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Professor Walter W.

Olson
Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
University of Toledo

Lumped Parameter
Systems

Outline of Todays Lecture


Review
Engineering Modeling Procedure
State Space Models

Lumped Parameter Systems


DC Armature control motor
Balance Systems

Models
SENSE
REAL WORLD

OBSERVATIONS

FORMULATE

TEST

EXPLANATION/
PREDICTION

INTERPRET

MATHEMATICAL
MODEL

Engineering Modeling Procedure


Understand the problem
What are the factors and relevant relationships?
What assumptions can be made?
What equilibrium conditions exist?
What should the result look like?

Draw and label an engineering sketch


Free body diagram
Hydraulic schematic
Electrical schematic

Write the equilibrium equations (usually differential or difference)


Newton 2nd Law
Kirchoff Laws for current and voltages
Flow continuity laws

Solve the equations for the desired result


Check the validity of the results

Modeling is an Iterative Process


Understand
the Problem

Sketch

Can you
formulat
ea
model?

YES

Mathematical
Model

NO
NO

YES

NO
YES
Use the
Model

Do the
results
represen
t
reality?

Can you
solve the
model?

Validate
the Results

Solve
the Model

Modeling Terms
System: a functional group of interrelated things
State: A condition (which may or may not be

physical) of the system regarding form, structure,


location, thermodynamics or composition
State vector: a collection of variables that fully
describe the object over time
Input: an external object provide to the system
Output: a dependent variable (often a state) from
within the system that can be measured or
quantified
Dynamics: a chance process of the state
variables over time

State Space Formulation


Continuous Models
Let x be a vector formed of the state variables

x {x1 (t ), x2 (t ),...}T
The number of components of the state vector is called the order

Formulate the system as

dx
Ax Bu
dt
y Cx Du

State Transition Equation


Output Equation

The matrices A, B, C and D have constant elements


The matrix A is the called the State Dynamics Matrix
The matrix B is called the Input or Control Matrix
The matrix C is called the Output or Sensor Matrix
The matrix D is called the Pass Through or Direct term

State Space Formulation


Discrete Models
Let x be a vector formed of the state variables

x {x1 (t ), x2 (t ),...}T
The number of components of the state vector is called the order

Formulate the system as

h Time Step Size, often assumed to be 1


x (t h ) h Ax (t ) Bu (t )
y (t ) Cx (t ) Du(t )

State Transition Equation


Output Equation

The matrices A, B, C and D have constant elements


The matrix A is the called the State Dynamics Matrix
The matrix B is called the Input or Control Matrix
The matrix C is called the Output or Sensor Matrix
The matrix D is called the Pass Through or Direct term

State Space Formulation


Procedure:
Develop the equations of equilibrium
Put the equilibrium equations in the form of

the highest derivative equal the remainder of


the terms
Make a choice of states, the input and the
outputs
Write the equilibrium equations in terms of
the state variables
Construct the dynamics, the input, the output
and the pass through matrices
Write the state space formulation

Distributed vs. Lumped Parameters


Distributed

parameter
Analysis is at the

material element level


Partial differential
equations describe the
transfer of force from
the constitutive
equations
FEM/BEM often used

Lumped parameter
Analysis is at the
component level
Component properties are
self contained and
complete
ODE/Diff E based on
linking component
parameters
Equations solved
analytically or numerically

Distributed vs. Lumped Parameters


Distributed parameter systems
physically better descriptions
more accurate results when done correctly
Lumped parameter systems
simpler
quicker results

Both can be used in building controls


Lumped parameter descriptions are

appropriate when the property being examined


is of much greater magnitude than the added
accuracy that would be gained using a
distributed parameter model

Lumped Parameter Variables

From Richard C. Dorf, Modern Control Systems, 6 ed.

Mechanical Systems
What are the noises from wheel
speed?

Determine the number of equations


need form the number of inertial
coordinates (e,d,a,and w)
and their linkages
Equilibrium Equations Needed:
1. Engine to clutch
& b & &
T J c&
d
c
e
d

2. Clutch to transmission
& k N 0
J c&
d
d
d
tf a

3. Transmission to wheel
& k N k ( ) 0
J t&
a
d
tf a
d
a
a
w

4. Wheel to ground
& b & k ( ) k 0
J w&
w
t w
a
w
a
t w

Mechanical Systems
What are the noises from wheel
& b & & J &
& T b & &
T J &

speed?
b & T b & k N
&
&
&
&
J k N 0 J k N k
& k N k ( ) 0 J &
& k k N k k
J &
c d

c d

c d

c d

t a

tf

tf

c d

tf

t a

c e

a w

tf

& b & k ( ) k 0 J &


&
&
J w&
w
t w
a
w
a
t w
w w bt w k a a k a k t w
Inputs are T and &. The Output is &

&
State variables are d , a ,&
a , w , w

kd N tf

kd
b
c

d
0

a
d &
k
a d
Jt
dt

w
0
&

bc

0
kd N tf ka
Jt
0
ka
Jw

d

a
y 0 0 0 0 1 &
a

w
&

ka
Jt

0
k kt
0 a
Jw

1
d
b
c

a
0

&
a
0

w
0
&

w
0

1
b
t
J w

0
T &

e
0

tf

a kd d

Lumped Parameter Model of an Armature


Controlled DC Motor

dia
Ra ia Vb Va
dt
d
Back Voltage: Vb K b
dt
Motor Torque: T Kia

Voltage Loop:

La

2
Rotations NSL: J d b d T

dt
dt
Ra ia K b d Va
dia

dt
La
La dt La

2
d Kia b d
dt
J
J dt

State vector ia , ia ,
dt

Input is Va Output is

What is the speed?


Assume the friction term is f b&

d
dt

Ra
L
a

ia

y 0 1

K
J
ia

Kb
1
La ia

La Va
b

0
J

Lumped Parameter Model of an Armature


Controlled DC Motor
Assume the friction term is f b&

Note how the mechanical


di
L
R i V V
and the electrical domains
dt
d
V K
dt
were put together here:

Voltage Loop:

Back Voltage:

Motor Torque:

a a

T Kia

2
Rotations NSL: J d b d T

dt
dt
Ra ia Kb d Va
dia
dt L L dt L
a
a
a

2
d Kia b d
dt
J
J dt

State vector ia , ia ,
dt

Input is Va Output is

What is the speed?

d ia

dt

y 0 1

Ra
La

K
J
ia

K b
1
La ia

La Va
b

0
J

1) KVL for the electrical


2) NSL for the mechanical
3) Relationship or coupling
equation between the two

Is this a good model


for motor angle?

In a controls problem,
sometimes called
Mechatronics, this is often
necessary

Lumped Parameter Model of an Armature


Controlled DC Motor

dia
Ra ia Vb Va
dt
d
Back Voltage: Vb K b
dt
Motor Torque: T Kia

Voltage Loop:

La

2
Rotations NSL: J d b d T

dt
dt
Ra ia K b d Va
dia
dt L L dt L
a
a
a

2
d Kia b d
dt
J
J dt

State vector ia ,
, ia , ,
dt

Input is Va Output is

What is the motor angle?


Same process,
different question,
different formulation

Ra
L
a

ia
d
K

dt
J

ia
y 0 0 1

Kb
La

J
1

ia


1
0 Va

Lumped Parameter Model of an Armature


Controlled DC Motor
Voltage Loop:

Ra ia Vb Va

Back Voltage:

Vb K b

What is the motor angle?


If the inductance La is small such
that it can be neglected, then
another simpler formulation is

d
dt

Motor Torque: T Kia

d 2
d
Rotations
NSL:
J
b
T

dt
dt

K b d Va

a
Ra dt Ra
b KK b d KVa
d 2

dt
J
JR
dt
JRa
Ki
d

b
d

a
dt
J
J dt
d
State vector
, ,
dt
Input is Va Output is
bRa KK b


JRa


y 0 1

d
dt

0

0

JRa Va

Balance Systems
A large number of control problems are
called balance systems where an object
must be maintained in technically an
unstable position

Balance Dynamics
M ( q, q&&
, q&) C q, q& B ( q, q&&
, q&
, u)

General Dynamics Equation form is

External Forcing terms


Energy Dissipating (Rayleigh) Terms
Energyis Conserving
Terms
This equation
usually nonlinear

Example: Inverted Pendulum

d2
&
& m 2 ( p l sin ) bp& F
NSL in p direction: Mp
dt
&
&
& m &
Mp
p& l ( sin &2 cos &
) bp& F

& bp& F
p& ml sin &2 ml cos &
M m &

& mlp
&
&cos mgl sin & 0
NSL about pivot: J ml 2 &
ml cos &
p&
0 ml sin
F

0 b 0 p& 0

0 &2 0 & mgl

&
J ml 2 &
0
0



sin
Where b is the viscous friction at the wheels and is the viscous friction in the pin
M m
ml cos

Clearly Nonlinear

Example: Inverted Pendulum


Assuming and &are small, then sin , cos 1 and &2 0
without the friction terms,
M m
ml cos

M m
ml

ml cos &
p&
0 ml sin

0

&
J ml 2 &
0


ml &
p&
0 0

& mgl

J ml 2 &

& F
p& ml&
M m &

F
0
0

&2
sin

mgl
0


F
0

2 &
&
&
&
J

ml

mlp

mgl

& mgl
&
& J ml 2 &

F ml&
F ml&
&
p&

m
ml
M m

& mgl
J ml 2 &
ml
&
&

( g ( M m ) F )
&
p&
2

J
(
M

m
)

Mml
ml

F M m &
p&
ml
F M m &
p&

( &
p& g )
&
&

ml
J

ml
ml

1
ml
2 2
2

&
&
&
p

gm
l

(
J

ml
)F )
&
&
&
(

)
2
J ( M m ) Mml
J ml 2

Example: Inverted Pendulum

1
m 2 l 2 g F J ml 2
2
J ( M m ) Mml
ml
&
&
g ( M m) F
J ( M m ) Mml 2
&
p&

0 1

p
m2l 2 g

0
0


J ( M m ) Mml 2
d p&

dt
0
0 0
&

mlg ( M m )

0
0

J ( M m ) Mml 2

p
p&

y 0 0 1 0

&

1

0

p
p&

J ml
2

J ( M m ) Mml 2

F

0

&

ml

J ( M m ) Mml 2

Summary
Lumped Parameter vs. Distributed Parameter Systems
Distributed parameter systems:
Material element level
Partial differential equations describe the transfer of force

from the constitutive equations


Lumped Parameter Systems
Component level
Component properties are self contained and complete with

ODE/Diff E based on linking component parameters for


equilibrium equations

Mechanical system equations


Electric Motor
Balance systems
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