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HENRY MURRAY:

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST
VE-26 PSYCH TESTING

Ms. Rachel S. Samson


4-25 BSE Values Education

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST
(TAT)
is a PROJECTIVE
TEST consisting
of a series of
pictures in
which the
examinee is
requested to
create a story
about the
picture.

Psychological test in which words,


IMAGES, or situations are presented
to a person and the responses
analyzed for the unconscious
expression of elements of
personality that they reveal,
THEMATIC adj.
Constituting, or relating to the theme of
a word.
APPERCEPTION
refer to the process of projecting
fantasy imaginary onto an objective
stimuli.

THIS TEST IS ASKED TO TELL/CREATE STORIES


ABOUT SOME OF THE PICTURES, THEREBY
REVEALING THE PERSONAL, INDIVIDUAL PERCEPTION
OF PURPOSELY AMBIGUOUS SUBJECTS
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

HISTOR
Y: was conceptualized by Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan
on 1935.

Henry
Murray

Christiana
Morgan
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

PROPONET: 40- YEAR


SECRET AFFAIR:

Carl Jung

Henry
Murray

Josephine
Murray

Christiana
Morgan

William Morgan
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HENRY
MURRAY

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

He was focused on basic


needs in personality
which he called
PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS.
He believed these needs
were largely at the
unconscious level.
After researching this
area, he narrowed these
needs down to 27,
although the list and
names vary
1938
MORGAN MURRAY
THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST
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STRUCTURE OF
PERSONALITY

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

DEFINITION OF
PERSONALITY

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STRUCTURE OF
PERSONALITY

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

DEFINITION OF
PERSONALITY

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STRUCTURE OF
PERSONALITY

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

PROCEEDINGS are the things which we observe and try to


represent with models, and to explain , the things which we
attempt to predict, the facts against which we test the
adequacy of our formulations (Murray, 1951)
A directional organized intermittent succession of proceedings
may be called a SERIAL.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

DYNAMICS OF PERSONALITY

A need is a construct (a
convenient or hypothetical
concept) which stands free for
a force. In the brain region,
a force which organizes
perception, apperception,
intellection, conation and
action in such a way as to
transform in a certain
direction existing,
unsatisfying situation.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


ABASEME
To surrender
NT and accept punishment

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


ACHIEVEME
NT obstacles and succeed
To overcome

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


AFFILLIATIO
N
To make associations and friendships

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


AGGRESSIO
NTo injure others

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


AUTONOMY
To resist other and stand
strong

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


BLAMEAVOIDANCE
To avoid blame and obey the rules

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


CONSTRUCTION
To build or create

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


CONTRARIANCE
To be unique

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


COUNTERACTION
To defend honor

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


DEFENDANCE
To justify actions

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


DEFERENCE
To follow a superior, to serve

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


DOMINANCE
To control and lead others

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


EXHIBITION
To attract attention

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


EXPOSITION
To provide information, educate

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


HARMAVOIDANCE
To avoid pain

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS

INFAVOIDANCE
To avoid failure, shame, or to conceal a
weakness

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


NURTURANCE
To protect the helpless

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


ORDER
To arrange, organize, and be precise

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


PLAY
To relieve tension, have fun, or relax

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


RECOGNITION
To gain approval and social status

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


REJECTION
To exclude another

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


SENTIENCE
To enjoy sensuous impressions

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


SEX
To form and enjoy an erotic relationship

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


SIMILANCE
To empathize

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


SUCCORANCE
To seek protection or sympathy

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

MURRAY'S PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS


GENERAL CONDITION:

UNDERSTANDING
To analyze and experience , to
seek knowledge

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION
TEST
VE-26 PSYCH TESTING

Ms. Rachel S. Samson


4-25 BSE Values Education

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

DESCRIPTIO
N
consists of 30
pictures
majority of these
pictures depicts life
situations involving
one or more persons
pictures without
people are not without
significant value

PURPO
SE
to help people
understand their own
personality in greater
depth and build on
that knowledge in
making important life
decisions.

OBJECTIVES

Reveal dominant
drives, emotions,
sentiments,
complexes and
conflicts of a
personality

investigation of the
dynamics of
personality

Power to expose the


underlying
uninhibited
tendencies which the
subject or patient is
not willing to admit,
or cannot admit
because he is
unconscious of them
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TARGET TEST TAKERS:

THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

Age level :14 40 years old


younger

ITEMS & TIME:


Ten (10) pictures per session. There are two (2) session
total of twenty (20) pictures.
First session uses ten (10) pictures
Second session has also ten (10) pictures
Nine (9) with pictures and one (1) blank card
Five minutes per picture. 50 minutes per session, total of 1
& 40 minutes for two (2) session

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

GENERAL CONDITION:

to be administered in an interpersonal setting.


TAT materials consists of 20 cards on which ambiguous
pictures are presented.
-M for males, F for females
-B for boys, G for girls
-BM for boys/males, GF for
girls/females.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

GENERAL CONDITION:

The selection of cards may be idiosyncratic to the patients


presenting problem.

SEQUENTIAL NUMBERING SYSTEM (SNS)


a) administered to females and males in exact order : 1, 2,
3BM, 4, 6BM, 7GF, 8BM, 9GF, 10, 13MF.
b) administered to any males: 1, 2, 3BM, 4, 6BM, 7BM, 11,
12M, 13MF.
c) administered to any females: 1, 2, 3, 3BM, 4, 6GF, 7GF,
9GF, 11, 13GF.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

ADMINISTRATION:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Preparation of the Subject


Atmosphere of the testing situation
Procedures, Instruction
Subsequent interview

First Session:
the subject is seated in a comfortable or stretched out on a
couch, preferably with his back to the experimenter, and
the instructions, in one of the two following form are slowly
read to him.
Second Session
at least one day should intervene between first and second
sessions. The procedures on latter is similar to that
followed in the forms, except in one particular: an
instructional emphasis upon complete freedom of the
imagination.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

ADMINISTRATION:
Form A (suitable for adolescents & for adults of average
intelligence)
This is a test of imagination, one form of intelligence.
I am going to show you some pictures, one at a time, and
your task will be to make up as dramatic story as you can for each.
Tell what has led you to the event known in the picture, describe
what is happening at the moment, what are the characters are
feeling & thinking & then give the outcome. Speak your thoughts as
they come to your mind. Do you understand? Since you have fifty
minutes for ten pictures, you can devote about five minutes to each
story. Here is the first picture

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

ADMINISTRATION:
Form B (suitable for children, for adults of little education or
intelligence and for psychotics)
This is a story telling test. I have some pictures hare that I
am going to show you, & for each picture I want you to make up a
story. Tell what has happened before and what is happening now.
Say what the people a re feeling and thinking and how it will come
out. You can make up any kind of story you please. Do you
understand? Well then, there is the first picture. You have five
minutes to make up a story. See how well you can do.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

ADMINISTRATION:
TIME
time measured should begin when the picture is first presented
and end when the subject begins his or her story.
RECORDING
a subjects complete responses should be recorded, along with
any noteworthy behavioral observations: exclamation,
stuttering, pauses, blushing, degree of involvement
, and
change in voice inflection.
QUESTIONING and INQUIRY
to produce an unhampered and free-flow of the subjects
fantasy material.
ORDER OF PRESENTATION
usually, the cards should be administered according to their
sequential numbering system.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

ADMINISTRATION:
USE OF THE TAT (or CAT) with CHILDREN:
instructions should be modified in accordance with
their age and vocabulary.
for the use with children, the TAT cards that have the
highest number of interpretable responses and the lowest
number of responses are the following:

a) in order of usefulness : 7GF, 18GF, 3GF, and 8GF.


b) least helpful cards are 19, 18BM, 11 and 12BG
(Bellak and Abrams, 1997)

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

ADMINISTRATION:

TAT to children ages 8-11 yrs old : 1, 3BM, 7GF, 8BM, 12M,
13B, 14, 17BM (Obsrzut and Boleik 1968)
TAT for adolescents: 1, 2, 5, 7GF, 12F, 12M, 15, 17BM, 18BM,
18GF
Children and adolescents of either gender : 1, 2, 3BM, 4, 5,
6BM, 7GF, 8BM ( Teglasi 1993)

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

ADMINISTRATION:

a) current situation ; what is happening at the


moment?
b) thoughts and feelings of the character (s); what
the characters are feeling and thinking?
c) preceding events; what has led up to the event
shown in the picture?
d) outcome ; what was the outcome?

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 1: A boy is sitting at a table looking at a violin


placed on the table in front of him
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 2 : Country scene with a woman holding a book in the


foreground. In the background, a man is working a field while a
woman watches.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 3BM :
A boy is huddled next to a
couch. On the floor next
to him is an ambiguous
object that could be a set
of keys or a revolver.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 3GF :
A woman is standing
next
to an open door with one
hand grabbing the side
of
the door and the other
holding her downcast
face.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 4 :A woman is
grabbing the shoulders
of a man who is turning
away from her.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 5 : A woman is looking into a room from


the
threshold of a door.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 6BM : An
elderly
woman is standing
parallel to a window.
Behind her is a younger
man with his face down.
He is holding onto his
hat.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 6GF : A young
woman sitting on the
edge of a sofa looks
back over her shoulder
at an older man with a
pipe in his mouth who
seems to be addressing
her.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 7BM : An older


man is looking at a
younger man, who
appears to be peering
Into space.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 7GF : A young girl
is
seated on a couch and is
holding a doll in her hands.
Behind her is an older
woman who appears to be
reading to her out of a
book.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 8BM : A young boy in the foreground is staring


directly
out of the picture. In the background is a hazy image of two
men performing surgery on a patient who is lying down.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 8GF : A woman


is
sitting on a chair staring
into space with her chin
resting in her hand.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 9BM: Four men in a field are lying against


one
another.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 9GF : A woman
in
the foreground is
standing behind a tree,
observing another
woman who is running
along a beach below.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 10 : One person
is
holding his or her head
against another persons
shoulder. The gender of
the two persons is not
defined.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 11 : On a road in a chasm, several figures are


proceeding along a path toward a bridge. Above them
and against the side of a cliff appears to be a dragon.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 12M/F : A man with his hand raised is


standing
above a boy who is lying on a bed with his eyes closed.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 12F : A
portrait of
a woman is in the
foreground; an older
woman holding her chin
is in the background.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 12BG : A country setting depicts a tree, with


a
rowboat pulled up next to it. No human figures are
present.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 13MF : A young man is standing in the


foreground
with his head in his arms. In the background is a woman
lying in a bed.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 13B : A boy is
sitting
in the doorway of a log
cabin.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 13G : A girl is
climbing a flight of
stairs.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 14 : A person is silhouetted against a


window.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 15 : A man is
standing among
tombstones with his
hands
clasped together.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 16 : Blank
card.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 17BM : A naked


man is climbing up (or
down) a rope.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 17GF : A
female is
standing on a bridge
over water. Above the
bridge is a tall building,
and behind the building
the sun is shining from
behind clouds.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 18BM : A man


dressed in a Long coat
is
being grabbed from
behind. Three hands
are
visible.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 18GF : A woman


has her hands around the
throat of another woman.
In the background is a
flight of stairs.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE

Picture 19 : A surreal depiction of clouds and a


home
covered with snow.
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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST


PICTURE
Picture 20 : A hazy,
nighttime picture of a
man leaning against a
lamppost.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

INTERPRETATION:
I.

TRAINING OF THE INTERPRETER:

1.
2.

Critical intuition
background of clinical experience, observing,
interviewing and testing patients of all sorts
knowledge of psychoanalysis and practice in
translating the imagery of dreams and ordinary
speech into elementary psychological experiences
use of specific test

3.
4.

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

INTERPRETATION:
II.

NECESSARY BASIC DATA:

1.Sex and age of examinee


2.Parents (dead or separated)
3.Age and sex of siblings
4.vocation/ education
5.Marital status

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

INTERPRETATION:

III. MODES OF CONTENT ANALYSIS


1. The Hero
2. Environmental Stimulus
a. General Settings
b. specific setting
1. Living being
2. Inanimate object
3. Social Forces, Pressures and Ideologies

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THEMATIC
APPERCEPTION TEST

INTERPRETATION:
III. MODES OF CONTENT ANALYSIS
4. Inner State
5. The manner in which the behavior is expressed
a. Fantasy
b. Premotor level
c. Inhibited behavior
1. gestures
2. Active reaction
3. passive reaction
4. energies directed externally
5. energies directed internally
6. Outcome

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