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BIODIVERSITY

CONSERVATION
By
Kumeh Mensah Eric
Final Year
BSc. Natural Resource Mgt.
FRNR-CANR
KNUST
Ghana

Presentation Outline
Definition and origin of biodiversity
Components of biodiversity
Gene diversity
Species diversity
Ecosystem diversity

Benefits of biodiversity
Economic benefits
Ecological and environmental benefits
Aesthetic and scientific benefits

Factors militating against biodiversity


Population growth
Climate change and global warming
Deforestation
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Presentation Outline(Cont.)
Factors militating against biodiversity
Species Introduction
Global Warming and Climate Change
Pollution

Definition of Conservation and Biodiversity


Conservation
Why Biodiversity Conservation
The Way Forward

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Policy and Legislation


Education
Restoring Ecosystems
The Role of Natural Resource of Management

Definition
What does Bio mean?

BIO = LIFE
What does DIVERSITY mean?

DIVERSITY = VARIETY
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Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the variety of life on earth and
the essential interdependence of all living
things (species).
The term was coined by
Edward O. Wilson amongst
others, as an ecological
concept to include all the
living organisms of a given
system, from the monera
to the trees, annelids to
mammals.

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Components of Biodiversity
Genetic Variety
Differences in inheritable characteristics that
are present in a population

Chihuahua
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Beagle

Rottweilers

Species Variety
Species is a particular type
of organism or population
of organisms which share
some characteristics and
can interbred to produce a
fertile offspring

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Ecosystem Variety
An ecosystem is made up of interacting
populations and the abiotic factors that
support them.

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Benefits of Biodiversity
Food Security
Many species not
now commonly
used for food
could be.

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Medicine
Every species that
goes extinct
represents one lost
opportunity to find a
cure for cancer,
hepatitis & HIV/AIDS.

Rosy periwinkle
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Economic Benefits
Affluent tourists pay
good money to see
wildlife, and protected
ecosystems.

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Environmental & Ecological Benefits


Protection from floods
and droughts
Stable ecosystems with
adequate trees help
regulate the water cycle
by acting as temporal
sinks.

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Soil Fertility Sustenance


Micro-organism
and macroorganism
activities aerate
soils.
Nutrient cycling
by deep rooted
trees

Earthworm in soils
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Aesthetic Benefits
Biophilia; human love for and attachment to
other living things; the connections that human
beings subconsciously seek out with the rest of
life:
Keeping of pets
Valuing real estate
with landscape views
Interest in escaping
cities to go hiking,
birding, fishing,
hunting,
backpacking, etc.
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Benefits of Biodiversity
Research (Motivation and generation of
ideas)

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Factors Militating Against Biodiversity


Population Growth
7 billion people who
need to be fed.

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Overexploitation of Resources
Extraction of flora
and fauna
resources beyond
sustainable
thresholds

Deforestation

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Global Warming and Climate Change


Emissions of greenhouse
gases are causing
temperatures to warm
worldwide, increasing the
frequency of extreme
weather events.

Polar bear on melting ice


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Species Introduction
Accidental or intentional
introduction of exotic
species to new areas.
Most do not establish
or expand, but some
dolikely because
they are released
from limitations
imposed by their
native predators,
parasites, and
competitors.
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Japanese Kudzu

Species Introduction

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Pollution
Air and water pollution;
agricultural runoff, industrial
chemicals.

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Pollution (cont.)
Eutrophication
Eutrophication occurs
when fertilizers,
animal wastes, sewage,
or other substances
rich in nitrogen and
phosphorus flow into
waterways, causing
extensive algae
growth.

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Pollution (cont.)
Acid Rains
Sulfur and nitrogen compounds react
with water and other substances in the
air to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid.
Acid precipitation removes
calcium, potassium, and
other nutrients from the
soil, depriving plants of
these nutrients.
It damages plant tissue
and slows their growth.
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Pollution (cont.)
Biological magnification
Biological
magnification is the
increasing
concentration of toxic
substances in
organisms as trophic
levels increase in a
food chain or food
web.

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Conservation

Conservation is an ethic of use, allocation and


protection of valued resources.
Biodiversity Conservation implies the use,
allocation and protection of the variety of flora
and fauna resources in a manner that ensures
the sustainability of these resources.

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Why Biodiversity Conservation?


1. To Ensure Food Security
Ireland Potato famine 1845

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Why Biodiversity Conservation?


2. Prevents extinction of species
30 per cent of
amphibians, 23 per
cent of mammals
and 12 per cent of
birds are threatened
(IUCN 2006).

DODO BIRD
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Why Biodiversity Conservation?


3.To sustain
ecosystem
services

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Why Biodiversity Conservation?


4. Maintenance
of cultural
heritage.

Parrot Totem of
Agona
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The Way Forward


Policy and Legislation
Policy is a proposed or
adopted course of action that
guide decision to obtain
rational outcomes.
Legislation proclamation
of laws by a recognized
institution.

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The Way Forward


Conventions, Protocols & Treaties
Trade Record
Analysis of Flora
and Fauna in
Commerce
(TRAFFIC)

Cartagena
Protocol on
Biosafety
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The Way Forward


Education

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The Way Forward


Restoring Ecosystems
Bioremediation
The use of living organisms, such as
prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify or
remove pollutants.
Technologies can be generally classified asin
situorex situ.
Oleispira antarctica
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The Way Forward


Biological Augmentation
Adding natural predators to
a degraded ecosystem is
called biological
augmentation.
Ladybugs can be introduced
into an ecosystem to
control aphid populations.

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The Way Forward


Controlled breeding programs

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The Way Forward


Natural Resource Management
Sustainable Forest and Wildlife Mgt.

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The Way Forward


Sustainable Aquaculture
Raising of fishery
resources in controlled
environments.

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The Way Forward


Agroforestry
Careful integration trees,
crops and/or animals
on the same land
management
unit.

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Did You Know?


Bamboo can grow up to three feet in a 24 hour
period.

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Did You Know?


According to UN Food and Agriculture
Organization estimates, 100 crop species
supply 90 percent of the world's food and bees
pollinate more than 70% of these crops!

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Did You Know?


As estimated by the IUCN, 50 percent of all
endangered species live in the rainforest. The
planets largest rainforest The Amazon lost
more than 17 percent of its forest cover in the
last century due to human activity.

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Did You Know?


Grasshopper Mouse uses Scorpion Venom as a
Painkiller

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Conclusion

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References
Admiraal, J.F., Wossink, A., de Groot, W.T., de Snoo,
G.R., 2013. More than total economic value: how to
combine economic valuation of biodiversity with
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Bai, Y., Zhuang, C., Ouyang, Z., Zheng, H., Jiang, B.,
2011. Spatial characteristics between biodiversity and
ecosystem services in a human-dominated watershed.
Ecol. Complexity 8, 177183.
Dunne, J.A., Williams, R.J., 2009. Cascading extinctions
and community collapse in model food webs. Philos.
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Egoh, B.N., Reyers, B., Carwardine, J., Bode, M.,
OFarrell, P.J., Wilson, K.A., Possingham, H.P., Rouget,
M., De Lange, W., Richardson, D.M., Cowling, R.M., 2010.
Safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services in the
little karoo, South Africa. Conserv. Biol. 24, 10211030.
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References Contd
Haines-Young, R., Potschin, M., 2013. Common
International Classification of Ecosystem Services
(CICES): Consultation on Version 4, August-December
2012. EEA Framework, Contract No EEA/IEA/09/003.
Reyers, B., Polasky, S., Tallis, H., Mooney, H.A.,
Larigauderie, A., 2012. Finding common ground for
biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bioscience 62,
503507.
Tscharntke, T., Klein, A.M., Kruess, A., SteffanDewenter, I., Thies, C., 2005. Landscape perspectives
on agricultural intensification and biodiversity
ecosystem service management. Ecol. Lett. 8, 857874.
Salles, J.-M., 2011. Valuing biodiversity and ecosystem
services: why put economic values on nature? C.R. Biol.
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