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Pathophysiology

Dana Karem

Introduction

Physiology: the scientific study of the functions of the body.


Pathology: the scientific study of the structural and
functional alterations in the body followed by a disease.
Homeostasis: the ability of the body to maintain a stable
internal environment in response to an external stimulus.
Pathophysiology: the scientific study of the physiological
changes caused by an agent or disease.

Health
Defined by WHO as a state of complete..

Disease
Structural and functional alteration due to a recognisable agent/s.

Terms used interchangeably:


Illness
Disorder
Condition
Syndrome

Signs and Symptoms


Symptom: a feature noticed/felt and expressed by the patient.
Sign: a feature noticed or detected by another person or examiner.

Commonly Used Terms, Prefixes and Suffixes


-itis (bronchitis, dermatitis, appendicitis)
-emia (anaemia, leukemia)
Hyper, hypo (what are hyperemia, hypovolemia and hyperlipidemia?)
-ia ( hypercapnia)
-osis
-oma (hepatoma, lymphoma)
Erythro- (erythroderma)
Regeneration
Degeneration
-tomy (phlebotomy)
-ectomy (mastectomy)

Commonly Used Terms, Prefixes and Suffixes


Necrosis (necrotising), what is necrophobia?
Proliferation
Effusion
-pathy: nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy
-trophy, atrophy, hypertrophy
-megaly: cardiomegaly, splenomegaly
Sclerosis
Athero What are (atherosclerosis) and atheroma?

Classification of Diseases

I do not want two diseases one nature made,


one doctor made.

Napoleon Bonaparte 1820

Diseases are classified into:


Symptoms: symptomatic or asymptomatic
Duration: acute, subacute and chronic
Causes and origin:
Idiopathic: no identifiable causes can be found.
Genetic, developmental, traumatic, infectious, environmental, etc.
Iatrogenic: doctors and health staff may accidentally induce injuries
and ill health effects.

General manifestations of
disease

Stabbing
Pain

Piercing
Throbbing
Tightness
Burning
Dull/vague

General manifestations of disease

Fever
Sweating
Chills
Tiredness
Diminished/loss of appetite
Loss of interest
Loss of weight
Nausea and vomiting
Diarrhoea/constipation
Anaemia
Lymph node enlargement
Organ enlargement: spleen, liver, heart
Bleeding

Inflammation
Pain/discomfort
Hot/elevated temperature
Swelling
Redness
Impairment or loss of function

Pathology Made Easy

For Example
Diseases of the Digestive System

Consider the Functions.

General functions of the digestive system


Ingestion including taste
Swallowing
Peristalsis
Digestion
Absorption
Segmentation
Defecation

Abnormalities, injuries, diseases of the


digestive system will interfere with the
functions accordingly

Diseases of the mouth may interfere with


eating and articulation. Consequently,
they may lead to weight loss,
malnutrition and speech problems which
can lead to psychosocial problems.

Diseases of the oesophagus


may interfere with peristalsis
and consequently may cause
difficulty in swallowing and
vomiting.

Diseases of the stomach


Diseases of the small intestine..

Disease of the small intestine may lead to malabsorptive


conditions and subsequent electrolyte imbalances and
nutritional deficiencies which can cause a variety of health
problems depending on how severe these deficiencies are.
Consequently, the body will attempt to maintain
homeostatic balances by utilising body resources and
activating the various neuro-endocrine mechanisms.
These can and present a wide range of physical symptoms
including tiredness, dizziness, lack of interest, weak
immunity, skin changes, psychosocial manifestations, etc.

Diseases of the respiratory system

Abnormalities of the respiratory system may cause


hypoxia and hypercapnia that can lead to tiredness,
S.O.B., chest pain, dizziness, tachypnea, etc. These
abnormal findings can induce a variety of biochemical
changes including acid-base imbalance which can
stimulate the various receptors in the body activating the
respiratory and cardiovascular centres to respond
accordingly to attain a stable internal condition.
Simultaneously, the renal and neuro-endocrine systems
can produce a variety of systemic changes to attain this
stability.

These manifestations and systemic


changes due to external stimuli can be
seen in other systemic abnormalities
including the kidneys.

Hope this helped you gain some knowledge


regarding pathophysiology.
Thanks for watching, then.