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WORK

BASED ON:- POLYNOMIALS


INTRODUCTION

DEGREE OF A POLYNOMIAL IN ONE VARIABLE


DEGREE OF A POLYNOMIAL IN TWO VARIABLE
POLYNOMIALS IN ONE VARIABLE(DEFINATION)
EXAMPLES
REMAINDER THEOREM
EXTRA QUESTIONS ON REMAINDER THEOREM
FACTOR THEOREM
ALGEBRAIC IDENTITIES
QUESTIONS ON POLYNOMIALS
POINTS TO REMEMBER
Made by:- PRADEEP PANT
(ppant85@gmail.com)

INTRODUCTION:

Introduction An algebraic expression in


which variables involved have only nonnegative integral powers is called a
polynomial. E.g.- (a) 2x34x2+6x3 is a
polynomial in one variable x. (b)
8p7+4p2+11p3-9p is a polynomial in
one variable p. (c) 4+7x4/5+9x5 is an
expression but not a polynomial since it
contains a term x4/5, where 4/5 is not a
non-negative integer.

DEGREE OF A POLYNOMIAL IN ONE VARIABLE :

Degree of a Polynomial in one


variable. What is degree of the
following binomial? The answer is 2.
5x2 + 3 is a polynomial in x of
degree 2. In case of a polynomial in
one variable, the highest power of
the variable is called the degree of
polynomial.

DEGREE OF A POLYNOMIAL IN TWO VARIABLES. :

Degree of a Polynomial in two variables. What


is degree of the following polynomial? In case
of polynomials on more than one variable, the
sum of powers of the variables in each term is
taken up and the highest sum so obtained is
called the degree of polynomial.
The answer is five because if we add 2 and 3 ,
the answer is five which is the highest power
in the whole polynomial. E.g.- is a polynomial
in x and y of degree 7.

POLYNOMIALS IN ONE VARIABLE:

Polynomials in one variable A


polynomial is a monomial or a sum of
monomials. Each monomial in a
polynomial is a term of the polynomial.
The number factor of a term is called
the coefficient. The coefficient of the
first term in a polynomial is the lead
coefficient.
A polynomial with two terms is called a
binomial. A polynomial with three term
is called a trinomial.

POLYNOMIALS IN ONE VARIABLE:


Polynomials in one variable The degree of a
polynomial in one variable is the largest
exponent of that variable.

6 is a constant has no variable. It is a 0


degree polynomial.

x+3 This is a 1st degree polynomial. 1st


degree polynomials are linear.

x2+2x+3 This is a 2nd degree polynomial.


2nd degree polynomials are quadratic.

x3 -2x2+ x+1 This is a 3rd degree polynomial.


3rd degree polynomials are cubic.

EXAMPLES:
Polynomials

Degree

Classify by
degree

Classify by no.
of terms

Constant

2x-4

Linear

3x2+x

Quadratic

Binomial

Cubic

Trinomial

X 3 -4x2+1

Monomial

Binomial

REMAINDER THEOREM :
Let f(x) be a polynomial of degree n > 1 and let a be any real
number. When f(x) is divided by (x-a) , then the remainder is
f(a)
. PROOF Suppose when f(x) is divided by (x-a), the quotient is
g(x) and the remainder is r(x).
Then, degree r(x) < degree (x-a)
degree r(x) < 1 [ therefore, degree (x-a)=1]
degree r(x) = 0
r(x) is constant, equal to r (say)
Thus, when f(x) is divided by (x-a), then the quotient is g9x)
and the remainder is r.
Therefore, f(x) = (x-a)*g(x) + r (i) Putting x=a in (i), we get r =
f(a) .
Thus, when f(x) is divided by (x-a), then the remainder is f(a).

EXTRA QUESTION ON REMAINDER


THEOREM :

Questions on Remainder Theorem Q.) Find


the remainder when the polynomial f(x) =
x4 + 2x3 3x2 + x 1 is divided by (x-2).
A.) x-2 = 0 x=2 By remainder theorem,
we know that when f(x) is divided by (x2), the remainder is x(2).
Now, f(2) = (24 + 2*23 3*22 + 2-1) =
(16 + 16 12 + 2 1) = 21. Hence, the
required remainder is 21.

FACTOR THEOREM :

Factor Theorem Let f(x) be a polynomial of


degree n > 1 and let a be any real number.
If f(a) = 0 then (x-a) is a factor of f(x).
PROOF let f(a) = 0 On dividing f(x) by 9xa), let g(x) be the quotient.
Also, by remainder theorem, when f(x) is
divided by (x-a), then the remainder is f(a).
therefore f(x) = (x-a)*g(x) + f(a) f(x) = (xa)*g(x) [therefore f(a)=0(given] (x-a) is a
factor of f(x).

ALGEBRAIC IDENTITIES :

Algebraic Identities Some common


identities used to factorize polynomials
(x+a)(x+b)=x2+(a+b)x+ab
(a+b)2=a2+b2+2ab
(a-b)2=a2+b2-2ab
a2-b2=(a+b) (a-b)

ALGEBRAIC IDENTITIES :

Algebraic Identities Advanced identities


used to factorize polynomials :(x+y+z)2=x2+y2+z2+2xy+2yz+2zx
(x-y)3=x3-y3-3xy(x-y)
(x+y)3=x3+y3+3xy(x+y)
x3+y3+z3-3xyz=(x+y+z)(x2+y2+z2-xyyz-zx)

QUESTIONS ON POLYNOMIALS :

Question -Answers on Polynomials


Q.1) Show that (x-3) is a factor of
polynomial f(x)=x3+x2-17x+15.
A.1) By factor theorem, (x-3) will be a factor
of f(x) if f(3)=0. Now, f(x)=x3+x2-17x+15
f(3)=(33+32-17*3+15)=(27+9-51+15)=0
(x-3) is a factor of f(x)
Hence, (x-3) is a factor of the given
polynomial f(x).

QUESTIONS ON POLYNOMIALS :

Questions-Answers on Polynomials
Q.1) Factorize: (i) 9x2 16y2
(ii)x3-x A.1)
Ans. (i) (9x2 16y2) = (3x)2 (4y)2 =
(3x + 4y)(3x 4y) therefore, (9x216y2) = (3x + 4y)(3x 4y)
(ii) (x3-x) = x(x2-1) = x(x+1)(x-1)
therefore, (x3-x) = x(x + 1)(x-1)

POINTS TO REMEMBER :

Points to Remember A real number


a is a zero of a polynomial p(x) if
p(a)=0.
In this case, a is also called a root of
the equation p(x)=0.
Every linear polynomial in one
variable has a unique zero, a nonzero constant polynomial has no
zero, and every real number is a zero
of the zero polynomial.

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