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LEADING

Leadership Definition
Leadership is:
A social influence process.
Is the process of directing and influencing the task-

related activities of group members

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There are four important points of


leadership:1. Leadership involves other people
2. Leadership involves unequal distribution of
power
3. Leadership is the ability to use the different
forms of power
4. Leadership is about values

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Leadership Approaches
I. Trait Approach
o

Leadership Traits and Skills Focus


The assumption that some people are born with

certain physical characteristics, aspects of


personality, and aptitudes that make them successful
leaders.
Physical characteristics: height and appearance
Personality: self-esteem, dominance and emotional
stability
Aptitudes: general intelligence, verbal fluency and
creativity
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I. Trait Approach (contd)


The trait approach to leadership is based on early

leadership research that assume that a good leader is


born, not made.
However, evaluation of the studies shows that people
who became effective leader do not have any special
trait that distinguish them from non-leaders.
Thus, people today believe that individuals can be
trained to be good leaders
Leaders are made, not born.

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II. Behavioral Approach


Examines what effective leaders do rather than what

effective leaders are.


Defines a leaders effectiveness based on two
orientations:
Task orientation or job centered style
Setting performance goals, giving directions, and
supervising performance.
More concerned with getting the job done to his
satisfaction
Employee

orientation or people centered style

Behavior that shows empathy for concerns and feelings,


supportive of needs, and showing trust.
Friendly and respectful relationship with employees, would
try to motivate subordinates rather than to control them.
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II. Behavioral Approach (contd) *


The behavioral approach is supported by below

studies:

Behavioral
Behavioral
Approach
Approach

The
TheOhio
OhioState
State
University
University(OSU
(OSUstudies)
studies)

The
TheManagerial
Managerial Grid
Grid(by
(by
Robert
Robert Blake
Blakeand
andJane
Jane
Mouton)
Mouton)

The
TheUniversity
Universityof
of Michigan
Michigan
(Michigan
(Michigan studies)
studies)
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II. Behavioral Approach (contd) *


The
The Ohio
Ohio State
State University
University (OSU
(OSU studies)
studies)
OSU studies concluded that leaders exhibit two main

types of behavior:
I. Structure Behavior (task-oriented)
The leadership activity that establishes
procedures that employees should follow in
performing their tasks or jobs.
II. Consideration Behavior (employee-oriented)
The leadership behavior that shows friendship,
trust, respect and warmth in the relationship
between leaders and employees.

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II. Behavioral Approach (contd) *


OSU studies resulted in a model
that shows four leadership styles.
i.e. A high structure/low
consideration leadership style
emphasizes on structure
behavior and place less
attention to consideration
behavior.
Low structure/high consideration
highest employee satisfaction,
lowest turnover rates
High structure/low consideration
had high grievance, high
turnover rates

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II. Behavioral Approach (contd) *


The
The University
University of
of Michigan
Michigan (Michigan
(Michigan studies)
studies)
Michigan studies

concluded two types of leader behavior:


I.
Job-centered Behavior

Interested in the job that subordinate is doing and how


well the subordinate performs the job.

Leaders set rigid work standards, prescribe work methods


to be followed, and closely supervise subordinate work.
II. Employee-centered Behavior

Interested to the personal needs of subordinates and build


cooperative work teams that are satisfying to
subordinates.

Leaders encourage subordinates participation and inspire


trust and respect among subordinates.
The most productive work groups have leaders who were
employee-centered rather than job-centered.
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II. Behavioral Approach (contd) *


The
The Managerial
Managerial Grid
Grid (Robert
(Robert Blake
Blake && Jane
Jane Mouton)
Mouton)

Managerial Grid identifies five leadership behaviors


based on task-oriented and employee-oriented styles.

The grid identifies a range of management behaviors


based on the various ways that task-oriented and
employee-oriented styles can interact with one another
(each expressed on a scale of 1 to 9).

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II. Behavioral Approach (contd) *

The five leadership styles practiced by managers.

Point 1,1 Impoverished Management


concern for people, concern for
tasks, leader does not play his
leadership role, makes minimum effort
to get work done, also known as
laissez-faire management

Point 1,9 Country Club Management


concern for people, concern for
tasks, this leadership style believes
that giving attention to peoples needs
will lead to a comfortable and friendly
organizational atmosphere

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II. Behavioral Approach (contd) *

The five leadership styles practiced by managers.

Point 5,5 Middle-of-theRoad/Organization Man Management


concern for people = concern for tasks,
adequate organization performance is
possible through balancing work and
maintaining morale of employees at a
satisfying level

Point 9,1 Task/Authoritarian/Autocratic


Management
concern for people, concern for
tasks, manager stresses on operating
efficiently through controls, wants work
schedule to be followed, least concern
about employees welfare
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II. Behavioral Approach (contd) *

The five leadership styles practiced by managers.

Point 9,9 Team / Democratic /


Participative/ Supportive Management
concern for people, concern for
tasks, work accomplishment is from
committed people, interdependence
through common interests as well as
relationship of trust and respect

Style 9,9 is the most effective

management style - improved


performance, low absenteeism and
turnover, and high employee
satisfaction.

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III. Contingency Approach *


1.
1. Path-Goal
Path-Goal Approach
Approach
Formulated by Martin G. Evans and Robert J. House.
Based on expectancy model, which states employees
motivation depends on his expectation of reward or
the attractiveness of the reward.
Managers determine the availability of goals
(rewards) and the paths that will earn those rewards.
Leader can increase employee effort and productivity
by clarifying performance goals and the path to be
taken to achieve those goals.

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III. Contingency Approach (contd) *


According to Path-Goal theory of leadership, leaders
show four primary types of behavior:
I.

Directive behavior

Telling followers what to do and how to do it,


leader indicates what performance goals exist
and what must be done to achieve it.

II. Supportive behavior

Being friendly with followers and showing interest

in them as human beings. Leader shows


sensitivity to the personal needs of followers.

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III. Contingency Approach (contd) *


III.

Participative behavior

Seeking suggestions from followers regarding


business operations, followers involve in decision
making, help to determine rewards available and
what they must do to earn those rewards.

IV.

Achievement behavior

Aimed at setting challenging goals for followers to


reach and expressing confidence that they will face
up to the challenge. Leader focuses on making
challenging goals for employees to achieve.

Path-goal theory explains why a particular leadership


style is more effective in one situation than in another
and it recommends flexibility in dealing with different
employee problems and situations.
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III. Contingency Approach (contd) *


2.
2. Life
Life Cycle
Cycle or
or Situational
Situational Approach
Approach

Developed by Hersey and Blanchard.

Leadership styles should reflect primarily on the


maturity level of the followers.

Maturity is the ability of followers to perform their job


independently, the education/experience and skills a follower
has relevant to particular tasks, to assume additional
responsibility and to desire to achieve success.

Describes how leaders should adjust leadership style


in response to their subordinates desire for
achievement, experience, ability and willingness to
accept responsibility.
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III. Contingency Approach (contd) *


Phases in Life-Cycle Approach
PHASE 3

PHASE 2

Phase 1 (HT/LR)

Telling style: the leader


provides specific instructions
and closely supervises
performance.
PHASE 4

PHASE 1

Phase 2 (HT/HR)

Selling style: the leader


explains decisions and
provides opportunities for
clarification.

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III. Contingency Approach (contd) *


Phases in Life-Cycle Approach
PHASE 3

PHASE 4

PHASE 2

PHASE 1

Phase 3 (LT/HR)

Participating style: the leader


shares ideas and maintains
two-way communication to
encourage and support the
skills subordinates have
developed.
Phase 4 (LT/LR)

Delegating style: the leader


provides subordinates with
few task or relations
behaviors.
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Power
Defined as the ability to use human,
informational or material resources to get
something done
It is the ability to exert influence, that is the
ability to change the attitudes or behavior of
individuals of groups.

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Position power power derived from opportunities inherent in a position in an


organization

1. Legitimate power this is where a person has a right


or is lawfully entitled to exert influence or power
(formal authority)
2. Reward power is the ability to reward another person
for carrying out orders, which may be expressed or
implied
3. Coercive power is the ability to influence another
person with the use of threat or punishment for not
carrying out orders.
4. Information power involves the managers power to
gain and distribute information that is important to
other organizational members.
.
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Personal power power derived for interpersonal relationship


between leaders and followers

1. Expert power is the power to influence


another person because of expert knowledge
and competence
2. Referent power is the ability to influence
others based on personal liking, charisma and
reputation.

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