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INVERTER BATTERIES

A guideline to choose the BEST

Flat Plate Inverter Battery


Flat Plate Construction
Positive active material pasted on
Lead Antimony Grids

Features
Most Popular type of Inverter Battery
Wide range in the market
Most economic type

Flat Plate Inverter Battery


Limitations
Performance declines rapidly in repeated deep
discharge operating conditions - Primarily due to
limited charge acceptance
Repeated deep discharge with inadequate recharge
tends to soften the positive active material and
can even lead to shedding of the material Premature failures arising out of short circuit
High temperature operation causes severe grid
corrosion and limits the life.

Eliminating Limitations
Normally higher current/voltage levels in recharge
causes severe corrosion and/or active material
shedding, thereby limiting the life.
However to improve upon the charge acceptance
of cells, more number of plates per cell help in
reducing current per plate and therefore limit
the potential damages in the plate structure.

Result
Will reduce the recharge duration.

Eliminating Limitations

Introduce Polyethylene separators with


glass mat backing

Result
The glass mat backing holds the active material
in place thus avoiding shedding and short circuit.

High Temperature Limitation of


Flat plate structure
Lead structure of electrodes or plates
which holds the reactive material is directly
exposed to electrolyte.
Corrosion is very severe in high temperature.
Result
High temperature reduces the life of the batteries.

Challenges of Inverter Batteries


Acute power crisis condition.
Long and frequent outages.
Short recharge time.

What happens
Depth of discharge increases because of
consecutive power cuts.
It is very difficult to recharge the batteries properly.
Result
Over the period of time backup duration
of the battery goes down.

Tubular Technology
In Tubular positive plates, spines (conducting
elements) are embedded in active material.
Spines are protected from direct exposure
to the electrolyte.
Reduces the corrosion.
Suitable for high temperature operation.

Tubular Positive Plate


ReactiveMaterial
Spines

Gauntlet

Characteristics of
Tubular Plates

Reactive Material

Spines

Active material is held around the spines


with the help of polyester tubes called gauntlet.
Gauntlet

Annular space between the spine and the


gauntlet is filled with active material.
Packing of active material can be done at
relatively low density.

Advantages of
Tubular Plates
Lower packed density filling leads to Better utilization of the active material
Allows faster recharge due to access
of acid.
The electrolyte is uniform throughout the
volume of active material.
Enables the tubular plates to recover from the
state of deep discharge.

Function of the Gauntlet


Eliminates the possibility of active
material shedding.

Allows uniform expansion and contraction.

Helps in cyclic operations with higher


depth of discharge.

Hence...

Tubular Products
Have Vastly Superior Cycle Life.

Application of Tubular Products


Long hours of power failures.
Higher depth of discharge, Recovery from deep discharge.

Higher frequency of power failures.


Faster recharge - Higher current can be used in recharge.

Operation during hot summer months.

Product options from EXIDE


Tubular

Flat

INVARED500

IQ 300, 500

INVATUBULAR 650,

6ELF 39/78/130

500, 400
6EL 40, 50, 66, 75, 100,
130, 150, 180
InvaGold

Features & Ratings


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

Temp. Resistance
Corrosion Resistance
Charge Retention
Life Expectancy
Recovery from deep discharge
Quick Recharge
Topping up frequency
Floor Area
Back-up power
(for equivalent capacity)
10) Cost
4 - Excellent
3 - Very Good
2 - Good
1 - Acceptable

IQ

IR

IT

6EL

1
1
2
1
1
3
2
2

2
2
3
2
4
4
1
2

3
3
4
3
4
3
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
2
3
4

3
4

4
3

4
2

3
1

EXIDE follows the latest


plate processing technology
adhering to world class quality
system and standards.

Why EXIDE Tubular


EXIDE uses the latest
manufacturing technology.
EXIDE uses highly expensive (Rs.3 Crores)
Austrian make HADI
High Pressure Casting Machines for
spine casting.

Our Advantage point


Spines cast at high pressure
Compact fine grain structure making
them more resistant to corrosion.

What other Tubular


Manufacturers do
Casting spines with hand operated machines at
lower pressure makes the spines susceptible to
corrosion due to irregular and coarse structure
of the grains.

Exide uses the most modern Optical


Emission Spectroscope (OES) to
check the purity of alloys.

What Optical Emission


Spectroscope (OES) does?
Enables instant detection of alloy impurities like
Silver, Bismuth, arsenic, Manganese at ppm levels.
Impurity if present not only affects the
performance but will lead to premature
failure of products.

WHY EXIDE
Comparison of Sales Turnover
EXIDE Rs. Cr.

ARBL Rs. Cr.

HBL Rs. Cr.

Southern
Rs. Cr.

1095.33

160

202

29

Other regional players in the medium scale like


Business Universal, etc. are in the range of 15 - 20 Crores.

WHY EXIDE
9 Manufacturing centres.
ISO9001, ISO14001 Certified
Technical collaboration with Shinkobe, Japan
In house R&D recognized by Dept. of Science
and Technology, Govt. of India.
Effective and large dealer network.

Initial Filling and Charging (IFC)


The role of initial filling and charging
is very important.
Wrong IFC is most likely lead to
premature failure of battery.

The batteries supplied in


two distinct conditions:
*Batteries with formed plate Filling and charging to be carried out.
Batteries filled and charged at factory.
*For batteries with formed plate, acid filling and
charging to be carried out as per the procedure
specified in relevant catalogue/manual.

Points to be remembered
while carrying out IFC
Fill in volume and specific gravity of the electrolyte.
To be corrected to 27 deg C with temp. correction factor.

Charging current

Total Ah input.

Some more important Points


Temperature to be monitored during charging.
If temperature exceeds 55 deg C, adequate rest period
to be provided till the temperature comes down to 40 deg C.

End of charge specific gravity to be


adjusted to the operating specific gravity.
Use battery grade DM water only.
Strictly follow the recommended charging schedule

Fallouts of wrong IFC


Cause
Higher fill in the electrolyte gravity

Effect
Poor Backup.
Premature disintegration of active materials.
Beginning of high corrosion rate

Fallouts of wrong IFC


Cause
Lower filling in electrolyte gravity

Effect
Faulty end of charge specific gravity.
Low Backup.
Adjustment of operating gravity in the field
by addition of high gravity acid cause further
damage

Fallouts of wrong IFC


Cause
Higher charging current.

Effect
Increase the plate corrosion, reducing the
life of the product.

Remedy
Lower current - better charging
Total charging time will increase if the total
Ampere hour input is kept constant.

Fallouts of wrong IFC


Cause
Lower Ah input.

Effect
Leaves the battery undercharged
On subsequent use, the battery will get
further undercharged.
Lower backup time and even premature failure.

Fallouts of wrong IFC


Cause
Higher Ah input.

Effect
Beginning of abnormal corrosion.
Degeneration and shedding of active material.

Fallouts of wrong IFC


Cause
Higher temperature during charging

Effect
Enhance the corrosion rate.
Damages the active material structure.
*Leads to wastage of power.
*At higher temperature, the power used
in charging will be used up for electrolysis
of water and not charging the battery.

Fallouts of wrong IFC


Cause
Higher and Lower end of charge specific gravity

Effect
Limits the life of the battery as higher gravity
will initiate faster corrosion.
Reduce the performance of the battery leading
to lower backup time.