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Lecture No. 1 (01.03.

Z00l-718; 3 (2-2)
Dr. Nemat Ullah, Professor
Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi
Phone: 9062292; 9290115
Email: nemat52@gmail.com
Schedule: Monday and Tuesday

Recommended Books

Applied Animal Reproduction 2003 by H. Joe

Bearden, John W. Fuquay and Scott T. Willard;
Publisher: Prentice Hall; 6 edition

Reproduction in farm Animals 2003 by E.S.E

Hafez: Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia

Physiology of Reproduction 2006. by Jimmy D.

Neil. Elsevier. 3rd Edition

Human Reproductive Biology 2006. by Richard E.

Jones and Kristin H. Lopez. Elsevier. 3 rd Edition

Study Topics

Introduction to applied reproductive physiology

Reproductive health

Infertility in male: Classification, diagnosis, disorders at

various levels

Infertility in female: Classification, diagnosis, distinct


Contraception: male & female, approaches, rationale,

modalities, side effects

Menopause: physiology, replacement therapy

Senescence in male reproduction: aging, sexuality,


Study Topics

Field trials of artificial insemination to determine

fertility rates

Causes of sterility in domestic animals

Antifertility mechanisms in humans

Synthesis of milk and lactation

Gender selection based on human genome project


Morphological studies of sperm and ova in buffalo

Morphometric studies of sperm and ova

Collection and cryopreservation of sperm and ova in


Artificial insemination in buffalo

Motility assessment of male gametes

Staining of live and dead male gametes

Acrosomal analysis of sperm in buffalo


Reproduction is a complex science

It is not a wonder that reproduction sometimes fails,

but rather a miracle that so many pregnancies
terminate successfully (William Hansel, Cornell

In order to understand the science of reproduction, it

is necessary to include:



Reproduction involves a series of physiological and

psychological events that must be properly timed.
The endocrine system, through the production of
several hormones is responsible for this timing.

Reproduction has at least three purposes:

Perpetuation of the species
To provide food (meat and milk)
Genetic improvement

Genetic improvement of any species is

accomplished by selecting males and females with
superior transmitting ability as parents of
succeeding generations

Measure of Genetic Gain

The rate of genetic improvement through selection depends

on several factors:

Variation: It is the difference in production level for

individual animals for characteristics such as milk
production, rate of gain, weaning weight etc.

Heritability: It is the percentage of total variation that is

controlled by genetic makeup of the individual. This is also
called genetic variation. Heritability for most economic
traits in farm animals ranges from 0-60%
Milk production = 25%
Feed lot gain in beef cattle= 50-55%
Fertility in cattle= 5%

Environmental variation: the difference between total

variation and genetic variation.

Measure of Genetic Gain

Selection intensity: A factor that affects the rate

of genetic improvement by determining the ratio
of offspring utilized for extensive breeding versus
the number culled after adequate sampling. The
higher the culling rate, the faster genetic
progress should be.

Generation interval: the average interval between

birth of an animal and the birth of its offspring.
The shorter the generation interval, the faster
progress can be made.

From these accurately measured factors one can

estimate the rate of genetic progress per
generation or per year.

Genetic Progress By Reproductive


A large part of genetic progress has been made by

manipulating or harnessing the reproductive process.

The reproductive processes used for bringing about genetic

progress are:

Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer, Superovulation

Storing embryos, In vitro fertilization, Frozen semen

Separation of male and female producing sperms

Synchronization of oestrus, Environmental influences on


In human, similar methodologies and techniques are applied to

maintain reproductive health of the subjects