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TKT:KAL

Part 3: Grammar
Unit 4:
Sentences and
clauses

Learning outcomes:
Knowledge: How different sentences
and clauses are formed, what they
mean and how they combine.
Complete a TKT:KAL exam style
question to practice this knowledge

What are usually


part of a sentence?
A subject and a Finite
verb.

Exercise 1:
Use the different types of verbs in the box below to label
the underlined verbs in the sentences, for example Do in
number 1 is an auxiliary verb. Some verbs can be matched
with more than one type

Main Auxiliary Action State Transitive Intransitive


Reflexive

1.
2.
3.
4.
Lets check

Do I know you?
He hurt himself
I was talking
They didnt see me

Exercise 2:
Look at the underlined parts of the sentences
below and answer the questions

1.
2.
3.
4.

It depends on the weather


I believe in good luck
I remembered to ask Jane
I remember asking Jane

Is there a preposition after the verb?


Is there an object after the verb?
Is there a second verb and what form is it?

What is a verb pattern?


Thats correct!

Different verb patterns


Some verbs are always followed by dependent
prepositions e.g. depend on
Some verbs need more than one object
Some verbs need a complement
o A phrase that is necessary to complete the meaning
of a particular verb in a clause or sentence
E.g. I am tired
Tired is the compliment. Verbs such
as be, feel, become and get need a
complement in order to make sense

Can you think of some


more verb patterns?
Verbs followed by an infinitive form
Verbs followed by ing form
*Be careful* verb patterns after verbs of
perception can affect meaning
E.g. I heard him speaking
I heard him speak

Exercise 3:
Look at the sentences a)-d) which use the modal verbs can
and might. Answer the questions
o A) I finish work at 5 so I can go home soon
o B) That letter might have got lost in the post
o C) She might know Peter, Im not sure.
o D) Can you help me please? I cant find the Shampoo.

1. Where is the modal placed in the verb phrase?


2. What form is the verb after the modal?
3. How are questions and negatives formed with a modal?
4. What is the past form?
What happens when she is used?

What are The nine pure


modal verbs?
Thats correct!! They are: Can, Could, May, Might, Will,
Would, Should, Must and Shall

Do Modals behave like


other verbs?
They do not use Auxiliary verbs to form questions
and negatives
They use have and the past participle when
making a past form

What are Semi-Modal


verbs?
Have to, ought to, need to, be able to
Why are they semi modals?
o They change their form to show person
o They have a past form or use another
auxiliary

Some semi modals can behave like full modals


o E.g. A question with need to can be need you
go?

Can the same modal verb


be used for different
functions?
To help you decide what meaning and
function a modal verb has in a sentence
you need to look at the context

Exercise 4
Match the examples of modals A-E with the functions 1-5:

A) You must always show your passport at the check in desk


B) The letter must be lost, they posted it last week
C) You should see a doctor about those headaches
D) Could you carry this bag for me please
E) May I open the window its very hot?
o 1.
o 2.
o 3.
o 4.
o 5.

making logical deduction


expressing obligation
making requests
asking permission
giving advice

What are hypothetical


situations?
Thats correct!!

Exercise 5
What type of verbs are underlined in sentences 1 and 2? What
form are the verbs in 3, 4 and 5 in?

o 1. I would never lie to my parents; its totally


unthinkable
o 2. Nowadays, I could never stay up all night like I
used to when I was younger
o 3. Suppose you won 1,000,000I know you
wont but just suppose
o 4. If only I hadnt lost my wallet! But theres
nothing I can do about it now.
o 5. I wish I wasnt going to work tomorrow but I
have to.

How do we express
hypothetical situations?
Some Modal verbs e.g. Would and could
Generally what verb tense do we use to express
hypothetical situations?
Thats right!! The past tenses!
Whats the difference between
Nowadays, I could never stay up all night.
Nowadays, I can never stay up all night

What do adverbs do?


Thats correctThey modify verbs, adjectives and other
adverbs!

Can you name some different types of adverbs?


Place (here, there, nearby)
Degree (extremely, very, really)
Manner (carefully, slowly, well)
Quantity (a lot, much, a little)
Time (before, recently, yet)
BE CAREFUL: DIFFERENT ADVERBS GO IN
DIFFERENT PLACES IN SENTENCES!!

How do we form adverbs?


Add ly to an adjectivee.g. slow + slowly
Some have the same form as adjectivese.g.
hard
Some are not formed from adjectives e.g. very

What are adverbial


clauses?
Groups of one or more words that act as
adverbs.
For example I arrived at the party before you
did
Adverbs and adverbial clauses are all classed as
ADVERBIALS

Do verbs have different


voices?
What does the voice of a verb
tell us?

There are 2 main voices


in English
The active voice
Here the subject is important - the person who
did the action (the object is the person/thing
who received the action.
The Passive voice
o The subject is the person/thing who received the
action of the verb
How do we form the passive?

The verb to be + the past participle

Exercise 6
Look at the sentences below and decide why the
passive voice has been used in each case
1. Tickets must be bought from official ticket agencies only
2. First the coffee beans are picked then roasted in ovens
3.I know very little about coffee but Im sure it cant be grown in
Europe
4. Im sorry but my essay wont be finished today
5. I was very amused by the film that we watched at you house the
other night

When do we use the


passive?
The person who does the action is obvious?
The person is not important
To begin a phrase with a topic we already know
To avoid showing responsibility
To avoid having a long noun phrase
To show a more formal style

Is this the passive?


I got cut off

I got my hair cut/I had my hair cut

o This sentence is an example of


the Causative Passive
someone else did or caused
the action

Any questions?
Lets try some activities!