Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 61

Chapter 4

AC Network Analysis
Part 2
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

4.3 Solutions of Circuits


Containing Dynamic Elements
The analysis of the
resistive element
circuits:
KVL and KCL.
The equations that
result from applying
Kirchhoffs laws are
algebraic equations.
20/09/2013

The analysis of
dynamic element
circuits:
KVL and KCL.
The equations that
result from applying
Kirchhoffs laws are
differential
equations.

Bahman R. Alyaei

Continue
Consider the series RC
circuit, applying KVL:
Observing that iR = iC,
hence

The above equation is an


integral equation.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

Continue
This equation can be converted to differential
equation by differentiating both sides of the
equation, then
where the
argument (t)
has been
dropped for
ease of
notation.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

Continue
What if we apply KCL at the
node connecting the resistor
to the capacitor, then

Either equation (KVL or KCL) is sufficient, to


determine all voltages and currents in the circuit.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

4.3.1 Forced Response of Circuits


Excited by Sinusoidal Sources
Let vs(t) (the Forcing Function) be
sinusoidal signal
We know that

Then
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

Continue
Since the forcing function is a sinusoid
Then, the solution may also be assumed
to be of the same form.
Therefore, an expression for vC(t) is then
the following:
Which is equivalent to
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

Continue
Substituting this equation in the differential
equation for vC(t) and solving for the
coefficients A and B

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

Continue
Rearranging

The coefficients of sint and cost must


both be zero in order for the above equation
to hold, thus,

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

Continue
Then, A and B are given by

Thus, the solution for


vC(t) may be written as:

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

10

Continue

Remarks:
These observations indicate that three parameters
uniquely define a sinusoid:
1. Frequency,
2. Amplitude
3. Phase.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

11

Continue
Then, is it necessary to carry the excess
luggage, that is, the sinusoidal functions?
Might it be possible to simply keep track of
the three parameters just mentioned?
Fortunately, the answers to these two
questions are no and yes, respectively.
This is possible through the use of
complex notation of sinusoids (Phasors).
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

12

4.4 Phasors and Impedance


We will represent sinusoidal signals as
complex numbers, and to eliminate the
need for solving differential equations.
Read Appendix A for complete treatment of
complex numbers.
1.Addition and Subtraction.
2.Multiplication and Division.
3.Conjugate.
4.Polar and Rectangular forms.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

13

4.4.1 Eulers Identity


Eulers identity forms
the basis of phasor
notation.
It states that, the
Complex Exponential
function is defined as

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

14

Continue
Consider a vector of length A making an
angle with the real axis.
The following equation illustrates the
relationship between the rectangular and
polar forms:
In effect, Eulers identity is simply a
trigonometric relationship in the complex
plane.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

15

4.4.2 Phasors
A method through which complex numbers
can be used to represent sinusoidal
signals.
Rewrite the expression for a generalized
sinusoid in light of Eulers equation:

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

16

Continue
The complex phasor corresponding to
the sinusoidal signal Acos(t + ) is
therefore defined to be the complex
number Aej:
A

It is important to explicitly point out that


this is a definition.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

17

Continue
The complex phasor notation is the simplification of
the complex notation Re[Aej(t+)], as follow:

X ( j ) A e j
The reason for this simplification is simply
mathematical convenience.
Remember that the ejt term that was removed from
the complex form of the sinusoid is really still
present.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

18

Summary:

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

19

EX 4.9: Superposition of Two AC


Sources (Same Frequency)
Find the equivalent phasor voltage
vs(t) resulting from the series
connection of two sinusoidal
voltage sources given by:

Solution:
Write the two voltages in phasor
form as follow:
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

20

Convert the phasor voltages from polar to rectangular form:

Add them to get

Now we can convert VS(j) to its time-domain form:

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

21

Note:
We will obtained the same result by adding the two sinusoids in
the time domain, using trigonometric identities:

Combining like terms, we obtain

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

22

Remarks:
In general, phasor analysis greatly simplifies calculations related to
sinusoidal voltages and currents.

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

23

4.4.3 Superposition of AC
Signals
A more general case is to deal with the
superposition of sinusoids oscillating at
different frequencies.
The question is how to add them in
phasor notation?
The circuit shown depicts a
load excited by two current
sources connected
in parallel, where
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

24

The load current is equal to the sum of the two source currents; that is,
In this case, the phasor form is given by

IL=I1(j1) + I2(j2)
Where,

I1 ( j1 ) Re A1e j 0 e j1t

A10 , 1 2f1
I1

I 2 ( j2 ) Re A2 e j 0 e j2t

A20 , 2 2f 2
20/09/2013

I2

Bahman R. Alyaei

Remarks:
In order to complete the
analysis of any circuit
with multiple sinusoidal
sources at different
frequencies using
phasors, it is necessary
to solve the circuit
separately for each
signal and then add the
individual answers
obtained for the different
excitation sources.
25

EX 4.10: Superposition of Two AC


Sources (Different Frequency)
Compute the voltages
vR1(t)and vR2(t) in the
circuit of Figure 4.30.
The sources are given
by

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

26

Solution:
Since the two sources are at different frequencies, then, we apply
superposition theory to compute a separate solution for each and
then combine the result.
1) Consider the current source:
Write the source current in phasor
notation:

I s ( j1 ) Re A1e j 0 e j1t

0.50 A , 1 200 rad/s


Is
Then, vR1(t) and vR2(t) due to is(t) in phasor form is given by
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

27

1
R1

VR1 (I s )

I s R1
1
1
R R
2
1

1
0.50 150 18.750 V , 1 200 rad/s
4

VR2 (I s )

1
R2

I s R2
1
1
R R
2
1

3
0.50 50 18.750 V , 1 200 rad/s
4

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

28

2) Consider the voltage source:


Write the source current in phasor notation:

Vs ( j2 ) Re A2 e j 0 e j2t

200 , 2 2000 rad/s


Vs
Then, vR1(t) and vR2(t) due to vs(t) in phasor form is given by

R1
Vs
R1 R2
3
200 150 V , 2 2000 rad/s
4

R2
(Vs )
VR2 (Vs )
R1 R2
VR1 (Vs )

1
200 50 5 V , 2 2000 rad/s
4

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

29

Now we can determine the voltage across each resistor by adding


the contributions from each source and converting the phasor form
to time-domain representation:

Comments:
Note that it is impossible to simplify the final expression any further,
because the two components of each voltage are at different
frequencies.

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

30

4.4.4 Impedance
We now analyze the i-v relationship of the three ideal
circuit elements in light of the phasor notation.
Resistors, capacitors, and inductors will be described
by a parameter called Impedance.
Impedance may be viewed as complex resistance.
The impedance concept is equivalent to stating
that capacitors and inductors act as frequencydependent resistors.
That is, as resistors whose resistance is a function
of the frequency of the sinusoidal excitation.

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

31

Resistive, Inductive, and Capacitive AC Circuits

Figure 4.33 The impedance element


20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

32

4.4.4.1 The Resistor


In the case of sinusoidal sources,
then, the current flowing through
the resistor is given by

Converting the voltage vs(t)and the


current i(t) to phasor notation, we
obtain the following expressions:

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

33

Then, the impedance of the resistor denoted by ZR(j) is defined as


the ratio of the phasor voltage across the resistor to the phasor
current flowing through it,

Remarks:
1. The above equation corresponds to Ohms law in
phasor form.
2. Ohm s law applies to a resistor independent of the
particular form of the voltages and currents
(whether AC or DC, for instance).
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

34

4.4.4.2 The Inductor


We know that

Thus, for the circuit shown,


= vs(t) and iL(t) = i(t), hence

20/09/2013

vL(t)

Bahman R. Alyaei

35

Remarks:
1. Note how a dependence on the radian frequency of the
source is clearly present in the expression for the
inductor current.
2. Further, the inductor current is shifted in phase (by
90) with respect to the voltage.
Using phasor notation:

Vs ( j ) A0
A
I s ( j )
/ 2
L
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

36

Thus, the impedance of the inductor, ZL(j) is defined as follows:

Remarks:
1. The inductor behaves like a complex frequencydependent
Resistor.
2. The magnitude of this complex resistor, L, is
proportional to the signal frequency, .
3. At low signal frequencies, an inductor acts
somewhat like a short circuit.
4. At high frequencies it tends to behave more as an
open circuit.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

37

4.4.4.3 The Capacitor

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

38

In phasor form,

The impedance of the ideal capacitor, ZC(j), is therefore defined


as follows:

We have used the fact that

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

39

Continue
Remarks:
1. The impedance of a capacitor is a
frequency-dependent complex quantity.
2. The impedance of a capacitor varies as
an inverse function of frequency.
3. A capacitor acts like a short circuit at
high frequencies.
4. It behaves more like an open circuit at
low frequencies.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

40

Since practical circuits are made up of


more or less complex interconnections
of different circuit elements.
The impedance of a circuit element is
defined as the sum of a real part and
an imaginary part:

R(j) is the real part of Z(j) and called


the AC resistance
X(j) is the imaginary part of Z(j) and
called the reactance.

Reactance could be inductive


which is +ve or capacitive which
is -ve.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

41

EX 4.13: Impedance of a
Complex Circuit
Find the equivalent impedance of
the circuit shown if = 104 rad/s.
Solution:
We determine first the parallel impedance
of the R2-C circuit, Z||.

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

42

Next, we determine the equivalent impedance, Zeq:

Remarks:
At the frequency used in this example, the circuit has an
inductive impedance, since the reactance is positive (or,
alternatively, the phase angle is positive).

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

43

4.4.5 Admittance
The Conductance, G, is defined as the
inverse of the resistance.
The Admittance, Y, is defined as the
inverse of the Impedance.

G is called the AC
conductance.
B is called the
susceptance.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

44

EX 4.14: Admittance
Find the equivalent
admittance of the two
circuits shown in Figure
4.41.
The data is as follow:
= 2 103 rad/s; R1
= 150 ; L = 16 mH; R2
= 100 , C = 3 F
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

45

Circuit (a):
First, determine the equivalent impedance of the circuit:

Circuit (b):
First, determine the equivalent impedance of the circuit:

Note that the units of admittance are siemens, that is, the same as
the units of conductance.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

46

4.5 AC Circuit Analysis Methods


The AC circuit analysis problem of interest
in this section consists of determining the
unknown voltage (or currents) in a circuit
containing linear passive circuit elements
(R, L, C) and excited by a sinusoidal
source.
The procedure for AC Circuit Analysis is
explained in next slide.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

47

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

48

EX 4.15: Phasor Analysis of AC


Circuit
Apply the phasor analysis
method to determine the
source current is(t).
Solution:
Define the voltage v(t) at the top node and use nodal analysis to
determine v(t), then

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

49

Next, we follow the steps


Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:

Step 4: Next, we solve for the source current using nodal analysis.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

50

First we find V:

Then we compute IS:

Step 5: Convert the phasor answer to time domain

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

51

4.5.1 AC Equivalent Circuits


The computation of an equivalent impedance
is carried out in the same way as that of
equivalent resistance in the case of resistive
circuits.
Short-circuit all voltage sources, and opencircuit all current sources.
Compute the equivalent impedance between
load terminals, with the load disconnected.
Compute VT or IN as before.
20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

52

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

53

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

54

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

55

EX 4.17: Solution of AC Circuit


by Nodal Analysis
The electrical characteristics of
electric motors can be
approximately represented by
means of a series R-L circuit.
In this problem we analyze the currents drawn by
two different motors connected to the same AC
voltage supply.
L2
RS = 0.5 ; R1 = 2 ; R2 = 0.2 , L1 = 0.1H;
= 20 mH. vS(t) = 155 cos(377t) V
Find the motor loadBahman
currents,
i1(t) and i2(t).
20/09/2013
R. Alyaei

56

Solution:
First, we calculate the impedances of the source and of each motor:

The source voltage is

Next, we apply KCL at the top node, with the aim of solving for the
node voltage V:

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

57

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

58

Having the phasor node voltage, V, the phasor motor currents, I1


and I2:

Finally, we can write the time-domain expressions for the currents:

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

59

EX 4.18: Thvenin Equivalent of


AC Circuit
Compute the Thvenin
equivalent of the circuit of
Figure 4.50.
Z1 = 5 ; Z2 = j 20 .
vS(t) = 110 cos(377t) V.

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

60

Solution:
First, we remove the load, short-circuit the voltage source, and
compute the equivalent impedance seen by the load;

Next, we compute the open-circuit voltage, between terminals a


and b :

20/09/2013

Bahman R. Alyaei

61