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ENGSC 2333 Thermodynamics

Chapter 3

3-1

Objectives

To apply the energy balance to a system of interest


requires knowledge of the properties of the system
and how the properties are related. The objective of
Chapter 3 is to introduce property relations relevant
to engineering thermodynamics. We will focus on
the use of the closed system energy balance
introduce in Chapter 2, together with the property
relations considered in this chapter.

3-2

Some Concepts and Definitions

State principal
Simple compressible
system
p--T surface
2-phase region
Triple line
Triple point
Saturation state
Vapor dome

Critical point
p- diagram
T- diagram
Subcooled
(compressed) liquid
Superheated vapor
2-phase liquid-vapor
mixture
Quality
3-3

3.1 Fixing the State


For simple, compressible systems, the state
principle indicates that the number of
independent intensive properties is two.
Intensive properties such as velocity and
elevation that are assigned values relative to
datum outside the system are excluded from
present considerations.
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3.2 p--T Relation

Figure 3.1

3-5

Examples
Virtual pvT diagram

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3.2 Phase Diagram

Figure 3.1

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3.2 T- Diagram

3-8

3.2 p- Diagram

Figure 3.1

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3.2.3 Quality
For a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture, the ratio of the
mass of vapor to the total mass of the mixture is call
quality, represented as x.

mvapor
mtotal

mvapor
mvapor mliquid

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ENGSC 2333 Thermodynamics


Chapter 3

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3.3.1 Specific Volume


The specific volume of a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture
can be determined by using the saturation tables and
the definition of quality.

V Vliq Vvap
V Vliq Vvap Vliq Vvap

m
m
m
m

mliqliq
m

mvap vap
m

mliq
mvap
liq
vap

m
m

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3.3.1 Specific Volume


The specific volume of a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture
can be determined by using the saturation tables and
the definition of quality.

mliqliq
m

mvap vap
m

mliq
mvap
liq
vap

m
m

(1 x) f x g f x( g f )
f x fg

3-13

3.3.2 Specific Internal Energy


The specific internal energy of a two-phase liquid-vapor
mixture can be determined by using the saturation
tables and the definition of quality.
u

mliq uliq
m

mvap uvap
m

mliq
mvap
uliq
uvap

m
m

u (1 x)u f xu g u f x(u g u f )
u u f xu fg

3-14

3.3.2 Specific Enthalpy


In many thermodynamic
analyses the sum of the
internal energy U and the
product of pressure p and
volume V appears.
Because the sum U + pV
appears so frequently, we
give this combination a
name, enthalpy, and a
distinct symbol, H.

H U pV

h u p
h u p
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3.3.2 Specific Enthalpy


The specific internal energy of a two-phase liquid-vapor
mixture can be determined by using the saturation
tables and the definition of quality.
h

mliq hliq
m

mvap hvap
m

mliq
mvap
hliq
hvap

m
m

h (1 x)h f xhg h f x(hg h f )


h h f xh fg

3-16

Examples
For water at the following conditions, determine
the phase or phases present:

4.

T = 40C, P = 0.09593 bar


T = 250C, P = 39.73 bar, = 0.04 m3/kg
T = 250C, P = 39.73 bar, = 0.0012512 m3/kg
T = 90F, = 500 ft3/lbm

5.

P = 50 psi, = 0.01727 ft3/lbm

6.

P = 50 psi, m = 10 kg

1.
2.
3.

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3.3.5 Evaluating specific heats


The intensive properties cv and cp are
defined for pure, simple
compressible substances as partial
derivatives of the functions u(T,v)
and h(T,p) respectively.

u
cv

h
cp

We also use the specific heat ratio, k.

cp
cv

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3.3.5 Evaluating specific heats

Figure 3.9 cp of water vapor

3-19

3.3.6 Incompressible substance model


Approximations for liquids using saturated liquid data:

v(T , p ) v f (T )
u (T , p ) u f (T )
h(T , p ) h f (T ) v f (T ) p psat (T )
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3.3.6 Incompressible substance model


For a substance modeled as incompressible, the specific
heats cv and cp are equal.

c p cv

T2

u2 u1 c(T )dT
T1

h2 h1 u2 u1 v( p2 p1 )
T2

c(T )dt v( p2 p1 )
T1

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3.3.6 Incompressible substance model


Assuming the specific heats are constant (not a function
of temperature)

u2 u1 c(T2 T1 )

h2 h1 c(T2 T1 ) v( p2 p1 )
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3.4 Generalized compressibility chart


The ideal gas law:

molar basis
pv R T
pV nR T
Where:

R
R
M

mass basis
pv RT
pV mRT

3-23

3.4 Generalized compressibility chart


For ideal gases:
molar basis
pv RM T

pV n RM T

mass basis
R
pv
M

R
T
pV m
M

Where:

R
R
M

Always use absolute pressures and


temperatures!!!

3-24

3.4 Generalized compressibility chart


Universal gas constant:

pv
lim
R
p 0 T
R 8.314 kJ/kmol K
1.986 Btu/lbmol R
1545 ft lbf/lbmol R
Compressibility factor:

Figure 3.10

pv
Z
RT
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3.4 Generalized compressibility chart


For compressible gases:

molar basis

mass basis

pv ZR T

pv ZRT
pV ZmRT

pV ZnR T

Where:

R
R
M

Always use absolute pressures and


temperatures!!!

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3.4 Generalized compressibility chart


For compressible gases:
molar basis
pv Z RM T

pV Zn RM T

mass basis
R
pv Z
M

R
pV Zm
M

Where:

R
R
M

Always use absolute pressures and


temperatures!!!

3-27

3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

Z values from Figures A-1,


A-2, and A-3 in appendices.

Figure 3.11

3-28

3.4 Generalized compressibility chart


The principle of corresponding states:

Reduced pressure:

p
pR
pc

Reduced temperature:

T
TR
Tc
Figure 3.2

3-29

3.4 Generalized compressibility chart


The principle of corresponding states:

Figure 3.12

3-30

3.5 Ideal gas model properties

pv RT
u u (T )
h h(T ) RT
3-31

Examples
For water at 374.15 C and 219.9 bar (gage),
determine:
1.

PR

2.

TR

3.

Assume Patm=1 bar


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ENGSC 2333 Thermodynamics


Chapter 3

3-33

3.4 Generalized compressibility chart


Compressibility factor:

pv
Z
RT

Reduced pressured:

p
pR
pc

Reduced temperature:

T
TR
Tc
3-34

3.4 Generalized compressibility chart


The principle of corresponding states:

Figure 3.12

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3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

Figure 3.3

3-36

3.5 Ideal gas model properties

pv RT
u u (T )
h u (T ) RT
3-37

3.5 Ideal gas model properties

h u RT
dh du

R
dT dT
c p (T ) cv (T ) R
3-38

3.5 Ideal gas model properties


c p (T ) cv (T ) R

cp in Table A-19
Note: cv not given
For monatomic
gases, cp=(5/2)R

c p (T )
cv (T )

kR
c p (T )
k 1
R
cv (T )
k 1

3-39

3.6 U and H of ideal gases


T2

u (T2 ) u (T1 ) cv (T )dT


T1

T2

h(T2 ) h(T1 ) c p (T )dT


T1

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3.6 Specific heat functions

cp
R

T T T T
2

Values of the constants are listed in Table A-21.

3-41

3.7 Specific heats simplified


Using ideal gas tables (A-22 and A-23)

Evaluate the change in specific enthalpy for air from a state where
T1=400 K to a state where T2=900 K.

3-42

3.7 Specific heats simplified


Assuming constant specific heats (A-20)

Evaluate the change in specific enthalpy for air from a state where
T1=400 K to a state where T2=900 K.

3-43

3.8 Polytropic processes of an Ideal Gas


For a polytropic process of a closed system

pV n constant
n 1
n0
n 1 0
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3.8 Polytropic processes of an Ideal Gas


For a polytropic process of a closed system

pV n constant
Isobaric

n0

Isothermal

n 1
n 1 0

Also, when specific heats are constant, the value of the exponent
n corresponding to an adiabatic polytropic process of an ideal gas
is the specific heat ratio, k.
3-45

3.8 Polytropic processes of an Ideal Gas


Remember from Chapter 2

p2 V1


p1 V2

p2V2 p1V1
pdV
1 n
2

V2
pdV p1V1 ln
V1
Valid for any gas.

for (n 1)

for (n 1)
3-46

3.8 Polytropic processes of an Ideal Gas


Using pV=mRT

T2 p2


T1 p1
2

V1


V2

mR(T2 T1 )
pdV
1 n

n 1

V2
pdV mRT ln
V1

n 1

for (n 1)

for (n 1)

Valid for ideal gases.

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