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Fire suppression systems

Sprinkler
Standpipe and Hose
Chemical

Smoke Control systems


Remove smoke from exits
Provide fleeing occupants with breathable air

Compartmentalization
Break a building into small compartments to contain
fire and smoke

Fire Separation
Fire rated wall, floor, ceiling assemblies that
impede the spread of fire
Use of non-combustible materials
Use of low flame spread and smoke

developed finish material

Types
Conventional
Addressable
Analog
Digital

Equipment
Manual Fire Alarm Boxes (Pull Stations)
Mounting not less than 3.5 and not more than 4.5 ft

above floor level (ADA requires maximum 48 high


forward reach)
Spacing:

At exit doorways within 5 of each exit doorway on each


floor; on both sides of opening 40 feet and wider, and within
5 feet each side
Additional boxes such that distance of travel to any box less
than 200 feet on same floor
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Heat Detectors
Applications
Where smoke is ordinarily present
Top of elevator shafts where sprinklers are present

Types
Fixed
Combination fixed/rate of rise

Location
On ceiling not less than 4 from sidewall, or on
sidewall between 4 and 12 of ceiling

Types
Spot
Beam

Design:
Ionization
Photoelectric

Spot Detector Accessories


Integral alarm
Typical use motels and similar sleeping spaces

Photoelectric detectors
operate using principle
of smoke obscuration
Smoke interposed in
light beam between
small emitter and
detector
Decreased light
intensity at detector
causes alarm to sound
Device in photo also
includes integral alarm
used in motels and
similar sleeping spaces.
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Applications
Spot detectors
For general fire detection
Close doors, operate smoke dampers
Beam detectors
High ceilings where spot detectors impractical

Location
On ceiling not less than 4 from sidewall, or on
sidewall between 4 and 12 of ceiling

Standpipe and Hose Systems


A reliable water supply, piping, hose
connections to permit manual extinguishing of
a fire.

Sprinkler Systems
A reliable water supply, piping, sprinklers, to
permit automatic extinguishing of a fire.

Chemical Extinguishing Systems


Both manual and automatic systems
Use a chemical extinguishing agent where
water is not effective, or cannot be used.
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Classification:
Class I 2-1/2 hose connections for
firefighters use, 100 psi at uppermost hose
connection.
Class II 1-1/2 hose connections for
occupant use, 100 psi at uppermost hose
connection.
Class III 2-1/2 and 1-1/2 hose connections
for both firefighters and occupant use.
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12

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A backflow
preventer prevents
water contained in
building piping
systems from
flowing back into the
community water
main.
Water piping in
buildings may
contain foul and/or
hazardous materials.
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A combined system is a standpipe that


also supplies automatic sprinklers on each
floor.
Combined systems were first permitted by
NFPA in 1976 to encourage owners of high
rise buildings that already had standpipes
to install sprinkler systems.

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Fire Pumps
Since most water main pressures are

generally less than 100 psi at the street, a


fire pump is usually required to provide
adequate pressure.
Fire pumps must be provided with an
emergency power source.
Fire pumps generally require a separate,
fire rated (2 hr.) room or enclosure.

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Definition and purpose a reliable water supply,


piping, sprinklers, valves and accessories for the
purpose of automatically extinguishing a fire.

Governing Design Standards


Local building code or ordinance prescribes where

sprinkler systems are required


NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler
Systems prescribes how sprinkler systems are to be
designed and constructed
Factory Mutual (FM) An insurance company standards
organization; it may, through the building owners
insurance company, impose additional
restrictions/requirements for overall building fire
protection systems.
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Types of sprinkler systems:


Wet
Dry
Pre-action
Deluge

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Both pendant and


upright sprinklers
may be used.
During operation,
the alarm check
valve diverts a
small portion of
water to the water
motor alarm does
not rely on
electricity to sound
alarm.

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An electric alarm bell


is operated through a
water flow switch
inserted into the main
riser.
When a sprinkler
opens, water flow
activates flow switch,
and alarm sounds.
Requires a reliable
source of power from
an emergency source.
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Dry system
Piping is filled with compressed air.
A dry system valve blocks the entry of water

into the piping. Air pressure in the piping


holds the valve closed.
When one or more sprinkler heads open

Air is first released through the head(s)


Air pressure in the piping system drops.
Dry system valve swings open.
Water floods the piping system.

Used in unheated buildings, or portions of

buildings that are not heated, e.g., attics.

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Upright heads
must be used, in
order to allow the
piping to drain
completely.

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Recessed Pendant
Sprinkler
Glass tube holds
metal disc seated in
valve seat
Glycerin in glass tube
expands when heated
and will shatter glass
Water is released
Spray pattern is
established by
deflector
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Decorative white disk is


soldered to the
sprinkler body solder
melts first, plate falls to
floor, exposing sprinkler
Exposed sprinkler will
now operate like a
standard sprinkler releases water as
temperature increases
Can be used in Light
Hazard Occupancies

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Sprinkler Classifications
Design and performance
Area of coverage
Speed of response
Standard response
Fast response

Orientation

Concealed
Flush
Pendent
Recessed
Sidewall
Upright
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Manual Fire Detection - Pull Stations


Manual fire detection is the oldest method of detection.
In the simplest form, a person yelling can provide fire
warning. In buildings, however, a person's voice may not
always transmit throughout the structure. For this
reason, manual alarm stations are installed. The general
design philosophy is to place stations within reach along
paths of escape. It is for this reason that they can usually
be found near exit doors in corridors and large rooms.
The advantage of manual alarm stations is that, upon
discovering the fire, they provide occupants with a
readily identifiable means to activate the building fire
alarm system. The alarm system can then serve in lieu of
the shouting person's voice. They are simple devices,
and can be highly reliable when the building is occupied.
The key disadvantage of manual stations is that they will
not work when the building is unoccupied. They may also
be used for malicious alarm activations. Nonetheless,
they are an important component in any fire alarm
system.
2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.63.3 Manual Fire Alarm Box. A manually operated
device used to initiate an alarm signal.

Automatic Detectors Spot type

2007 NFPA 72, 3.3.43.21 Spot Type Detector. A device in which the
detecting
Element is concentrated at a particular location. Typical examples are
Bimetallic detectors, fusible alloy detectors, certain pneumatic rate-ofrise
Detectors, certain smoke detectors, and thermoelectric detectors.

Comparing System Types


To better understand todays newer technology, a firm understanding of the types
of systems available is necessary. The three most popular types of systems
installed today are:
Conventional
Addressable
Analog Addressable

Conventional control panels range in size from


1 zone to over 100 zones.
Zones typically consist of some or all of the
initiating devices in an area or floor of a
building.
Some control panels zone capacity is
expandable while others are not, limiting its
usefulness if a facility adds additional buildings
or rooms.

Zone 1
4.7K
EOLR

Zone 2
FIRE

FACP

FIRE

SILENT KNIGHT

NAC 1

FIRE

FIRE

SILENT KNIGHT

FIRE

FIRE

SILENT KNIGHT

FIRE

FIRE

SILENT KNIGHT

FIRE

FIRE

SILENT KNIGHT

4.7K
EOLR

Multiple devices are


combined into a single zone.
Zones can contain 30 or more
devices.

Detectors in an analog addressable systems


become sensors relaying information to the
control panel corresponding to how much
smoke or heat that detector is sensing.
The control panel makes the decisions based
on this information when to alarm etc.

Conventional
Lower initial equipment

costs.
Wide range of
compatible devices.
Can be easier to
program.
Limited expansion
capability.

Addressable
Easier to install.
More system status

information at the panel


and central station.
Input/Output
programming much
more flexible.
Usually much more
room available to
expand.

Addressable Device - A fire alarm system component with discreet identification


that can have its status individually identified or that is used to individually
control other functions.
Analog Addressable Sensor - An initiating device that transmits a signal indicating
varying degrees of condition as contrasted with a conventional or addressable
initiating device, which can only indicate an off/on condition.
Signaling Line Circuit (SLC) - A circuit or path between any combination of circuit
interfaces, control units, or transmitters over which multiple system input signals
or out put signals or both are carried.
SLC Interface - A system component that connects a signaling line circuit
to any combination of initiating devices, initiating device circuits,
notification appliances, notification appliance circuits, system control
outputs and other signaling line circuits.

Protocol - A language for communicating between control panels and their proprietary device