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Management and

Organisation
Organisational Planning
Steps in Planning
Levels of Planning
Time Horizons in Planning
Types of Plans
Gathering Information
Implementing Plans
Evaluating Plans
Importance of Planning

Steps in Planning

Gather Information
Determine Organisational Mission and
Goals
Formulate Strategy how to achieve
Mission and Goals
Implement Strategy

Allocate resources, including staff


responsibilities to achieve desired
strategy

Evaluate results

Planning Levels
Corporate Level
Business or Division Level
Department or Functional Level
Corporate Level

Top management decisions as to


the mission and overall corporate
strategy, ie which industries
and national markets the
organisation intends to compete

Planning Levels

Business or Divisional Level

Provides long term goals to enable the


division to meet corporate goals
Provides business level strategy,
indicating the methods to be used to
compete in the relevant industry

Departmental or Functional Level

States the goals proposed to


allow the department to assist
in the process of Business Level
Goal achievement

Time Horizons

Vital that planning is consistent


throughout the various levels
Time Horizons

Long Term
Medium Term
Short Term

Long Term

Usually 5 years or more, produced on a


rolling basis, involving corporate and/or
business level goals
Rolling basis infers annual updates
to any long term plan, in order to
reflect changing conditions.

Time Horizons

Medium Term

Usually 1-5 years, involving all levels


of planning

Short Tem

Usually 1 year or less, involving


functional level goals

Types of Plan

Business Plan required for


external and internal purposes

Sets out the markets the business


unit will operate in
Details how the business unit will
operate
Provides financial details

Types of Plan

Specific Plan

Clearly defined eg. Cut costs by 5% over 6 months


usually quantitative
Unambiguous and easily measurable
Difficult to achieve where environmental conditions
are unpredictable

Directional Plan

Provide some focus but provides less guidance


than a specific plan
More difficult to measure
Provides flexibility useful where conditions
are unpredictable

Types of Plan

Special Purpose

Plans for specific projects eg a


specific change programme

Standing Plans

For routine recurring issues


eg customer complaints

Gathering Information
Any plan depends on information
Information can be gathered from
a variety of sources

Informal (soft information)


Formal Analyses
Danger of information overload
and need to focus on the most
important relevant issues

Gathering Information

Formal Analyses

Government statistics
Industry surveys
Market research
Internal analysis
SWOT analysis
Critical Success Factors Analysis
Forecasting
Sensitivity Analysis
Scenario Planning

Implementing Plans

Particularly challenging part of the


process
Organisations and people are slower to
change than plans are to prepare
Successful implementation requires

Managerial experience
Organisational fluidity
Clear plan, well communicated
Timely access to required resources

Evaluating Plans
Important to monitor progress,
evaluate and revisit planned
objectives and goals
Various tools used

Overview Chart
Reporting Systems

Evaluating Plans

Overview Chart

Shows progress to date compared to that


expected
Main events planned
Interdependences
Expected Completion Dates

Reporting System

Regular reports often weekly


providing details of the current
progress

Importance of Planning

Allows managers to have a view as to


where the organisation is at present
Allows managers to have a view as to
where the organisation should be in the
future
Allows managers to assess how to move
the organisation forward
Planning is made complex due to an
uncertain external environment and
incomplete information provided to
managers

Importance of Planning

Planning instigates managers to


participate in decision making about
organisational goals and strategies
Planning provides the organisation and
its employees with a sense of direction
in the absence of planning, goal conflict
would be more prevalent
Planning promotes improved
teamwork
Planning provides a control
mechanism and greater motivation

Importance of Planning

Promotes efficient use of resources


Good Planning should

Possess unity
Be continuous
Involve accuracy
Be flexible

Lack of planning or poor planning

Can lead to poor morale


Waste of resources

Summary

Planning carried out in a number of iterative steps


Planning involves multiple levels, which correlate broadly
to multiple time horizons
Variety of types of plans eg Business; Specific;
Directional; Standing
Planning requires information gathering informal and
particularly formal eg industry survey; SWOT;
Forecasting
Implementation is particularly challenging
Important to evaluate and keep track of plan
implementation
Planning provides a clearer organisational direction
and improves teamwork and motivation
Good planning should be coherent, continuous,
flexible and be based on accurate information