I%
S V
L 1170 1.17 60 136.8960
ZL
Pav 68.4 W
Q 118.5 VAR
68.4 j118.5 W
Inductive load
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
415
Example 5b
50
1170V
Find the value of capacitive
reactance which, when added in parallel
with the load impedance of example 5a,
will make the effective pf =1 (purely resistive
load). Find the complex power delivered to the
new load under this condition.
j86.7
ZL
The resulting circuit is shown to the right.
Since we know we want pf = 1, this can only happen when q =0, so that cosq =1. This
means that the phase angle of the new load impedance must be zero.
pf cos cos 0 1
Let Z L1 50 j86.7 R jX A
Z L 2 jX B
R 50
X A L 86.7
XB
1
?
C
jX C
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
416
Example 5b (continued)
Our objective is to find the value of the capacitive reactance with makes the load
impedance have a phase of zero. One way to accomplish this is to do a little algebra!
Z L Z L1 PZ L 2
R jX A
Z L1Z L 2
Z L1 Z L 2
jX B R jX A jX B R j X A X B
R jX A jX B
R j XA XB R j XA XB
RX B2
R XA XB
2
jX B
R 2 X L X A X B
R2 X A X B
Thus, the needed condition is achieved if the imaginary part of the expression is
zero, making the load impedance purely real (pf =1). To make this happen we need
R XA XA XB 0
2
R 2 X A2
502 86.7 2
XB
115.54
XA
86.7
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
417
Example 5b (continued)
XB
1
1
1
C
23 F
C
Xc
377
115.54
50 115.54
ZL 2
2
2
R XA XB
502 86.7 115.54
RX B2
200.3
L
V
1170
%
IL
0.58410 A
Z L 200.30
*
%
S V L I L 1170 0.5841 0 68.40
68.4 W
This is the shunt
capacitance that corrects
the phase angle of the load
This is the effective
load impedance after
shunt capacitor
New current though
effective load
Complex power is now
purely real.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
418
Power factor correction
load needing
pf correction
Shunt reactance
to give pf correction
Load Impedance for circuit shown
ZL
RX B2
R XA XB
2
jX B
R 2 X A X A X B
R2 X A X B
pf = 1 when
R2 X A X A X B 0
XB
ZL
R X
XA
2
This is the shunt reactance
needed to provide pf
correction
2
A
RX B2
R2 X A X B
This is the resulting realvalued
load impedance after pf
correction
if X A L
if X A
XB
1
C
1
X B L
C
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
419
Power factor correction
load needing
pf correction
2
Pav V%I%cos I%
R
2
Q V%I%sin I%
X
Shunt reactance
to give pf correction
Power factor Triangle
2
I%
X A QA
2
I%
X B QB
Pav
if X A L
Condition for correction:
Make: QB QA
1
XB
C
S Pav
1
if X A
X B L
C
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
420
Example: Example 5a (part 2)
We found that for the inductive load
Pav 68.4 W
Q 118.5 VAR
50
1170V
jX
j86.7
If we add the shunt capacitor we must have that
QC 118.5VAR
1 2
= V
X
1
2
1170
X
ZL
2
1170
1
X
115.5
118.5
377 C
C
1
23 F
377
115.5
Compare to Example 5b
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 6: Switching Mode Computer Power Supply
1200V
V
Z PS
rm
s
Im
Note: w = 337rad/s
XPS
53.13
PPS : 280 W
s2
Re
Switching Mode Computer Power
Supply
120VAC, 280W
pf = 0.6 lagging
421
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
What does a pf 0f 0.6 lagging and
real power of 280 W tell us?
280 W is the real part of S
pf
Pav
cos
S
cos 0.6 53.13 angle of S from real axis
280
S
VA 466.7VA
S S
0.6
we can find
I%
Knowing S and V
S 466.753.13VA
%
%
S VI I
3.8953.13A
V
1200V
I% 3.89 53.13A
Find ZPS :
Z PS
V
1200V
30.8653.13
%
I 3.8953.13A
18.5 j 24.39
422
S Pav jQ
Q 373.4VAR
53.13
Lagging pf
Z PS
R 18.5
L 24.4
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Given a wall outlet rated for 15A, how many
computers can I plug in?
~
from I we have
423
I% 3.89 I max 3.89 2A 5.5A
I circuit max
15A
2.72 can plug in only 2 computers
I per computer 5.5A
Correct the power factor by adding a shunt capacitor to nullify the reactive power in the
inductive load
1200V
V
Z PS
1
1
1
Z eq ZC Z PS
Z eq
Since we changed the circuit the current
changes according to
1200V V
%
I
Z eq
Z eq
Z C Z PS
Z C Z PS
j
1
ZC
90
377C 377C
pf correction needs: QC 373.4 VAR
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
The complex power is
* 1200V
VV
%
S VI
*
Z eq
Z eq*
*
Effective pf angle is decided by that of the
equivalent load.
Question:
Is it possible to control the effective phase angle of the equivalent load so that all
power is dissipated in the load rather than some of it being stored?
Answer: Yes.
Find expression for Zeq
Z eq
Z C Z PS
Z C Z PS
90
30.86
53.13
377C
18.5
j
24.69
377C
This can be reduced as follows
Z eq
30.86 36.87
(377C )18.5 j[(24.69)377C 1]
424
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
425
Given
Z eq
30.86 36.87
(377C )18.5 j[(24.69)377C 1]
The expressions on slide
29 are essentially the same
as what is done here.
We can further reduce to
Z eq
30.86 36.87
(377C )18.5 2 (24.69)377C 1 2 tan 1
24.69(377C ) 1
18.5(377C )
call this f for the
moment
If f =36.87 it will subtract from the numerator phase angle such that the
phase angle for Zeq is 0 phase of S becomes zero!
Thus, one sets:
24.69(377C ) 1
36.87 tan
18.5(377C )
1
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
0.75(18.5)(377C ) 24.69(377C ) 1
We take tan( ) of both sides:
1.45 10 4 C 1
Then solve for C :
What is the effect of our choice of C ?
j
j 38.565 38.57 90
C
38.57 90 30.86 53.13
Z eq
j 38.565 18.5 j 24.69
ZC
1.19 103 36.87
51.460
23 125 36.87
What is the new current
426
I?%
V
1200
%
I
2.330A
Z 51.460
C 68.8 F
QC 373.4VAR
1 2
V
X
1
2
1200
X
1200
1
X
38.56
373.4
377 C
C
1
68.8 F
377 38.56
This Zeq will not create a phase
shift in current
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
427
Note
I 2(2.33)A 3.3A
Peak current
Calculate the new power:
*
%
S VI
1200V 2.330A 2800VA
280 j 0 VA
no reactive power, all of it is real, dissipated
power!
What does this mean ?
# computers
15A
4 .5
3.3A
One can now connect 4
computers and one laptop to
the same circuit !
427
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary
Power Factor Correction
428
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
429
White Blood Cell Grabbing a
Bacterium
Thabe Matsebatlela
Description:
This micrograph shows what goes on
inside our bodies when we are infected
with bacteria. This is a magnified view
of what happened when white blood
cells of the immune system
(macrophages) were challenged with
bacteria: these cells were able to search,
grab, attack, and eliminate the bacteria.
The membrane protrusions of the white
blood cells are essential in achieving
this purpose, and drugs that enhance
these elongation actions will be useful
in activating immune system cells to kill
bacteria.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
The Old Sheep Barn
(still on campus, not sure why)
Clemson University
430
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 AC Lecture 7
Transformers
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
431
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
432
Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Kirchhoff's Current Law
o
Transfer Power
Transformer
Node Voltage Method
(3phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 7 Transformer
oVoltages
oCurrents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Transformers
433
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
434
Transformers
Transformers take one thing and convert it into another thing.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:PoleMountTrans
former02.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Transfor
mer3d_col3.svg
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Magnetic Coupling
When inductors are put close together, the magnetic
fields interact.
L1
L2
When we analyzed
circuits we assumed
that were physically
far enough apart so
that inductors
magnetic fields do not
interact.
435
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
436
Magnetic Coupling
Magnetic field outside each energized inductor
weakens rapidly with distance.
However, if d is small the fields will interact
Inductor
Inductor
coil of wire
Air
L1
n1
n2
L2
Number of times the
coil is wrapped
iron core
So when building circuits one must be careful of this interaction
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Making a Transformer
Build a new device by purposely allowing the magnetic field in each inductor to
flow through the other, e.g., putting them on the same physical core.
I1
I2
V1
n1
n2
V2
These wires are insulated so
no current flow between the
them
We need a circuit model for this device based on some knowledge of the
construction:
1 turn = 1 loop of wire
n1 # turns in coil 1 n2 # turns in coil 2
around core
n2
n1
dimensionless
437
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
438
The Ideal Transformer
The core contains the magnetic
field and enhances coupling.
Circuit Diagram:
There is a dot for each winding that shows
how to label the voltages and currents.
I%
1
I%
2
V%
1
V%
2
Primary
(input)
Winding
n1 : n2
or
1: N
Secondary
(input)
Winding
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Transformer3d_col3.svg
Transformers, which depend on magnetic coupling, require
time varying currents and thus do nothing for DC.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
439
Ideal Transformer Equations
I%
1
Circuit Model:
I%
2
% NV%
V%
V%
V%
V
2
1
2
1
V 1 is the input or primary voltage.
n2 n1
%
% I1 V 2 is the output or secondary voltage.
I
n I% n I% 2 N
V%
2
2 2
1 1
Stepup transformer
Stepdown transformer
N 1 n2 n1
N 1 n2 n1
Output voltage > Input voltage
Output current < Input current.
Voltage
n1 : n2
or
1: N
n2
n1
Output voltage < Input voltage
Output current > Input current
v2 (t )
v1 (t )
Time
Transformation doesnt
affect phase or frequency
Voltage
v1 (t )
v2 (t )
Time
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
440
Example 1: Transformer In a Power Supply
Transformers are used to change voltage and current levels.
Real world example: A power supply takes 120V AC input and outputs
5V DC.
1200V
V 2
170 cos(377t ) Vin Transformer
VR
Rectifier
VC
DC Voltage
Capacitor
1 1200V V
2 50V
V
Voltage
VR
7V
Time
Smoothed Voltage
VC
7V
time
time
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reservoir_capacitor
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
1. Half wave rectifier circuit
2. Full wave rectifier circuit
3. Bridge rectifier circuit
441
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
442
Example 1 (cont): Transformer In a Power Supply
What is the number of turns needed in the stepdown transformer to achieve
the voltage transformation?
%
V%
2 NV1
V%
5
2
N
V% 120
1
24
Thus if, we design n1 to have 240 turns then
n2 Nn1 10 turns
I%
1
I%
2
V%
1
V%
2
n1 : n2
or
1: N
240 :10
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 2 : The Stun Gun
http://home.howstuffworks.com/stungun3.htm
Stepup transformers can be used to convert a small voltage into a huge voltage
which can wreck havoc on the human nervous system. Follow in the link for
more information.
443
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
444
Example 2 : The Stun Gun
Objective: Create a big AC voltage from a 9volt DC battery
T1
1:100
9V
DC to AC V (t )
1
Converter
T2
1:100
T3
1:15
V2 (t )
V3 (t )
100V
10, 000V
V4 (t )
Rectify
Storage
Trigger
Etc.
DC Battery
1V
150, 000V
While the voltage is increasing current is being reduced!
1A
10mA
0.1mA
7A
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
445
Example 3: Transformer Specification
We require a transformer to deliver 500 mA at 24 V from a 120V rms line source.
If the primary has 3000 turns, how many turns are required in the secondary?
What is the primary current?
I%
1
Given
V1 120V
V 24V
2
I%
2 500 mA
n1 3000
n2
n1
V%
1
V%
2
n1 : n2
or
1: N
Solution
%
V%
2 NV1
%
I
1
I%
2
N
I%
2
V%
24 1
3000
2
N
n2 Nn1
600
%
V1 120 5
5
% 1 0.5 100mA
I%
NI
1
2
5
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
446
CenterTapped Transformer
Multiple taps to the secondary winding produce multiple output voltages related to the
same primary voltage.
Essentially multiple windings on the same core
A center tapped transformer is used to supply power to a house. Centertapped
transformer has n2 = n3.
I%
1
n 4800V V%
1
b
c
n1
V%
120V
2
n2
n3
120V
V%
3
n2 %
V%
V1
2
n1
n3 %
V%
V1
3
n1
240V
This acts as 3 windings
on the same core;
There are 3 terminals
on the output side and
two on the input side.
120V and 240V
are typical residential
rms voltages.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Isolation Transformer
If N = 1, V2 = V1, I2 = I1 then no transformation of voltage or current is accomplished.
I%
1
I%
2
V%
1
V%
2
n1 : n2 n1
or
1:1
Yet, this device is useful because the secondary and primary are now electrically
isolated (but magnetically coupled) so no current flows between the primary and
secondary.
447
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
448
Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)
Three coils on
the same core
VS1
VPrimary
z>0
VOut
VPrimary
VS2
VS1
VOut
VPrimary
VOut VS 1 VS 2 0
Vout
VOut
Vout
VOut
VOut VS 1 VS 2 0
VS2
VS2
VS1
The LVDT is used as a position sensor.
z<0
VS 1 VS 2 0
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
449
Impedance Reflection
ZS
What impedance is seen by the source through
a transformer?
V 2 NV 1
N I%2 I%
1
V1
VS
b
The impedance seen looking into the transformer at ab is
Z ab
I2
V2
n1 : n2
V 2
V 1
1 V 2
1
N
Z ab % % 2 % 2 Z L
I1 N I 2 N I 2 N
1
Z ab 2 Z L
N
Thus, a transformer gives us an alternative means to match a fixed load value to the
source.
ZL
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
450
Example 5: Impedance Matching for Stereo Speakers
Find the transformer turns that provide a speaker impedance match to the
amplifier to ensure maximum noise (music) output in your dorm room.
Speaker 1
8
V
Amplifier
Speaker 2
Matching
Transformer
The two 8 are in parallel, so they combine to be 4. But the amplifier has an internal
resistance of 8. How do we make 4 look like 8 ?
RS 8
RL 4
Z out
1
RS 2 RL
N
RL 4 1
N
RS 8 2
2
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Power in an Ideal Transformer
2
*
*
V
%
%
%
S1 V I
N I 2 V 2 I 2 S2
N
*
1 1
Power In = Power Out
No power is lost in an
ideal transformer. This is
NOT the case in real
transformers, however.
They get hot due to
heating inside the core.
451
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Transformers: Impedance Matching for Maximum Power
Transfer
Goal: Find the conditions on N=n2/n1 and ZL to achieve
maximum power transfer from the source to the load
ZS
ZS
VS
V2
V1
n1 : n2
ZL
452
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
453
Transformers: Impedance Matching for Maximum Power
Transfer
In General, Max Power Transfer in an AC Circuit
ZS
Given
Z S RS jX S
Z L RL jX L
L
V
VS
One may write
V L
ZL
VS
ZS ZL
I%L
I%L
V S
ZS ZL
The complex power is
*
%
SL V L I L
ZL V S
ZL
V S
V S
2
Z S Z L Z S Z L
ZS ZL
*
Note: V S V S V S V S
2
V S V S V S 0o
ZL
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Transformers: Impedance Matching for Maximum Power
Transfer
Max Power Transfer in an AC Circuit
The real (time average) power delivered to the load is
Pav S L Z L
RL V S
RS RL
V S
ZS ZL
RL V S
ZS ZL
XS XL
This expression is maximized when
Z L Z S*
Pav max
or RL RS and X L X S
V S
4 RS
AC condition for maximum
power transfer to a complex
load impedance.
454
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Transformers: Impedance Matching for Maximum Power
Transfer
455
We can draw an equivalent circuit without the transformer as
ZS
VS
Z ab
1
ZL
N2
For maximum power transfer:
1 * RL
XL
Z S RS jX S Z 2 Z L 2 j 2
N
N
N
*
ab
RL N 2 RS and X L N 2 X S
where
XS
L inductor
1
capacitor
C
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
456
Example 6: Use a Transformer for Impedance Matching to
Achieve Maximum Power Transfer
Find the transformer turns ratio and load
reactance that results in maximum power
transfer in the circuit to the right.
We are given the freedom to specify XL
and N for maximum power transfer.
LS
0.1H
RS
10
V S 2000V
RL
RL N RS N
N
RS
2
RL
RS
RL 360
XL
377rad/s
VS
Solution:
For maximum power transfer
1: N
b
360
10
This condition fully
specifies the N
1
X L N X S 36 (377)(0.1H) 1357.2
C
1
C
1.95 F
Negative reactance implies a capacitance
(1357.2)
2
X s L
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 6 (cont): Use a Transformer for Impedance Matching to
Achieve Maximum Power Transfer
Find the equivalent Circuit
Z ab Rab jX Cab
1
1
2 Z L 2 RL jX CL
N
N
Rab
RL 360
10
2
N
36
X Cab
1
2 X CL
N
0.1H
Rab 10
10
Cab 70.2 F
1
1 1
Cab N CL
Cab N 2CL 36(1.95 F )
70.2 F
457
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
458
Summary
Transformer changes the form of electrical input but
does not add power
High V, Low I > Low V, High I
Low V, High I > High V, Low I
Power In = Power Out
Equations
I%
I%
1
2
n2
N
n1
%
V%
2 NV1
%
I
1
I%
2
N
V%
1
V%
2
n1 : n2
or
1: N
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Bio Inspired Hydrophobic
Nanoroughened Surfaces from
Processable Hybrid Composites
Stephen M. Budy and Scott T. Iacono
Description:
This is the first example of processable,
semifluorinated perfluorocyclobutyl
(PFCB) aryl either polymers covalently
bound to pendant polyhedral oligomeric
silsesquioxanes (POSS) cages. The
composites are prepared using a simple
strategy, and demonstrate an increase in
hydrophobicity (waterrepelling) similar
to that of commercial Teflon. The
hydrophobicity is caused by the surface
migration of the nanometersized POSS
aggregates. This produces nanoroughness,
with surface features mimicking those of
the lotus leaf.
459
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Hardin Hall
(circa 1960, before major renovation)
Clemson University
460
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
ECE 307 AC Lecture 8
ThreePhase Circuits
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Clemson University
461
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
462
Overview of AC Circuits
Connections
Reductions
Terminal
Source Transformation
Node
Parallel
Branch
Series
Loop
Thevenin
AC Circuit Components Mesh
Electric Circuit Norton Similar
Resistor
Capacitor
Performs a
Electric Circuit
Inductor
function:
AC Voltage Source
oProcess
AC Current Source
Analysis Tools
Switch
Phasors and Complex Numbers
Information
Dependent Sources
Current Law
oTransfer Power Kirchhoff's
Node Voltage Method
(3phase
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
Mesh Current Method
distribution)
Superposition
Characterized
by:
AC Lecture 8 ThreePhase Circuits
oVoltages
oCurrents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Organized Power Generation and Distribution is a Critical Part of
Our Social and Economic Lifestyles
463
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
464
AC Power Generation and Distribution
Today we will answer the question:
Why are there 3 wires shown?
Multiphase
Generator
All the places
transformers
are used in
power
distribution to
change the
voltages and
currents
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
465
AC Power Generation and Distribution
V an
V cn
120
V bn
This is our circuit model of a three phase generator
Generator
produces three
voltages that are
120 degrees
different in phase.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
AC Power Generation and Distribution
466
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
467
AC Power Generation and Distribution
Circuit
Model
+
Blender
ZB
V%
BR
Light
ZL
Stove
ZS
400
VB
VR
VBVR
300
200
From the centertapped transformer:
Volt
100
% %
V%
BR VB VR
0
100
200
300
400
Time
10
12
14
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
AC Power Generation and Distribution
http://www.americanappliance.com/images/image_data/range_outlet.jpg
468
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
469
Safety
IB
IW
IG
IG
Normally: IB=IW and IG=0
Fault: IG 0 > IB IW
GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) compares IG to IB and stops all current if
they are not equal.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
470
AC Power Generation and Distribution
Three Phase
(3) Circuit
Analysis
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Threephase Circuit Terminology
3 circuits have advantages
constant power ( rather than pulsating )
smoother motor operation.
Used widely in industry ( many of you might
encounter them )
Two configurations of loads and sources
The clouds represent:
Voltage sources for a
generator
Impedances for a load
Wye, Y Configuration
Delta, Configuration
471
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Threephase Circuit Terminology
Notation
V AB voltage at node A with respect to node B
(plus sign at node A and minus sign at node B)
I%aA current with reference direction from node a to node A
(current arrow points from a towards A)
V AB
Example
I aA
a
472
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
The Y (Wye) Connected Source
b
Properties
Voltages at the same frequency
V an
Voltages have equal magnitude
V bn
Voltages have a fixed phase
relationship
V cn
V *n is the Phase Voltage
measured from * to nuetral (n)
Fixed phase relationships between voltage sources
abc sequence
V an V 0 where V p Vmax
p
V bn V p 120
V cn V p 240 V p 120
Other sequences such
asbca sequence are
also used
473
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
474
The Y ( Wye ) Connected Source
Phase diagram
V cn
Plot in Time
Im
120
120
120
v%
bn (t )
v%
cn (t )
v%
an (t )
V an
Re
120
240
V bn
V an V p 0
V bn V p 120
V cn V p 240 V p 120
instantaneous voltage
Phase rotation is abc because a reaches
a maximum first, followed by b and c
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
475
The Y (Wye) Connected Source
V cn
Im
Balanced 3 system
 voltages have same magnitude
120 V
an
240
 voltages are out of phase by 120
Re
120
V bn
V an
V bn
V cn
V an V bn V cn V p V p cos 120 jV p sin 120 V p cos120 jV p sin120
V p V p cos120 jV p sin120 V p cos120 jV p sin120
V p 2V p cos120
V p 2V p 1
0
This is the meaning of a balanced
set in terms of voltages or currents, i.e.,
they sum to zero.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
476
The Y (Wye) Connected Source
Line voltages are referenced
between the terminals a, b, and
c.
V ab
V ab , V bc and V ca are called line voltages
KVL: V an V ab V bn 0
V ab V an V bn V p 0 V p 120
V p 10 1 120
V
V
V
Vp
V ca
V bc
V bc
V ca
V Line V phase
330
3 90 330 V bn
3 210
General relationship:
330 330 V an
3 150
330 V cn
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
The Y (Wye) Connected Source
Phase diagram for line and phase voltages
V cn
Im
V ab
V ca
30
120
30
V an Re
120
V bn
30
V bc
Once we know any one of the six voltages, we can calculate the remaining five.
V Line V phase
330
V ab V bc V ca 0
Voltages have a fixed phase relationship (120o)
477
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
478
The Y ( Wye ) Load Phase and Line Voltages
V AB
A
V BC
V AN
V CA
N
V CN
V BN
Notes
Capital letters for load nodes
Balanced load (the 3 impedances are equal)
A balanced set ( V=0) of phase voltages
KVL
V AB V BN V AN 0
or
V AB V AN V BN
V p 0 V p 120
3V p 30
V Line V phase
330
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
479
The Y ( Wye ) Load  Phase Currents
%
The phase currents I%AN , I%
BN , I CN form a balanced set,
% %
i.e. , I%
AN I BN I CN 0
Line Currents
(shown in green)
flow into load
nodes.
Impedance relationship:
AN
V
I%AN
Z
and
I%
I%AN by 120
BN lags
I%
I%
BN by 120
CN lags
I%
bB
I%aA
A I%AN
phase currents
shown in red
I%
cC
For a Yload, the line currents equal the respective phase currents, i.e. ,
%
I%
aA I AN
%
I%
bB I BN
%
I%
cC I CN
I%
CN
I%Line I%Phase
I%BN
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
480
The Wye Wye System Line Currents
Line Impedance Z L
I%
bB
I%aA
ZL
ZL
I%nN
ZL
n
I%
cC
c
Source
ZL
Transmission line
neutral
line
N
Z
C
Load
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
481
The Wye Wye System Line Currents
The neutral line connects node n of the source and node N of the load. Find this current
for a complete balanced system (balanced source, transmission line, and load) as
follows:
The phase currents of the balanced load form a balanced set, i.e. ,
I%AN I%BN I%
CN 0
KCL at node N says
I%AN
=0
I%nN
I%BN
N
I%
CN
% % %
I%
nN I AN I BN I CN 0
I%
nN 0
In conclusion,
For a balanced YY system, no current flows in the neutral line.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
482
The Wye Wye System Analysis
Since no current flows in the neutral wire, we can replace its line impedance with
zero impedance as shown below:
I%
bB
I%aA
ZL
ZL
I%nN 0
zero impedance
B
Z
n
I%
cC
ZL
I%nN 0 even though the neutral line has zero impedance
We can now use superposition to solve for I%
aA .
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
483
The Wye Wye System Analysis
%
To use superposition to find I%
aA we deactivate sources V bn and V cn and find I aA
V anto
due
acting alone. We then repeat the process for
. .
cC or V cn
I%
bB or V bn
and I%
I%
bB
I%
aA
V an
ZL
ZL
B
Z
I%
nN
replaced Vbn
by short
replaced Vcn by short
I%
cC
ZL
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
484
The Wye Wye System Analysis
Lets redraw this:
I%aA
ZL
current flows only in
this loop
V an
n
I%cC
I%bB
Z
ZL
ZL
The short at nN is in parallel with phases bB and cC, thus no current will flow
through them. One is left with a single loop current and the circuit:
I%bB 0
I%cC 0
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
485
The Wye Wye System Analysis
Redraw the circuit showing only the active parts, i.e.
remove the part that was shorted out by the neutral:
I%
aA
ZL
I%AN
V an
aA as
Now we can find I%
V an
%
I aA
Z ZL
V AN
V AN
Z
V an
Z ZL
If we activate V cn and V bn , we will find that in each case no current will flow
aA . Thus, the
between a and A, and hence neither source will contribute to I%
equation above gives the entire I%
aA .
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
The Wye Wye System Analysis
%
%
Since I%
form a balanced set, once
is known, we
I%
aA
aA , I bB , andI
cC
V AN
I%
bB
I%
can calculate
and
. Similarly, once phase
voltage
is
cC
known, all 5 other voltages associated with the Yload can be
calculated.
Summary
For the analysis of a balanced YY system
1. Remove the nN line if present
2. Add a nN line with zero impedance
3. Use superposition to analyze a singlephase
equivalent circuit
4. Since all currents and voltages form balanced sets,
once you know one line current, you can calculate the
others, likewise for load voltages.
486
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
The Delta Load
I%
bB
A
I%aA
I%AB
I ZAN
I%
CA
Z
I%
cC
I%BC
For the delta load, the line currents (in the transmission line) are different
than the currents flowing in the three phases of the load.
The currents ( I%AB , I%BC , I%
CA ) are referred to as phase currents.
The phase currents in the delta load ( load ) form a balanced set, i.e.
1. They are equal in magnitude
I%AB I%BC I%CA
2. They differ in phase by 120
487
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
The Delta Load
Assume
I%AB I p 0
I%BC I p 120
These are the phase
currents.
I%
CA I p 240 I p 120
KCL at node A
I%aA I%CA I%AB 0
Relation between load Phase Currents and Line Currents
% %
I%
aA I AB I CA
I p 0 I p 120 I p 10 1120
3 30 I p
%
Line current I%
aA is 3 times greater than the phase current I AB and lags it
by 30
This is the general trend, but this is not a general expression
because we assumed zero phase angle on the current
488
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
489
The Delta Load
Phase diagram showing
phase currents and their
relationship to line currents
for delta load.
Since, in general,
I%AB 0
then
%
I%
aA I AB
3 30
I%
cC
I%
CA
In general, for a delta load
I%Line I%Phase
3 30
Im
I%
bB
I%AB
I%
aA
I%
BC
If one knows one line or phase current, then ones knows the other 5 as well.
Re
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
490
Power Calculations
I%bB
A
I%aA
V Line V Phase
I%AB
Z
I AN
I%CA
Z
I%cC
I%BC
I%Line
3 30 I%Phase
I%aA
I%bB
A
Z
V Line
330 V Phase
I%Line I%Phase
I%cC
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
491
Power Calculations
Real Power from Phase Quantities
Given
phase
V p v
I%phase I p i
Complex power
S Phase V Phase I%*Phase V p v I p i V p I p
The Real Part of the Complex Power is
Pp V p I p cos
is the phase angle of
the load Z
This is the real power for any single phase of a 3 load.
Since real power is delivered to each phase of a 3 load, the total power is
P3 3Pp
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Power Calculations
Real Power from Line Quantities Load
Given
I%Line I Line i , Line
phase
V p v
I%phase I p i
Convert line quantities to phase quantities
I%Line I Line i , Line 3 30 I%p 3I p i 30
V Line V
phase
V p v
Solve for Ip
Ip
I Line
3
Substitute into the equation for total real power:
P3 3V p I p cos
3VLine
I Line
cos 3VLine I Line cos
3
492
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Power Calculations
Real Power from Line Quantities YLoad
Given
V Line VLine v , Line
phase
V p v
Convert line quantities to phase quantities
I%phase I p i
V Line VLine v , Line 3 30 V p 3V p v 30
I%Line I%phase I p i
Solve for Vp
V p
VLine
3
Substitute into the equation for total real power:
P3 3V p I p cos
3
VLine
3
I Line cos
3VLine I Line cos
493
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
494
Example 1 Analysis of YY System
Given:
Lowercase
indicates
source
quantity
Find:
A balanced 3 YY system with abc sequence
V bc 30 60 V
Z Line 1 j1
Z 20 j 20
an
a) V
b) I%
aA
Phase difference
Source connection
Magnitudes
Line Voltage
Two other voltages, V ab and V ca , have
same magnitude but 120o phase difference
Identical impedances on all 3 lines
Load Connection
Identical impedances on all 3 loads
c) V
AN
d) complex ( apparent ) power absorbed by each line.
e) complex power absorbed by each load.
f) power factor of each source.
g) complex power supplied by each source.
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
495
Example 1 (cont): Analysis of YY System
Draw the circuit :
I%
aA
1 j1
1 j1
V an
A
20
B
20
j 20
V AN
V bc 30 60 V
20
1 j1
N
j 20
j 20
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
496
Example 1 (cont): Analysis of YY System
V bc 30 60 V
Relationships when V an has zero phase angle
an
a) Find V
Im
V cn
120
30
V an
V cn
V ab
V ca
30
Im
V an Re
V ca
Re
60
30
120
V bn
V Line
30
an
this voltage must lag V
by 120. thus,
V bn
V bc
330 V Phase
V ab
V bc
1
1
V bn
30 V bc
30 60 1 30
3
3
10 3 90 V
V an 10 3 90 120 10 330 V
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
497
Example 1 (cont): Analysis of YY System
b) Find I%
aA
I%
aA
V an
10 330
Z Line Z 1 j1 20 j 20
10 330 10 330
21 j 21
29.745
I%
aA 0.5832 15 A
I%
cC
I%
aA
I%AN
V an
Im
I%
cC 0.5832105 A
I%
bB 0.5832 135 A
120
120
I%
bB
ZL
I%
aA
Re
V AN
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
498
Example 1 (cont): Analysis of YY System
c) Find
I%
aA
V AN
V AN Z I%AN Z I%
aA
(20 j 20)(0.5832 15)
V AB
V AN
V CN
V CA
Re
60
30
V BN
ZL
I%AN
V an
16.530 V
Im
V BC
V AN
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
499
Example 1 (cont): Analysis of YY System
d) Find complex ( Apparent ) power absorbed
by each line
I%
aA
V aA Z Line I%aA
(1 j1)(0.5832 15)
0.824730V
*
%
S VI P jQ
ave
0.4809745
0.34 j 0.34 VA
Pave 0.34 W
Q 0.34VAR
Current lags
voltage
V an
ZL
V aA
I%AN
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Example 1 (cont): Analysis of YY System
e) Find complex power absorbed by each load.
*
*
%
S V AN I AN 16.530 V 0.5832 15 A
6.8 j 6.8 VA
f) power factor of each source.
V an 10 330V
I%an I%aA 0.5832 15A
*
%
S V an I an 10 330 V 0.583215 A=10.145VA
45 pf source 0.707
500
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
501
Example 1 (cont): Analysis of YY System
g) Find complex power supplied by each source.
Ssupplied source Sconsumed source
*
*
%
V an I an 10 330 V 0.5832 15 A
= 10.0445 VA
7.14 j 7.14 VA
a
V an
I%
aA
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary
Balanced 3Phase Generator creates three voltages
Equal magnitudes
Separated in phase by 120o
Phase sequence abc
Can be connected as a Y or Delta
Nodes labeled with small letters
Balanced 3Phase Load
Three Equal Impedances
Can be connected as a Y or Delta
Nodes labeled with capital letters
502
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Summary
Balanced 3Phase Power Distribution System
Line impedances are equal
No current in the neutral
In YY connection, solve single phase to find
behavior of entire system
Convert line currents to phase currents and line
voltages to phase voltages.
Power
Total real power = 3 * real power per phase
503
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Science As Art at Clemson
(http://geo.ces.clemson.edu/gallery/main.php)
Pluronic Fronds
Vladimir Reukov, Olga Reukova, Gary
Thompson and Alexey Vertegel
Description:
This image shows Pluronic F68 surfactant with
interspersed polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA)
nanoparticles, pipetted onto silicon substrate. It
is a result of an experimental mistake. After
spinning down the solution in a centrifuge,
instead of keeping the pellet with PBCA
nanoparticles at the bottom, we disposed it and
kept the supernatant, or the remaining solution
from the top. It contained excessive surfactant
and very few nanoparticles. So we threw out
the baby with the bathwater, but we got the
amazing image. Science should not be
presumptive you never know where you will
find something interesting. The image was
taken using tapping mode Atomic Force
Miscroscopy, scan size is 50X50 m, with a
Veeco Dimension 3100 instrument.
504
ECE 307 Basic Electrical Engineering
Entrance to Campus Recreation (Photo circa
1980 before renovations)
Clemson University
505