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# Polynomial Long Division Review

A) (5 x 3 13 x 2 10 x 8) ( x 2) B) ( y 3 y 2 6)( y 2) 1

5 x 2 3x 4

x 2 5 x 13 x 10 x 8
3

18
y 3y 6
y2
2

y 2 y3 y2 0 y 6

SYNTHETIC DIVISION: (5 x

13 x 2 10 x 8) ( x 2)

## STEP #1: Write the Polynomial in DESCENDING ORDER

by degree and write any ZERO coefficients for missing
degree terms in order
Polynomial Descending Order : 5 x 3 13 x 2 10 x 8

## STEP #2: Solve the Binomial Divisor = Zero

x 2 0; x 2
STEP #3: Write the ZERO-value, then all the
COEFFICIENTS of Polynomial.
Zero = 2

-13

10

-8 = Coefficients

STEP #4 (Repeat):
(1) ADD Down, (2) MULTIPLY, (3) Product Next Column

## SYNTHETIC DIVISION: Continued

Zero = 2

-13
10

10
-6

-8 = Coefficients
8

5
-3
0 = Remainder
4
STEP #6: POLYNOMIAL DIVISION QUOTIENT
Write the coefficient answers in descending order starting
with a Degree ONE LESS THAN Original Degree and include
NONZERO REMAINDER OVER DIVISOR at end
(If zero is fraction, then divide coefficients by denominator)
5
-3
4 5x2 3x 4

(5 x 13 x 10 x 8) ( x 2) 5 x 2 3 x 4
3

## SYNTHETIC DIVISION: Practice

[1] ( x 3 2 x 2 5 x 12) ( x 4)
Zero =

= Coefficients

[2] ( x 4 5 x 3 13 x 2 10) ( x 1)

## [3] (3 x 5 7 x 4 4 x 2 2 x 6)( x 3)1

3 3 7 0 4 2
9

18

42

120

14

40

114

3 x 4 2 x 3 6 x 2 14 x 40

114
x3

4
2
(
8
x

4
x
x 4) ( 2 x 1)
[4]

4x3 2x2 x 1

3
2x 1

0.5 8

Divide by 2

0 4 1 4
4 2 1 1
8 4 2 2 3

REMAINDER THEOREM:
Given a polynomial function f(x):
f ( x)
then f(a) equals the remainder of
Example: Find the given value

( x a)

f ( x ) x 3 3 x 2 4 x 7 , find f ( 2)

[A]

2 1
3 -4
-7
2 10 12
1

## Method #2: Substitution/ Evaluate

f ( 2) ( 2) 3 3( 2) 2 4( 2) 7
f ( 2) 8 12 8 7
f ( 2) 5

4
2
[B] f ( x ) x 5 x 8 x 3 , find f ( 3)

-3

1
1

0
-3
-3

-5 8
9
-12
4

-4

-3
12
9

f ( 3) ( 3)4 5( 3) 2 8( 3) 3
f ( 3) 81 45 24 3 9

FACTOR THEOREM:
(x a) is a factor of f(x) iff f(a) = 0

remainder = 0

## Example: Factor a Polynomial with Factor Theorem

Given a polynomial and one of its factors, find the remaining factors
using synthetic division.

## Polynomial : x 3 3 x 2 36 x 108 ; Factor ( x 3)

-3

1
1

3
-3

-36
0

-108
108

-36

(Synthetic Division)

x 36
2

(x + 6) (x - 6)

Remaining factors

3

## PRACTICE: Factor a Polynomial with Factor Theorem

Given a polynomial and one of its factors, find the remaining factors.

3 1 4 15 18
3 21 18
1 7 6
0

x2 7 x 6
( x 6)( x 1)

## STOP once you have a quadratic!

( x 3)( x 6)( x 1)
[B] 2 x 3 17 x 2 23 x 42; Factor ( 2 x 7 )
3.5 2

17 23 42
7 35 42
2 10 12
0

x2 5x 6
( x 6)( x 1)

## STOP once you have a quadratic!

( 2 x 7 )( x 6)( x 1)

## Finding EXACT ZEROS (ROOTS) of a Polynomial

[1] FACTOR when possible & Identify zeros:
Set each Factor Equal to Zero
[2a] All Rational Zeros =

Factors of P
Factors of Q

## P = leading coefficient, Q = Constant of polynomial

[2b] Use SYNTHETIC DIVISION
(repeat until you have a quadratic)
[3] Identify the remaining zeros
(1) factor (2) quad formula (3) complete the square
Answers must be exact, so factoring and graphing wont always work!

## Example 1: Find ZEROS/ROOTS of a Polynomial

by FACTORING: (1) Factor by Grouping (2) U-Substitution
(3) Difference of Squares, Difference of Cubes, Sum of Cubes
[A] f ( x ) x 3 2 x 2 4 x 8

[B]

f ( x ) x 3 3 x 2 9 x 27

Factor by Grouping

Factor by Grouping

x ( x 2) 4( x 2)
2

x 2 ( x 3) 9( x 3)

0 ( x 2 4)( x 2)

0 ( x 2 9)( x 3)

x { 2 i , 2}
[C]

f ( x ) x 16
4

( x 2 4)( x 2 4)
( x 2 4)( x 2)( x 2)
{2i, 2}

x { 3 i , 3}
[D]

f ( x ) x 3 27

( x 3)( x 2 3x 9)

3 3i 3
3,

## Example 2: Find ZEROS/ROOTS of a Polynomial

by SYNTHETIC DIVISION (Non-Calculator)
Find all values of

P
Q

## Check each value by synthetic division

[A]
[B]
f ( x) x 3 3 x 2
Possible Zeros (P/Q)
1, 2
1 0 3 2

f ( x ) x 3 3 x 2 25 x 21

## Possible Zeros (P/Q)

1, 3, 7, 21
1 3 25 21

Example 2: PRACTICE

[C] f ( x ) x 4 10 x 3 33 x 2 38 x 8 [D]
Possible Zeros (P/Q)
1, 2, 4, 8
1 10 33 38

f ( x) x 3 3 x 2 x 3

## Possible Zeros (P/Q)

1, 3
8

1 3 9 27

Example 2: PRACTICE
4
3
2
[E] f ( x ) 2 x 3 3 x 2 4 x 4 [F]f ( x ) 2 x 7 x 4 x 7 x 6
Possible Zeros (P/Q)
Possible Zeros (P/Q)
1, 2, 4, 1/2
1, 2, 3, 6, 1/2, 3/2

Example 2: PRACTICE
f ( x ) 3 x 3 4 x 2 17 x 6

[G] f ( x ) 6 x 3 5 x 2 3 x 2

[H]

## Possible Zeros (P/Q)

1, 2, 1/2 1/3, 2/3 , 1/6

## Possible Zeros (P/Q)

1, 2, 3, 6, 1/3, 2/3

17

## Example 3: Find ZEROS/ROOTS of a Polynomial

by GRAPHING (Calculator)
[Y=], Y1 = Polynomial Function and Y2 = 0
[2ND] [TRACE: CALC] [5:INTERSECT]
First Curve? [ENTER], Second Curve? [ENTER]
Guess? Move to a zero [ENTER]
[A]

f ( x) x 4 x 3 14 x 2 16 x 32
1 1
2

1 14 16 32
1 2 16 32
1 2 16 32
0
2 0 32
x 2 16 0
1 0 16
0

x 2 16
x 4i

{1, 2, 4i}

Example 3: PRACTICE
[B]

f ( x ) x 15 x 70 x 70 x 156
4

1 1 15 70
70 156
1 16
86 156
6 1 16 86 156
0
6
60 156
1 10 26
0

10 4 10 2i

5i
2
2

{1, 6, 5 i}

Example 3: PRACTICE
4
3
2
[C] f ( x ) x 9 x 24 x 6 x 40

1 1
4

9
24
6 40
1 10 34 40
1 10 34 40
0
4
24 40
1 6 10
0

6 4 6 2i

3i
2
2

{1, 4, 3 i}