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SCIENCE FORM 1

CHAPTER 1
1.1 UNDERSTANDING THAT SCIENCE IS PART OF EVERYDAY LIFE

WHAT IS SCIENCE?
Science is the systematic study of nature
and how it affects us and our environment.
Science can explain natural phenomena
that happen in our environment.
How?
Through careful observations, studies and
scientific investigations.

List some of natural


phenomena:

CAREERS IN
SCIENCE

Environmentalist

Archeologist

Forensic technician

Science teacher

Doctor

VARIOUS FIELDS IN SCIENCE


Science covers a very wide area of study and is
divided into various fields, such as:
Biology: the study of living things
Physics : the study of interaction of matter and energy
Chemistry : the study of composition and chemical
properties of substances, their reactions and uses
Geology : the study of rocks and minerals
Astronomy : the study of the stars and planets
Meteorology : the study of weather and climate

A SCIENCE LABORATORY

What are the good practices


demonstrated by the student?

Wearing goggles
Carrying bottles
by the body; not
the neck

GENERAL RULES AND SAFETY


PRECAUTIONS

COMMON LABORATORY
APPARATUS

Bunsen burner

Tripod stand and wire gauze

Test tube

Crucible

Syringe
Test tube holder

Retort stand and clamp

1.2 Scientific Investigation

Steps in scientific
investigation
1. Identifying problem
2. Forming a hypothesis
3. Planning the experiment
4. Controlling the variables
5. Collecting data
6. Analysing and interpreting data
7. Drawing a conclusion
8. Writing a report

1. List the steps of scientific


investigation.

2. Write down a report on Simple


pendulum experiment.

SIMPLE PENDULUM EXPERIMENT

WRITING A REPORT
1.

Aim
2.
Problem statement
3.
Hypothesis
4.
Variables
5.
Materials and apparatus
6.
Procedure
7.
Results
8.
Analysis
9.
Conclusion

1. AIM
To investigate how the length of the pendulum
string affect the time for 10 complete swings
of the pendulum.

2. PROBLEM STATEMENT
How the length of the pendulum string affect
the time for 10 complete swings of the
pendulum?

3. HYPOTHESIS
If the length of the pendulum is longer, the
time taken for 10 complete swing of the
pendulum is longer.

4. VARIABLES
Manipulated (what to change)
: the length of the pendulum
Responding (what is observed)
: time taken for 10 complete swings
Constant (kept the same)
: mass of the pendulum bob

5. MATERIALS AND
APPARATUS
Pendulum bob, string/thread, retort stand and
clamp, stop watch
Apparatus set-up:

6. PROCEDURE (active
sentence)
1. Prepare the simple pendulum with a 10cm long
thread.
2. Pull the pendulum bob to one side, then release.
3. Record the time taken for 10 complete oscillations
in a table.
4. Repeat the experiment using a simple pendulum of
different lengths, e.g. 20cm, 30cm, 40cm and 50cm.
5. Draw a graph showing the time taken versus length
of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations.

6. PROCEDURE (change to passive


sentence when writing a report)
1. A simple pendulum with a 10 cm long thread was
prepared.
2. The pendulum was pulled to one side, and then was
released.
3. The time taken for 10 complete oscillations was
recorded in a table.
4. The experiment was repeated using a simple
pendulum with 20cm, 30cm, 40 and 50cm long.
5. A graph showing the time taken versus length of
pendulum for 10 complete oscillations was drawn.

7. RESULTS (DATA TABLE)


Experiment

Length of simple
pendulum ( cm )

Time taken for 10 complete


oscillations ( s )

1
2
3
4
5

10
20
30
40
50

10
13
15
18
20

7. RESULTS (DATA TABLE)


Experiment

Length of
simple
pendulum
( cm )

Time taken for 10


complete oscillations
(s)

1
2
3
4
5

10
20
30
40
50

10
13
15
18
20

Time taken for 1


complete oscillations
(s)

1.0
1.3
1.5
1.8
2.0

8. ANALYSIS
Graph of time taken for 10 complete oscillations
versus length of simple pendulum.

8. ANALYSIS
From the graph, we can say that:
1. The pendulum with a longer string takes
longer
time to oscillate than the pendulum
with a shorter string.
2. The time taken for the pendulum to make one
increase
complete oscillation will
when
the
pendulum string is longer.

9. CONCLUSION
From the results, the hypothesis is
accepted
.
The time taken for the simple pendulum to
make one complete oscillation
increases
with the length of the pendulum.

1.3 PHYSICAL
QUANTITIES
AND THEIR
UNITS

MEASUREMENT
Measurement is important because:
It helps to describe things everyday;
It is a part of the scientific investigation
process
(e.g: simple pendulum experiment)

MEASUREMENT
Can be measured
Cannot be measured
How far is your house to How beautiful a person
the school?
is?
How long does you take
to finish your
homework?

How does a durian


taste?

How hot is a glass of


water?

How soft a pillow is?


How a flower smell?

PHYSICAL QUANTITIES
A physical quantity is something that can be
measured.
There are five basic quantities: length, time,
mass, temperature and electric current.
Measurement of physical quantities consist of
two parts:
A number indicating value or how much;
A unit of measurement.

STANDARD UNITS: S.I. UNITS


Unit is a scale that helps you understand a
particular measurement.
S.I units: International standard unit of
measurement (Systeme International d
Unites).

IMPORTANCE OF STANDARD
UNITS
Allow us to analyse data and compare
information easily and more accurately;
No confusion because there is specific
symbols for each unit;
Allow us to solve problems related to
measurement.

FIVE BASIC QUANTITIES


Physical
quantities
Length
Mass
Time
Temperature
Electric current

SI units

Symbols

Definition

A measurement of how long


something from one point to another

Kilogra
m

kg

A measurement of how much matter


there is in an object

Second

A measurement of the interval


between two events

Kelvin

A measurement of the warmness or


coldness in any object

A measurement of the rate flow of


electric charges through a circuit

Metre

Ampere

PREFIXES
Prefixes are added to units like meter and
gram when we need to state values that are too
small or too large.
Prefix

Multiplier

Symbol

Numerical
value

Micro
Milli

X 10-6
X 10-3

0.000001
0.001

Centi
Kilo

X 10-2
X 103

c
k

0.01
1000

Mega

X 106

1000000

1.4 CONCEPT OF
MASS AND
WEIGHT

WHAT IS WEIGHT?
The weight of an object is the pull of the
Earth (force of gravity) on the object.
The S.I unit of weight is Newton (N).
The weight of any object depends on the
gravitational force.
The weight of an object is obtained using a
spring balance or compression spring
balance.

WHAT IS MASS?
The mass of an object is the quantity of
matter in the object.
The S.I. unit of mass is kilogram (kg).
The mass of an object can be obtained using a
triple beam balance or lever balance.

EXERCISE 5: CAN U DIFFERENTIATE


BETWEEN MASS AND WEIGHT?
MASS

WEIGHT

CAN U DIFFERENTIATE
BETWEEN MASS AND WEIGHT?
MASS

WEIGHT

It is the amount of
matter in an object.

It is the gravitational
pull on an object.
Its value varies from
place to place.

Its value is fixed.


Unit: kilogram (kg)

Unit: Newton (N)

Measured using beam


balance or lever
balance.

Measured using spring


balance or weighing
balance.

1.5 MEASURING
TOOLS

MEASURING LENGTH
Tools: ruler, metre rule, measuring tape
Measuring the length of a straight line:
Using metre rule or a ruler
Correct position of eye (to avoid parallax error)

Measuring the length of a curve:


Using a ruler and a piece of thread

A knot is tied at the end of a thread


The thread is stretched along the curve carefully
Make a mark at the end of the curve
Stretch the thread along the ruler to obtain the length

Using an opisometer

Measuring the diameter of a spherical


object:
Using two wooden blocks and a ruler

Using a set-square and a ruler

Measuring the diameter of an object:


The external diameter is measured using external
calipers and a ruler

The internal diameter is measured using internal


caliper and a ruler.

Measuring the thickness of an object:


The thickness of a piece of paper can be
determined by measuring the thickness of a stack
of papers and dividing the value of number of
sheets of paper.
Thickness of a stack of paper
Thickness of a single sheet
Number of sheets

The thickness of a glass tube can be measured by


taking the difference between its external and
internal diameter.
External diameter - internal diameter
Thickness of glass
2

MEASURING AREA
Area is the total surface covered by an
object.
The SI unit is square metre (m2).
Regular-shaped areas can be calculated using
Mathematical formulae.
Irregular-shaped areas can be estimated by
using a graph paper.

Using graph paper:


Trace the object on the graph
paper.
Estimate the area by counting
the number of full squares,
half full squares and more
than half full squares (tick the
squares)
Area of the object is
estimated by multiplying the
number of squares with the
area of one square.
The area can be estimated
more accurately with smaller
squares.

MEASURING VOLUME
Volume of an object is the total space
occupied by the object.
The SI unit is cubic metre (m3).
It also can be measured in millilitre (ml).
The apparatus: measuring cylinder, burette and
pipette.
1 ml = 1 cm3
1 l = 1000 cm3= 1000 ml
1 m3= 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 000 000 ml

Measuring volumes of liquids


The volume must be taken at the meniscus level of
the liquid.
Use a piece of white paper to enable the meniscus
to be seen clearly.
The eye is positioned at the same level of the
meniscus to avoid parallax error.

Measuring volumes of solids


The volume of regular-shaped and irregular-shaped can be
measured using water displacement method.

The object to be measured must be submerged in the


measuring cylinder filled with water.
The volume of the water displaced is the volume of the
object.

The volume of a solid can also be measured using


a displacement can or a Eureka can.
The volume of the water that flows out from the
can is the volume of the solid measured.

The volume of a light object can be measured


with the aid of a weight, for example, a stone.
The stone which is tied to the cork enables the cork
to be submerged in the water.