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Jindal Steel & Power

Ltd.
A

PROJECTREPORT

ON

SUBMITED BY

Brijesh Surge
Dip. In Mechanical
Engg.
Govt. Polytechnic
Jashpur

DRI

INDEX:* Introduction of DRI


* Iron making.
* Direct reduced iron process
(DRI).
* Raw materials for DRI.
* Sponge iron discharge
temperature.
* Description of kiln.
* Process in kiln.
* Heat transfer in rotary kiln.
* Process control parameters.
* Reaction in kiln.
* Quality of total product.
* Uses of sponge iron.
* Safety for trainee.

Introduction of DRI
Sponge iron is a term given to the product obtained by reduction of
iron ore in solid state. Sponge iron is a mixture of reduced metallic
iron,

unreduced iron oxide and the associated with gangue

constituents of the original ore. It is also known as


directlyreducediron {DRI}, metallized ore etc. much of the oxygen
associated with the iron oxide is eliminated there by raising the
content of metallic iron. Hence it is known as metallized ore.

PROCESSESOFMAKINGSPONGEIRON:ALargeNoOfDRIProcessesAvailableToday

CoalBasedProcessesUsingRotaryKilns.

Coal Based Processes Using Other Type Of Reactors Like Rotary Hearth
Furnaces.

BatchTypeGasBasedProcessesUsingReactors.

ContinuousGasBasedProcessesInShaftFurnaces.

GasBasedProcessesUsingFluidisedBedReactors

COALBASEDDRIPROCESS:These processes has an essentially been designed to carry out


reduction using solid reluctant like non-metallurgical coal.
Additional liquid or gaseous fuel may be burnt to generate the
working temperature.

RAWMATERIALSFORDRIPROCESS:There are following materials which are used as


raw material for DRI process.
* Non cocking coal
* dolomite
* pallets of iron ore

DESCRIPTIONOFKILN:

The kiln has been designed based on certain L/D ratio, percentage
degree of inclination, rpm etc.
Kiln has a length of 70.8 m and a shell diameter of 4.2 meter. the kiln
has inclination of 2.5% ,rests on four support stations .ironore
dolomite and about 43-45% coal of the total coal charged into kiln
from the feed end while the remaining 55-57% of the coal
pneumatically feed into the kiln from the kiln outlet in two different
size ranges at adjustable rates.

PROCESSINKILN:-(BlockDiagram)

HEATTRANSFERINROTARYKILN:For the solid reduction of iron ore, a reasonable tem. Of reduction


(1000-1100) has to be maintained over the length of the kiln. To
faceplate heat transfer, and discharge the material, a rotary action is
imparted to kiln.

PROCESSCONTROLPARAMETERS:In the operation of any DRI rotary kiln the following process parameters are
paramount:

1.
FEEDRATE&PROPERTIONOFMATERIAL
2.KILNTEMPERATUREMEASURMENT
3.CONTROLOFGASEOUSATMOSPHERE

4.GASPRESSUREINDSIDETHEKILN

5.KILNROTATION

REACTIONINKILN:-

SPONGEIRONDISCHARGETEMPERATURE
The temperature of the sponge iron discharged from the rotary cooler
is significant to prevent its re-oxidation during storage. This
temperature is maintained below 700 C .For hotter material the cooler
rpm is increased accordingly.

CoalInjection:
In general a mix of fine and coarse coal 40% to 50% of the total
coal requirement for the process is fed from the discharge end
through a coal injector. Coal is injected in such a way that fresh
coal falls at various zones of the kiln so as to maintain the
temperature profile.

MeanParticleSize
The mean particle size ratio of iron ore to feed coal shall be in the
range of 1.2 to 1.5 depending up on the characteristics of coal.
The mean particle size of iron ore shall be restricted to 11mm in
order to achieve uniform Fe metallic of all grain size fraction of the
product.

RetentionTime
The time travelled by the materials in the kiln is taken as a
reference for the assessment of the kiln condition. In case of a
fresh kiln the retention time for a 100TPD kiln at 0.45rpm is 6-7
hrs,10-11hrs for a 350TPD kiln at 0.47rpm,.12-13hrs for 500tpd
kiln at 0.43rpm.

QUALITYOFTHEPRODUCT:
The important constituents determining the quality of sponge iron are
the Fe total, Fe metallic , sulphur, phosphorous, carbon and gangue
content.

Fe total:
The Fe total content in sponge iron purely depends on
Fe content in iron ore the degree of reduction achieved
in the process. Fe total content of 90%min is required
for steel making requirement.

Sulphur content:
The sulphur content in sponge iron is controlled by
adding 1-6mm of limestone/dolomite along with feed
materials which picks up sulphur from the coal
preventing the sulphur pick up in sponge iron. The
sulphur content in sponge iron can be controlled in the
range 0.012 to 0,025%.

Phosphorous content:
The phosphorous present in the iron ore is retained as
P2O5 in sponge iron without any change. The
phosphorous content in sponge iron is generally varies
from 0.06% to 0.09%.

Gangue content:
As the removal of oxygen in iron ore takes place in solid
state, the gangue content present in iron ore(mainly
silica and alumina) remains in sponge iron without any
change. In general the gangue content in sponge iron
varies from 4% to 8%.
Carbon content:
The carbon content in sponge iron produced by coal
based rotary kiln processes are generally low and is in
the range of 0.08% to 0.20%.The carbon content in gas
based processes can be controlled to a level of 1.5% to
2.0% based on requirement for steel making.

Size Distribution:
The size distribution of sponge iron lumps varies with
decrepitating behavior of iron ores. As the Fe metallic
content in sponge iron varies for each size fraction
control of feed size of iron ore is very important for
achieving uniform Fe metallic content. The typical size
distribution and Fe metallic for each fraction is as given
below.
Particular +16 mm +12 mm +10 mm +5 mm
-4 mm
s
Fe
metallic
Fe total
Percent

79.36

82.28

83.35

81.54

85.01

90.00

91.31

92.55

91.76

95.55

4.21

14.74

27.37

33.68

20.00

USES OF SPONGE IRON:

DRI has been successfully used in the following steel


melting units:
Electric arc furnaces, as a substitute for scrap.
Basic oxygen furnaces, as a coolant during the blow,&
as a substitute for scrap in the initial charge.
Induction furnaces , as a feedstock.
Open hearth furnaces , as a charge for melting.
Ladle furnaces , as trimming addition.

SAFETY RULES FOR TRAINEE:

1.

Always use safety Helmet & shoes during the plant


training.
2. Dont very near to the hot metal.
3. Dont go very near to moving machines.
4. Dont enter in a prohibited area.
5. Beware of gas & fumes.
6. Dont touch machines & instrument.