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Professor Walter W.

Olson
Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
University of Toledo

Lumped Parameter
Systems

Outline of Todays Lecture

Review
Engineering Modeling Procedure
State Space Models

Lumped Parameter Systems

DC Armature control motor
Balance Systems

Models
SENSE
REAL WORLD

OBSERVATIONS

FORMULATE

TEST

EXPLANATION/
PREDICTION

INTERPRET

MATHEMATICAL
MODEL

Engineering Modeling Procedure

Understand the problem
What are the factors and relevant relationships?
What equilibrium conditions exist?
What should the result look like?

Draw and label an engineering sketch

Free body diagram
Hydraulic schematic
Electrical schematic

Write the equilibrium equations (usually differential or difference)

Newton 2nd Law
Kirchoff Laws for current and voltages
Flow continuity laws

Solve the equations for the desired result

Check the validity of the results

Modeling is an Iterative Process

Understand
the Problem

Sketch

Can you
formulat
ea
model?

YES

Mathematical
Model

NO
NO

YES

NO
YES
Use the
Model

Do the
results
represen
t
reality?

Can you
solve the
model?

Validate
the Results

Solve
the Model

Modeling Terms
System: a functional group of interrelated things
State: A condition (which may or may not be

physical) of the system regarding form, structure,

location, thermodynamics or composition
State vector: a collection of variables that fully
describe the object over time
Input: an external object provide to the system
Output: a dependent variable (often a state) from
within the system that can be measured or
quantified
Dynamics: a chance process of the state
variables over time

State Space Formulation

Continuous Models
Let x be a vector formed of the state variables

x {x1 (t ), x2 (t ),...}T
The number of components of the state vector is called the order

dx
Ax Bu
dt
y Cx Du

Output Equation

The matrices A, B, C and D have constant elements

The matrix A is the called the State Dynamics Matrix
The matrix B is called the Input or Control Matrix
The matrix C is called the Output or Sensor Matrix
The matrix D is called the Pass Through or Direct term

State Space Formulation

Discrete Models
Let x be a vector formed of the state variables

x {x1 (t ), x2 (t ),...}T
The number of components of the state vector is called the order

h Time Step Size, often assumed to be 1

x (t h ) h Ax (t ) Bu (t )
y (t ) Cx (t ) Du(t )

Output Equation

The matrices A, B, C and D have constant elements

The matrix A is the called the State Dynamics Matrix
The matrix B is called the Input or Control Matrix
The matrix C is called the Output or Sensor Matrix
The matrix D is called the Pass Through or Direct term

State Space Formulation

Procedure:
Develop the equations of equilibrium
Put the equilibrium equations in the form of

the highest derivative equal the remainder of

the terms
Make a choice of states, the input and the
outputs
Write the equilibrium equations in terms of
the state variables
Construct the dynamics, the input, the output
and the pass through matrices
Write the state space formulation

Distributed vs. Lumped Parameters

Distributed

parameter
Analysis is at the

material element level

Partial differential
equations describe the
transfer of force from
the constitutive
equations
FEM/BEM often used

Lumped parameter
Analysis is at the
component level
Component properties are
self contained and
complete
ODE/Diff E based on
parameters
Equations solved
analytically or numerically

Distributed vs. Lumped Parameters

Distributed parameter systems
physically better descriptions
more accurate results when done correctly
Lumped parameter systems
simpler
quicker results

Both can be used in building controls

Lumped parameter descriptions are

appropriate when the property being examined

is of much greater magnitude than the added
accuracy that would be gained using a
distributed parameter model

From Richard C. Dorf, Modern Control Systems, 6 ed.

Mechanical Systems
What are the noises from wheel
speed?

Determine the number of equations

need form the number of inertial
coordinates (e,d,a,and w)
Equilibrium Equations Needed:
1. Engine to clutch
& b & &
T J c&
d
c
e
d

2. Clutch to transmission
& k N 0
J c&
d
d
d
tf a

3. Transmission to wheel
& k N k ( ) 0
J t&
a
d
tf a
d
a
a
w

4. Wheel to ground
& b & k ( ) k 0
J w&
w
t w
a
w
a
t w

Mechanical Systems
What are the noises from wheel
& b & & J &
& T b & &
T J &

speed?
b & T b & k N
&
&
&
&
J k N 0 J k N k
& k N k ( ) 0 J &
& k k N k k
J &
c d

c d

c d

c d

t a

tf

tf

c d

tf

t a

c e

a w

tf

& b & k ( ) k 0 J &

&
&
J w&
w
t w
a
w
a
t w
w w bt w k a a k a k t w
Inputs are T and &. The Output is &

&
State variables are d , a ,&
a , w , w

kd N tf

kd
b
c

d
0

a
d &
k
a d
Jt
dt

w
0
&

bc

0
kd N tf ka
Jt
0
ka
Jw

d

a
y 0 0 0 0 1 &
a

w
&

ka
Jt

0
k kt
0 a
Jw

1
d
b
c

a
0

&
a
0

w
0
&

w
0

1
b
t
J w

0
T &

e
0

tf

a kd d

Lumped Parameter Model of an Armature

Controlled DC Motor

dia
Ra ia Vb Va
dt
d
Back Voltage: Vb K b
dt
Motor Torque: T Kia

Voltage Loop:

La

2
Rotations NSL: J d b d T

dt
dt
Ra ia K b d Va
dia

dt
La
La dt La

2
d Kia b d
dt
J
J dt

State vector ia , ia ,
dt

Input is Va Output is

What is the speed?

Assume the friction term is f b&

d
dt

Ra
L
a

ia

y 0 1

K
J
ia

Kb
1
La ia

La Va
b

0
J

Lumped Parameter Model of an Armature

Controlled DC Motor
Assume the friction term is f b&

Note how the mechanical

di
L
R i V V
and the electrical domains
dt
d
V K
dt
were put together here:

Voltage Loop:

Back Voltage:

Motor Torque:

a a

T Kia

2
Rotations NSL: J d b d T

dt
dt
Ra ia Kb d Va
dia
dt L L dt L
a
a
a

2
d Kia b d
dt
J
J dt

State vector ia , ia ,
dt

Input is Va Output is

d ia

dt

y 0 1

Ra
La

K
J
ia

K b
1
La ia

La Va
b

0
J

1) KVL for the electrical

2) NSL for the mechanical
3) Relationship or coupling
equation between the two

Is this a good model

for motor angle?

In a controls problem,
sometimes called
Mechatronics, this is often
necessary

Lumped Parameter Model of an Armature

Controlled DC Motor

dia
Ra ia Vb Va
dt
d
Back Voltage: Vb K b
dt
Motor Torque: T Kia

Voltage Loop:

La

2
Rotations NSL: J d b d T

dt
dt
Ra ia K b d Va
dia
dt L L dt L
a
a
a

2
d Kia b d
dt
J
J dt

State vector ia ,
, ia , ,
dt

Input is Va Output is

What is the motor angle?

Same process,
different question,
different formulation

Ra
L
a

ia
d
K

dt
J

ia
y 0 0 1

Kb
La

J
1

ia

1
0 Va

Lumped Parameter Model of an Armature

Controlled DC Motor
Voltage Loop:

Ra ia Vb Va

Back Voltage:

Vb K b

What is the motor angle?

If the inductance La is small such
that it can be neglected, then
another simpler formulation is

d
dt

Motor Torque: T Kia

d 2
d
Rotations
NSL:
J
b
T

dt
dt

K b d Va

a
Ra dt Ra
b KK b d KVa
d 2

dt
J
JR
dt
JRa
Ki
d

b
d

a
dt
J
J dt
d
State vector
, ,
dt
Input is Va Output is
bRa KK b

JRa

y 0 1

d
dt

0

0

JRa Va

Balance Systems
A large number of control problems are
called balance systems where an object
must be maintained in technically an
unstable position

Balance Dynamics
M ( q, q&&
, q&) C q, q& B ( q, q&&
, q&
, u)

External Forcing terms

Energy Dissipating (Rayleigh) Terms
Energyis Conserving
Terms
This equation
usually nonlinear

Example: Inverted Pendulum

d2
&
& m 2 ( p l sin ) bp& F
NSL in p direction: Mp
dt
&
&
& m &
Mp
p& l ( sin &2 cos &
) bp& F

& bp& F
p& ml sin &2 ml cos &
M m &

& mlp
&
&cos mgl sin & 0
NSL about pivot: J ml 2 &
ml cos &
p&
0 ml sin
F

0 b 0 p& 0

0 &2 0 & mgl

&
J ml 2 &
0
0

sin
Where b is the viscous friction at the wheels and is the viscous friction in the pin
M m
ml cos

Clearly Nonlinear

Example: Inverted Pendulum

Assuming and &are small, then sin , cos 1 and &2 0
without the friction terms,
M m
ml cos

M m
ml

ml cos &
p&
0 ml sin

0

&
J ml 2 &
0

ml &
p&
0 0

& mgl

J ml 2 &

& F
p& ml&
M m &

F
0
0

&2
sin

mgl
0

F
0

2 &
&
&
&
J

ml

mlp

mgl

& mgl
&
& J ml 2 &

F ml&
F ml&
&
p&

m
ml
M m

& mgl
J ml 2 &
ml
&
&

( g ( M m ) F )
&
p&
2

J
(
M

m
)

Mml
ml

F M m &
p&
ml
F M m &
p&

( &
p& g )
&
&

ml
J

ml
ml

1
ml
2 2
2

&
&
&
p

gm
l

(
J

ml
)F )
&
&
&
(

)
2
J ( M m ) Mml
J ml 2

Example: Inverted Pendulum

1
m 2 l 2 g F J ml 2
2
J ( M m ) Mml
ml
&
&
g ( M m) F
J ( M m ) Mml 2
&
p&

0 1

p
m2l 2 g

0
0

J ( M m ) Mml 2
d p&

dt
0
0 0
&

mlg ( M m )

0
0

J ( M m ) Mml 2

p
p&

y 0 0 1 0

&

1

0

p
p&

J ml
2

J ( M m ) Mml 2

F

0

&

ml

J ( M m ) Mml 2

Summary
Lumped Parameter vs. Distributed Parameter Systems
Distributed parameter systems:
Material element level
Partial differential equations describe the transfer of force

from the constitutive equations

Lumped Parameter Systems
Component level
Component properties are self contained and complete with

ODE/Diff E based on linking component parameters for

equilibrium equations

Electric Motor
Balance systems