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# Total Internal Reflection

glass

mirror

## Which angle is larger?

A light ray is emerging from glass to air.
Which angle is larger, in glass or in the air ?
normal
glass
Or this?
AIR
This?

## Which angle is larger?

A light ray is emerging from glass to air.
Which angle is larger, in glass or in the air ?
normal
glass
Or this?
AIR
This?
Next

Critical Angle
For glass-air interface, the angle of refraction in
air > incident angle
glass

normal

Partial reflection
Incident angle

Angle of refraction

AIR

## Which angle first?

If the angle of incidence increases, which angle
will reach 90o first, the angle of incidence or the
angle of refraction?
A

Next

## Critical angle (2)

When we increase the angle of incidence (i), the
angle of refraction (r) increases until ......
normal

glass

i
r

AIR

## Critical angle (3)

when the angle of refraction is 90o, the incident
angle is called the critical angle (C).
normal

glass

iC
90 r
o

AIR

## Critical angle (4)

For glass-air interface, the critical angle is 42 o.
At critical angle, angle of refraction is 90 o, so,
by the laws of refraction,

sin r
sin190o
n=
=
sin i
sin C
n x sin C = 1
1
sin C =
n

## What is the critical angle...

for water-air interface?
The refractive index of water is 1.33

1 1.33 = 0.75
sin-1 0.75 = 48.8o
=> C = 48.75o

1
sin C =
n

## Critical angle (5)

For glass, the refractive index is 1.5;
C = sin-1 (11.5)
Critical angle = 41.81o
For water, the refractive index is 1.33;
C = sin-1 (11.33)
Critical angle = 48.75o

11
Csin
= sin
C =( )
nn
-1

What if ...
the angle of incidence (from glass) is larger
than the critical angle?
A

smaller again.

same way back.
Next

## Total internal reflection (1)

When the light ray (from water) is emerging at
the critical angle, the refracted ray will be along
the interface.
AIR
water

## Total internal reflection (2)

When the incident angle is larger than the
critical angle, total internal reflection will occur
(at the interface).
AIR
water

Next

## Total internal reflection (3)

View under water!!

AIR
water

## Total internal reflection (4)

Fish-eye view
sky
waves

see
Youthe
seesky here
You You
see
water
waves
total internal
through refraction
here here
reflection

waves
total internal
reflection here

total internal
reflection here

## Can you explain the ...

fish-eye view by drawing light rays?

water

Yes

## Fish eye view (1)

Central hole, shows the
squeezed view of the sky

totally internally
reflected ray
water

## Fish eye view (2)

When a diver or fish looks upward under water,
part of the water surface looks like a mirror,
except the central hole.
So, the light entering the water from above the
surface is squeezed into a cone of angle 2C
2C
What is C ?
water

C is

critical angle

## Revisit the fish eye view

Do you remember which part has refraction and
which part has total internal reflection?
sky(refraction here)

total internal
reflection here

Critical angle

1
C = sin ( )
n
-1

## Total internal reflection occurs when a light ray

tries to escape from water (or glass) to air at an
angle of incidence larger than the critical angle
at the interface.
Fish eye view is an example of total internal
reflection and refraction.