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# Chapter 4

AC Network Analysis
Part 2
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## 4.3 Solutions of Circuits

Containing Dynamic Elements
The analysis of the
resistive element
circuits:
KVL and KCL.
The equations that
result from applying
Kirchhoffs laws are
algebraic equations.
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The analysis of
dynamic element
circuits:
KVL and KCL.
The equations that
result from applying
Kirchhoffs laws are
differential
equations.

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Consider the series RC
circuit, applying KVL:
Observing that iR = iC,
hence

## The above equation is an

integral equation.
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This equation can be converted to differential
equation by differentiating both sides of the
equation, then
where the
argument (t)
has been
dropped for
ease of
notation.
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What if we apply KCL at the
node connecting the resistor
to the capacitor, then

## Either equation (KVL or KCL) is sufficient, to

determine all voltages and currents in the circuit.
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## 4.3.1 Forced Response of Circuits

Excited by Sinusoidal Sources
Let vs(t) (the Forcing Function) be
sinusoidal signal
We know that

Then
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Since the forcing function is a sinusoid
Then, the solution may also be assumed
to be of the same form.
Therefore, an expression for vC(t) is then
the following:
Which is equivalent to
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Substituting this equation in the differential
equation for vC(t) and solving for the
coefficients A and B

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Rearranging

## The coefficients of sint and cost must

both be zero in order for the above equation
to hold, thus,

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Then, A and B are given by

## Thus, the solution for

vC(t) may be written as:

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Remarks:
These observations indicate that three parameters
uniquely define a sinusoid:
1. Frequency,
2. Amplitude
3. Phase.
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Continue
Then, is it necessary to carry the excess
luggage, that is, the sinusoidal functions?
Might it be possible to simply keep track of
the three parameters just mentioned?
Fortunately, the answers to these two
questions are no and yes, respectively.
This is possible through the use of
complex notation of sinusoids (Phasors).
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## 4.4 Phasors and Impedance

We will represent sinusoidal signals as
complex numbers, and to eliminate the
need for solving differential equations.
Read Appendix A for complete treatment of
complex numbers.
2.Multiplication and Division.
3.Conjugate.
4.Polar and Rectangular forms.
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## 4.4.1 Eulers Identity

Eulers identity forms
the basis of phasor
notation.
It states that, the
Complex Exponential
function is defined as

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Continue
Consider a vector of length A making an
angle with the real axis.
The following equation illustrates the
relationship between the rectangular and
polar forms:
In effect, Eulers identity is simply a
trigonometric relationship in the complex
plane.
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4.4.2 Phasors
A method through which complex numbers
can be used to represent sinusoidal
signals.
Rewrite the expression for a generalized
sinusoid in light of Eulers equation:

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Continue
The complex phasor corresponding to
the sinusoidal signal Acos(t + ) is
therefore defined to be the complex
number Aej:
A

## It is important to explicitly point out that

this is a definition.
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The complex phasor notation is the simplification of
the complex notation Re[Aej(t+)], as follow:

X ( j ) A e j
The reason for this simplification is simply
mathematical convenience.
Remember that the ejt term that was removed from
the complex form of the sinusoid is really still
present.
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Summary:

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## EX 4.9: Superposition of Two AC

Sources (Same Frequency)
Find the equivalent phasor voltage
vs(t) resulting from the series
connection of two sinusoidal
voltage sources given by:

Solution:
Write the two voltages in phasor
form as follow:
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## Now we can convert VS(j) to its time-domain form:

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Note:
We will obtained the same result by adding the two sinusoids in
the time domain, using trigonometric identities:

## Combining like terms, we obtain

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Remarks:
In general, phasor analysis greatly simplifies calculations related to
sinusoidal voltages and currents.

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4.4.3 Superposition of AC
Signals
A more general case is to deal with the
superposition of sinusoids oscillating at
different frequencies.
The question is how to add them in
phasor notation?
The circuit shown depicts a
load excited by two current
sources connected
in parallel, where
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The load current is equal to the sum of the two source currents; that is,
In this case, the phasor form is given by

IL=I1(j1) + I2(j2)
Where,

I1 ( j1 ) Re A1e j 0 e j1t

A10 , 1 2f1
I1

I 2 ( j2 ) Re A2 e j 0 e j2t

A20 , 2 2f 2
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I2

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Remarks:
In order to complete the
analysis of any circuit
with multiple sinusoidal
sources at different
frequencies using
phasors, it is necessary
to solve the circuit
separately for each
signal and then add the
obtained for the different
excitation sources.
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## EX 4.10: Superposition of Two AC

Sources (Different Frequency)
Compute the voltages
vR1(t)and vR2(t) in the
circuit of Figure 4.30.
The sources are given
by

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Solution:
Since the two sources are at different frequencies, then, we apply
superposition theory to compute a separate solution for each and
then combine the result.
1) Consider the current source:
Write the source current in phasor
notation:

I s ( j1 ) Re A1e j 0 e j1t

## 0.50 A , 1 200 rad/s

Is
Then, vR1(t) and vR2(t) due to is(t) in phasor form is given by
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1
R1

VR1 (I s )

I s R1
1
1
R R
2
1

1
0.50 150 18.750 V , 1 200 rad/s
4

VR2 (I s )

1
R2

I s R2
1
1
R R
2
1

3
0.50 50 18.750 V , 1 200 rad/s
4

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## 2) Consider the voltage source:

Write the source current in phasor notation:

Vs ( j2 ) Re A2 e j 0 e j2t

## 200 , 2 2000 rad/s

Vs
Then, vR1(t) and vR2(t) due to vs(t) in phasor form is given by

R1
Vs
R1 R2
3
200 150 V , 2 2000 rad/s
4

R2
(Vs )
VR2 (Vs )
R1 R2
VR1 (Vs )

1
200 50 5 V , 2 2000 rad/s
4

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## Now we can determine the voltage across each resistor by adding

the contributions from each source and converting the phasor form
to time-domain representation:

Note that it is impossible to simplify the final expression any further,
because the two components of each voltage are at different
frequencies.

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4.4.4 Impedance
We now analyze the i-v relationship of the three ideal
circuit elements in light of the phasor notation.
Resistors, capacitors, and inductors will be described
by a parameter called Impedance.
Impedance may be viewed as complex resistance.
The impedance concept is equivalent to stating
that capacitors and inductors act as frequencydependent resistors.
That is, as resistors whose resistance is a function
of the frequency of the sinusoidal excitation.

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## 4.4.4.1 The Resistor

In the case of sinusoidal sources,
then, the current flowing through
the resistor is given by

## Converting the voltage vs(t)and the

current i(t) to phasor notation, we
obtain the following expressions:

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## Then, the impedance of the resistor denoted by ZR(j) is defined as

the ratio of the phasor voltage across the resistor to the phasor
current flowing through it,

Remarks:
1. The above equation corresponds to Ohms law in
phasor form.
2. Ohm s law applies to a resistor independent of the
particular form of the voltages and currents
(whether AC or DC, for instance).
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We know that

## Thus, for the circuit shown,

= vs(t) and iL(t) = i(t), hence

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vL(t)

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Remarks:
1. Note how a dependence on the radian frequency of the
source is clearly present in the expression for the
inductor current.
2. Further, the inductor current is shifted in phase (by
90) with respect to the voltage.
Using phasor notation:

Vs ( j ) A0
A
I s ( j )
/ 2
L
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## Thus, the impedance of the inductor, ZL(j) is defined as follows:

Remarks:
1. The inductor behaves like a complex frequencydependent
Resistor.
2. The magnitude of this complex resistor, L, is
proportional to the signal frequency, .
3. At low signal frequencies, an inductor acts
somewhat like a short circuit.
4. At high frequencies it tends to behave more as an
open circuit.
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In phasor form,

as follows:

## We have used the fact that

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Continue
Remarks:
1. The impedance of a capacitor is a
frequency-dependent complex quantity.
2. The impedance of a capacitor varies as
an inverse function of frequency.
3. A capacitor acts like a short circuit at
high frequencies.
4. It behaves more like an open circuit at
low frequencies.
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## Since practical circuits are made up of

more or less complex interconnections
of different circuit elements.
The impedance of a circuit element is
defined as the sum of a real part and
an imaginary part:

## R(j) is the real part of Z(j) and called

the AC resistance
X(j) is the imaginary part of Z(j) and
called the reactance.

## Reactance could be inductive

which is +ve or capacitive which
is -ve.
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EX 4.13: Impedance of a
Complex Circuit
Find the equivalent impedance of
the circuit shown if = 104 rad/s.
Solution:
We determine first the parallel impedance
of the R2-C circuit, Z||.

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## Next, we determine the equivalent impedance, Zeq:

Remarks:
At the frequency used in this example, the circuit has an
inductive impedance, since the reactance is positive (or,
alternatively, the phase angle is positive).

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The Conductance, G, is defined as the
inverse of the resistance.
The Admittance, Y, is defined as the
inverse of the Impedance.

G is called the AC
conductance.
B is called the
susceptance.
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Find the equivalent
admittance of the two
circuits shown in Figure
4.41.
The data is as follow:
= 2 103 rad/s; R1
= 150 ; L = 16 mH; R2
= 100 , C = 3 F
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Circuit (a):
First, determine the equivalent impedance of the circuit:

Circuit (b):
First, determine the equivalent impedance of the circuit:

Note that the units of admittance are siemens, that is, the same as
the units of conductance.
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## 4.5 AC Circuit Analysis Methods

The AC circuit analysis problem of interest
in this section consists of determining the
unknown voltage (or currents) in a circuit
containing linear passive circuit elements
(R, L, C) and excited by a sinusoidal
source.
The procedure for AC Circuit Analysis is
explained in next slide.
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## EX 4.15: Phasor Analysis of AC

Circuit
Apply the phasor analysis
method to determine the
source current is(t).
Solution:
Define the voltage v(t) at the top node and use nodal analysis to
determine v(t), then

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## Next, we follow the steps

Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:

Step 4: Next, we solve for the source current using nodal analysis.
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First we find V:

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## 4.5.1 AC Equivalent Circuits

The computation of an equivalent impedance
is carried out in the same way as that of
equivalent resistance in the case of resistive
circuits.
Short-circuit all voltage sources, and opencircuit all current sources.
Compute the equivalent impedance between
Compute VT or IN as before.
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## EX 4.17: Solution of AC Circuit

by Nodal Analysis
The electrical characteristics of
electric motors can be
approximately represented by
means of a series R-L circuit.
In this problem we analyze the currents drawn by
two different motors connected to the same AC
voltage supply.
L2
RS = 0.5 ; R1 = 2 ; R2 = 0.2 , L1 = 0.1H;
= 20 mH. vS(t) = 155 cos(377t) V
Find the motor loadBahman
currents,
i1(t) and i2(t).
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Solution:
First, we calculate the impedances of the source and of each motor:

## The source voltage is

Next, we apply KCL at the top node, with the aim of solving for the
node voltage V:

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and I2:

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## EX 4.18: Thvenin Equivalent of

AC Circuit
Compute the Thvenin
equivalent of the circuit of
Figure 4.50.
Z1 = 5 ; Z2 = j 20 .
vS(t) = 110 cos(377t) V.

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Solution:
First, we remove the load, short-circuit the voltage source, and
compute the equivalent impedance seen by the load;

and b :

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