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N-W.F.P.

University of
Engineering and Technology
Peshawar

Steel Structures
CE-409
By: Prof Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan
chairciv@nwfpuet.edu.pk

Course Content
Design philosophies
Introduction to Steel Structures
Design of Welded connections
Design of Bolted connections
Design of Tension Members
Design of Compression Members

CE-411: Lecture 01

Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Course Content
Design of Column Bases
Design of Beams
Design of Composite Beams
Design of Plate Girders

CE-411: Lecture 01

Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

N-W.F.P. University of
Engineering and Technology
Peshawar

Lecture 01: Design Philosophies

By: Prof Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan


chairciv@nwfpuet.edu.pk
4

Topics to be covered
Design philosophies
Limit States
Design Considerations
Allowable Stress Design (ASD)
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
Design process

CE-411: Lecture 01

Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Philosophies
A general statement assuming safety in
engineering design is:
Resistance Effect of applied loads ---(1)
In eq(1) it is essential that both sides are
evaluated for same conditions and units e.g.
compressive stress on soil should be
compared with bearing capacity of soil
CE-411: Lecture 01

Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Design Philosophies
Resistance of structures is composed
of its members which comes from
materials & X-section
Resistance, Capacity, and Strength are
somewhat synonym terms.
Terms like Demand, Stresses, and
Loads are used to express Effect of
applied loads.
CE-411: Lecture 01

Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Limit States
When particular loading reaches its
limit, failure is the assumed result, i.e.
the loading condition become failure
modes, such a condition is referred to
as limit state and it can be defined as
A limit state is a condition beyond
which a structural system or a structural
component ceases to fulfill the function
for which it is designed.

CE-411: Lecture 01

Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Limit States
There are three broad classification of
limit states:
1. Strength limit states
2. Serviceability limit states
3. Special limit states

CE-411: Lecture 01

Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan

Limit States
Strength Limit States:
Flexure
Torsion
Shear

CE-411: Lecture 01

Fatigue
Settlement
Bearing

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Limit States
Serviceability Limit States:
Cracking
Excessive Deflection
Buckling
Stability

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Limit States
Special Limit States:
Damage or collapse in extreme
earthquakes.
Structural effects of fire, explosions, or
vehicular collisions.

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Limit States
Design Approach used must ensure that
the probability of a Limit State being
reached in the Design/Service Life of a
structure is within acceptable limits;
However, complete elimination of
probability of a Limit State being
achieved in the service life of a structure
is impractical as it would result in
uneconomical designs.
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Design Considerations
Structure and Structural Members should
have adequate strength, stiffness and
toughness to ensure proper functioning
during service life
Reserve Strength should be available to
cater for:

Occasional overloads and underestimation of loads

Variability of strength of materials from those specified

Variation in strength arising from quality of


workmanship and construction practices

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Design Considerations
Structural Design must provide adequate
margin of safety irrespective of Design
Method

Design Approach should take into account


the probability of occurrence of failure in
the design process
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Design Considerations
An important goal in design is to prevent
limit state from being reached.

It is not economical to design a structure


so that none of its members or
components could ever fail. Thus, it is
necessary to establish an acceptable level
of risk or probability of failure.
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Design Considerations
Brittle behavior is to be avoided as it
will imply a sudden loss of load carrying
capacity when elastic limit is exceeded.
Reinforced concrete can be made
ductile by limiting the steel
reinforcement.

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Design Considerations
To determine the acceptable margin of
safety, opinion should be sought from
experience and qualified group of
engineers.
In steel design AISC manuals for ASD &
LRFD guidelines can be accepted as
reflection of such opinions.
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Design Considerations
Any design procedure require the
confidence of Engineer on the analysis of
load effects and strength of the materials.

The two distinct procedures employed by


designers are Allowable Stress Design
(ASD) & Load & Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD).
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Allowable Stress Design


(ASD)
Safety in the design is obtained by
specifying, that the effect of the loads
should produce stresses that is a fraction
of the yield stress fy, say one half.

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Allowable Stress Design


(ASD)
This is equivalent to:
FOS = Resistance, R/ Effect of load, Q
= fy/0.5fy
=2

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Allowable Stress Design


(ASD)
Since the specifications set limit on the
stresses, it became allowable stress
design (ASD).
It is mostly reasonable where stresses
are uniformly distributed over X-section
(such on determinate trusses, arches,
cables etc.)
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Allowable Stress Design


(ASD)

Mathematical Description of A S D
Rn

Rn = Resistance or Strength of the component being designed


= Resistance Factor or Strength Reduction Factor

= Overload or Load Factors

= Factor of Safety FS

Qi = Effect of applied loads


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Allowable Stress Design


(ASD)

Mathematical Description of Allowable Stress Design

In ASD we check the adequacy of a design in terms of stresses


therefore design checks are cast in terms of stresses for
example if:
Mn = Nominal Flexural Strength of a Beam
M = Moment resulting from applied unfactored loads
FS = Factor of Safety
Mn
FS

Fy I / c
FS I / c

fb

Fy

Fb
FS

CE-411:Lecture No. 1

or

M
I /c

Fcr
Fb

FS

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Section Modulus

Section Modulus:
S effect of load/Allowable stress
= M/fb ------(ii)

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ASD Drawbacks

Implied in the ASD method is the


assumption that the stress in the
member is zero before any loads are
applied, i.e., no residual stresses exist
from forming the members.

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Variation of Residual Stress


with Geometry

Material A has more Residual Stresses due to:


1. Non uniform cooling
2. Cutting a plate into smaller
pieces reveals the stresses
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ASD Drawbacks
ASD does not give reasonable measure
of strength, which is more fundamental
measure of resistance than is allowable
stress.
Another drawback in ASD is that safety
is applied only to stress level. Loads are
considered to be deterministic (without
variation).
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Load and Resistance Factor


Design (LRFD)
To overcome the deficiencies of ASD,
the LRFD method is based on:

Strength of Materials
It consider the variability not only in
resistance but also in the effects of load.
It provides measure of safety related to
probability of failure.
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Load and Resistance Factor


Design (LRFD)

Safety in the design is obtained by specifying that the reduced


Nominal Strength of a designed structure is less than the effect
of factored loads acting on the structure

Rn

n Qi

Rn = Resistance or Strength of the component being designed


Qi = Effect of Applied Loads
n = Takes into account ductility, redundancy and operational imp.
= Resistance Factor or Strength Reduction Factor
= Overload or Load Factors

= Factor of Safety

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The role of n
Ductility: It implies a large capacity for inelastic
deformation without rupture

Ductility will ensure


redistribution of load through
inelastic deformation.

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The role of n
Redundancy:
1. A simply supported beam is a determinate
structure so it has no redundant actions.
2. A fixed beam is indeterminate by 2
degrees so it has two redundant actions.

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Redundancy

Yielding will initiate at mid span due to maximum moment at mid span
with no Redistribution of load

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Redundancy

Yielding will initiate at supports due to maximum moment at supports


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Redundancy

Redistribution of load to mid span after yielding of section at supports


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The role of n
Operational Importance:

A hospital and a school require more


conservative design than an ordinary
residential building.

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Operational Importance

hospital

park
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LRFD Advantages

LRFD accounts for both variability in


resistance and load.
It achieves fairly uniform levels of
safety for different limit states.

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LRFD Disadvantages

Its disadvantage is change in design


philosophy from previous method.

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Comparison of ASD and


LRFD Design Approaches
ASD combines Dead and Live Loads and
treats them in the same way
In LRFD different load factors are
assigned to Dead Loads and Live Loads
which is appealing
Changes in load factors and resistance
factors are much easier to make in LRFD
compared to changing the allowable
stress in ASD
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Comparison of ASD and


LRFD Design Approaches
LRFD is intrinsically appealing as it
requires better understanding of behavior
of the structure in its limit states
Design approach similar to LRFD is being
followed in Design of concrete structures
in form of Ultimate Strength Design -- why
not use similar approach design of steel
structures?
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Comparison of ASD and


LRFD Design Approaches
ASD indirectly incorporates the Factors
of Safety by limiting the stress whereas
LRFD aims to specify Factors of Safety
directly by specifying Resistance
Factors and Load Factors
LRFD is more rational as different
Factors of Safety can be assigned to
different loadings such as Dead Loads,
Live Loads, Earthquake Loads and
Impact Loads
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Comparison of ASD and


LRFD Design Approaches
LRFD considers variability not only in
resistance but also in the effects of load
which provides measure of safety related
to probability of failure
It achieves fairly uniform levels of safety
for different limit states.
ASD still remains as a valid Design
Method
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Comparison of ASD and


LRFD Design Approaches
In LRFD For Tension Members:
1.2D + 1.6 L = 0.90 Rn 1.33D + 1.78 L = Rn (LRFD)
In ASD Factor of Safety FS = 1.67, Therefore:
1.0D + 1.0 L = Rn / 1.67 1.67D + 1.67D L = Rn (ASD)

LRFD 1.33D 1.78 L

ASD 1.67 D 1.67 L

0.8 1.07 ( L / D )
1 ( L / D)

. (A)

In LRFD For Dead Load Case:


1.4D = 0.90 Rn 1.56D = Rn (LRFD)

LRFD
1.56 D

ASD 1.67 D 1.67 L


CE-411: Lecture 01

0.93
1 ( L / D)

Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan

. (B)
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Comparison of ASD and


LRFD Design Approaches
3%

1.0

LRFD
ASD

0.93
0.9
0.8

1.2D + 1.6L
0.83
1.4D

0.7

0.12

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4
3
Live Load
Dead Load

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AREA Code for Design of


Railway Structures
AREA Stands for American Railway
Engineers Association (AREA)
Railway Bridges and Structures are usually
designed using provisions of the AREA Code
AREA Code uses only the Allowable Stress
Design Method. However, the allowable
stresses and design requirements may differ
from AISC/ASD method
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AASHTO Code for Design of


Highway Bridges
AASHTO Stands for Association of American
State and Highway Transportation Officials
(AASHTO)
Highway Bridges are usually designed using
provisions of the AASHTO Code
AASHTO Code uses both ASD and LRFD
Design Methods
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The role of various Codes


It is very difficult to devise a design code that is
applicable to all uses and all types of
structures such as buildings, highway bridges,
railway bridges and transmission towers
The responsibility of infrastructure on roads,
bridges and electrical transmission towers
rests with the organization responsible for
approving, operating and maintaining these
facilities

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The role of various Codes


Uses and critical loads may be different in
different types of structures and no one
code can cater to all the different important
considerations
For above reasons different codes prevail
and will continue to do so
AISC ASD Code and LRFD Code primarily
is pertinent to Building Structures.
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Overview of LRFD Manual


Part 1: Dimensions and properties
Part 2: General Design considerations
Part 3: Design of flexural members
Part 4: Design of compression members
Part 5: Design of Tension members
Part 6: Design of members subject to
combined loading
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Overview of LRFD Manual


Part 7: Design considerations for bolts
Part 8: Design considerations for welds
Part 9: Design of connecting elements
Part 10: Design of simple shear
connections
Part 11: Design of flexible moment
connections
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Overview of LRFD Manual


Part 12: Design of fully restrained (FR)
moment connections
Part 13: Design of Bracing connections and
truss connections
Part 14: Design of Beam bearing plates,
Column base plates, anchor rods,
and column splices.

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Overview of LRFD Manual


Part 15: Design of Hanger connections,
Bracket plates, and Crane-rail
connections

ANSI/LRFD Specifications for structural


steel Buildings.

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Design Process
1. Functional planning
Development of a plan that will enable the structure to
fulfill effectively the purpose for which it is to be built

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Design Process

The involvement of Structural engineer in the functional planning is very imp


because an Architect can suggest a plane which is practically not possible.

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Design Process
2. Structural scheme

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Design Process
2. Structural scheme (Contd.)

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Design Process
3. Preliminary Member Sizing of Beams
Deflection Considerations
ASD Commentary L3.1 suggests following Limits:

L
D
L
D
L
D
CE-411:Lecture No. 1

800
Fy ( Ksi )

20

800
Fy ( Ksi )

For fully stressed Beams & Girders

For Beams & Girders subject to


vibrations
For Roof Purlins

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Design Process

3. Preliminary Member Sizing of Beams

Trib
u

tary

Are
a

Design Moment

Strength/Capacity Considerations

Beam
Unbraced Length

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Design Process

3. Preliminary Member Sizing of Columns


Strength/Capacity Considerations

Tributary Area

Use of Tributary Areas and


Column Tables

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Tributary Area

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Design Process
4. Structural Analysis - Modeling

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Design Process
4. Structural Analysis - Analysis

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Design Process
5. Design Review/ Member Modification
Must be chosen so that they will be able to resist,
within appropriate margin of safety, the forces
which the structural analysis has disclosed.

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Design Process
6. Cost Estimation
Make a tentative cost estimates for several
preliminary structural layouts.
Selection of constructional material based on:
Availability of specific material
Corresponding skilled labor
Relative costs
Wage scales

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Design Process
7. Preparation of Structural Drawings & Specifications

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Thanks

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