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Excavatorsareheavyconstructionequipmentconsistingofaboom,stick,

bucketandcabonarotatingplatformknownasthe"house". [1]Thehouse
sitsatopanundercarriagewithtracksorwheels.Acable-operated
excavatoruseswinchesandsteelropestoaccomplishthemovements. [2]
Theyareanaturalprogressionfromthesteamshovelsandoftencalled
powershovels.Allmovementandfunctionsofahydraulicexcavatorare
accomplishedthroughtheuseofhydraulicfluid,withhydrauliccylinders
andhydraulicmotors.[3]Duetothelinearactuationofhydrauliccylinders,
theirmodeofoperationisfundamentallydifferentfromcable-operated
excavators.

Acraneisatypeofmachine,generallyequippedwithahoist,wireropes
orchains,andsheaves,thatcanbeusedbothtoliftandlowermaterials
andtomovethemhorizontally.Itismainlyusedforliftingheavythings
andtransportingthemtootherplaces.Itusesoneormore
simplemachinestocreatemechanicaladvantageandthusmoveloads
beyondthenormalcapabilityofahuman.Cranesarecommonly
employedinthetransportindustryfortheloadingandunloadingof
freight,intheconstructionindustryforthemovementofmaterialsandin
themanufacturingindustryfortheassemblingofheavyequipment.

Aloader(bucket loader,front loader,front-end


loader,payloader,scoop,shovel,skip loader,orwheel loader)isa
heavyequipmentmachineusedinconstructionandsidewalk
maintenancetomoveasideorloadmaterialssuchasasphalt,demolition
debris,dirt,snow,feed,gravel,logs,rawminerals,recycledmaterial,rock
,sand,woodchips,etc.intoorontoanothertypeofmachinery(suchas
adumptruck,conveyorbelt,feed-hopper,orrailroadcar).

HaulingEquipmentslikeAdump truck(or,UK,dumper\tippertruck)isatruck
usedfortransportingloosematerial(suchassand,gravel,ordirt)for
construction.Atypicaldumptruckisequippedwithanopen-boxbed,whichis
hingedattherearandequippedwithhydraulicpistonstoliftthefront,allowing
thematerialinthebedtobedeposited("dumped")onthegroundbehindthe
truckatthesiteofdelivery.

Acompactorisamachineormechanismusedtoreducethesizeof
wastematerialorsoilthroughcompaction.Atrash compactorisoften
usedbyahomeorbusinesstoreducethevolumeoftrash.
Normallypoweredbyhydraulics,compactorstakemanyshapesand
sizes.Inlandfillsitesforexample,alargebulldozerwithspikedwheels
calledalandfillcompactorisusedtodriveoverwastedepositedby
wastecollectionvehicles(WCVs).
WCVsthemselvesincorporateacompactingmechanismwhichisused
toincreasethepayloadofthevehicleandreducethenumberoftimesit
hastoempty.Thisusuallytakestheformofhydraulicallypoweredsliding
plateswhichsweepoutthecollectionhopperandcompressthematerial
intowhathasalreadybeenloaded.

Apaver(paver finisher,asphalt finisher,paving machine)isapiece


ofconstructionequipmentusedtolayasphaltonroads,bridges,parking
lotsandothersuchplaces.Itlaystheasphaltflatandprovidesminor
compactionbeforeitiscompactedbyaroller.