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IT 20303 DBMS Concepts

Relational Database Theory

Relational Database Theory


The Database Environment
Evolution of Computing Technology
Punch-Cards 1950-60s
Character Based VDU 1960-70s
GUI 1980-90s
Voice/Telephony 1990-Beyond

Relational Database Theory


The Database Environment
Evolution of Processing
Environments
Batch Processing 1950-60s
Online 1970-80s
Networked 1980-90s
Future ? 2000-beyond

Relational Database Theory


Computing Technology based on
Advances in:
Hardware economics and
miniaturization
Continues to provide increasing
power at decreasing costs
Enables a broad range of
powerful servers and workstations

Relational Database Theory


Computing Technology based on
Advances in:
Software availability & capabilities
Off-the-Shelf applications software
Software to support all phases of
application development

Relational Database Theory


Computing Technology based on
Advances in:
Connectivity networking & internet
Creates demand for web-enabled
applications
Allows interaction with many
systems & databases

Relational Database Theory


Database Technology Evolution
Files 1950-60s
Hierarchical 1960-70s
Network 1970-80s
Relational 1990-beyond

Relational Database Theory


Database Technology
Relational is the dominate database
technology
Importance of business rules is
widely recognized
Importance, use, and amount of
data is increasing

Relational Database Theory


Database Technology
Our understanding of the nature of
data is expanding
Scalar (traditional) data: numbers,
character strings, dates
Complex data: graphics, images,
geographic data, audio, video,
documents

Relational Database Theory


Database Technology
Relational DBMS capabilities are
being extended
To handle larger volumes and
complex data

Relational Database Theory


Database Technology
Trend is to provide a GUI to the
database
Accessing the database via the web

Relational Database Theory


Impact of Technology Advances
Systems are user-oriented rather
than machine-oriented
Rate of new technology & product
introduction is very fast
People use computers, databases,
& the internet to do their jobs

Relational Database Theory


Impact of Technology Advances
Conducting business on the internet
is vital to most organizations
Still working to provide easier user
access to data
Still seeking better ways to turn data
into useful information

Relational Database Theory


Database Environment Introduction
Components:
Data
Users
Network
Software
Hardware
Administration

Relational Database Theory


Database & the DBMS
What is a Database?
A collection of related data
Intended for use by a known group of
users
Designed & built for a specific set of
requirements
Represents (or models) some aspect
of the real world

Relational Database Theory


Database & the DBMS
What is a database management
system (DBMS)?
A collection of programs
Enables users to create, maintain,
& access a database

Relational Database Theory


Why use a Database & a DBMS?
A database supports data sharing
Many users access the same data
Minimizes duplicated data and
resulting update inconsistencies

Relational Database Theory


Why use a Database & a DBMS?
An RDBMS is a productivity tool
Provides efficient storage and
access techniques
Provides a standard databse
access language, SQL
Many development & case
tools interface to RDBMSs

Relational Database Theory


Why use a Database & a DBMS?
An RDBMS provides centralized
control of operational data
Restricts access to authorized
users: security
Supports recovery of data in case
of failure: durability

Relational Database Theory


Why use a Database & a DBMS?
Provides access by multiple users
at the same time: concurrency
Supports business rules about
data values, relationships:
integrity

Relational Database Theory


Different Groups of Users work with
Databases
Data Administration
End Users
Data Analyst
Business Systems Analyst
Systems Analyst
Programmer Analyst
DBA

Relational Database Theory


End Users are at all levels in the
organization
End Users primary job function is not
programming
Need information to answer questions,
make decisions, etc.
Provide input for data and process
requirements
Scattered throughout the organization

Relational Database Theory


Analysts
Business Systems Analyst
Expertise in business operations
Develop specifications, process
models for applications

Relational Database Theory


Analysts
Systems Analyst
Expertise in business applications
development
Develop specifications, models,
and applications

Relational Database Theory


Analysts
Data Analyst
Expertise in business
applications, especially data
usage

Relational Database Theory


Analysts
Programmer Analyst
Expertise in programming,
application
development/maintenance
Uses VB, C++, etc.
Support day-to-day operations of
the enterprise

Relational Database Theory


Database Administrator (DBA)
Interfaces with Users
Builds and Populates the database
Manages disk storage, backup, &
recovery
Maintains passwords & access
authorization

Relational Database Theory


Database Administrator (DBA)
Monitors performance & responds to
changing needs
Installs new releases of the RDBMS
& related products
Keeper of the Data Dictionary

Relational Database Theory


Database Administration
Develops high-level data
architecture
Supports current & expected
business functions
Responsible for a global view of all
the enterprises data

Relational Database Theory


Database Administration
Overall data architecture can have
many subject databases
One or more subject databases
can have one or many DBAs
Integral to Information Resource
Management (IRM) philosophy

Relational Database Theory


Uses of a Database
Production Database
Used to accomplish business
functions of an organization
Online or batch applications
Objective is reliable, timely,
valid processing of data

Relational Database Theory


Uses of a Database
Database usage includes CRUD
activities
Creating, Reading, Updating, &
Deleting data (CRUD)
Sometimes referred to as
online complex processing

Relational Database Theory


Uses of a Database
Required features of DBMS often
include:
Security
Recovery
Concurrency
Transaction Processing

Relational Database Theory


Uses of a Database
Decision-Support Database
Used for analysis, querying, &
reporting
Read-Only
Sometimes referred to as
OnLine Analytical Processing
(OLAP)

Relational Database Theory


Uses of a Database
Required features of DBMS
environment often include:
Easy-to-Use query tools or
custom applications

Relational Database Theory


Uses of a Database
Data Warehouse
An approach to providing a
database for querying and
analysis

Relational Database Theory


Uses of a Database
Individual Use Database
A DBMS & a database in the
individual users workstation
Single-User environment

Relational Database Theory


Uses of a Database
Initially mass-consumer-oriented
Example: dBASE, Paradox, FoxPro,
Access
RDBMS vendors introduced personal
versions:
Personal Oracle (Free)
IBM DB2/2 ($600/year)
Sybase SQL Anywhere ($200)

Relational Database Theory


Uses of a Database
Required features often include
ease of:
Installing, Use
Reporting
Producing simple applications

Relational Database Theory


The Database Development Process
Requirements
Analysis/Design
Produce
Build/Test
Production Maintenance

Relational Database Theory


Roles in Application & Database
Development - Logical
Data
Data Administration
Data Analyst
Conceptual Data Models
ERDs
Created with help of the Users

Relational Database Theory


Roles in Application & Database
Development - Logical
Process
Business Systems Analyst
Systems Analyst
Process Model
DFD, Action Diagrams, Process
Specification Diagrams

Relational Database Theory


Roles in Application & Database
Development Physical
Data
Database Administrator
Database

Relational Database Theory


Roles in Application & Database
Development Physical
Process
Programmer Analyst
Program Code