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# ENGSC 2333 Thermodynamics

Chapter 3

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Objectives

## To apply the energy balance to a system of interest

requires knowledge of the properties of the system
and how the properties are related. The objective of
Chapter 3 is to introduce property relations relevant
to engineering thermodynamics. We will focus on
the use of the closed system energy balance
introduce in Chapter 2, together with the property
relations considered in this chapter.

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## Some Concepts and Definitions

State principal
Simple compressible
system
p--T surface
2-phase region
Triple line
Triple point
Saturation state
Vapor dome

Critical point
p- diagram
T- diagram
Subcooled
(compressed) liquid
Superheated vapor
2-phase liquid-vapor
mixture
Quality
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## 3.1 Fixing the State

For simple, compressible systems, the state
principle indicates that the number of
independent intensive properties is two.
Intensive properties such as velocity and
elevation that are assigned values relative to
datum outside the system are excluded from
present considerations.
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## 3.2 p--T Relation

Figure 3.1

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Examples
Virtual pvT diagram

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## 3.2 Phase Diagram

Figure 3.1

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3.2 T- Diagram

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3.2 p- Diagram

Figure 3.1

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3.2.3 Quality
For a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture, the ratio of the
mass of vapor to the total mass of the mixture is call
quality, represented as x.

mvapor
mtotal

mvapor
mvapor mliquid

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Chapter 3

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## 3.3.1 Specific Volume

The specific volume of a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture
can be determined by using the saturation tables and
the definition of quality.

V Vliq Vvap
V Vliq Vvap Vliq Vvap

m
m
m
m

mliqliq
m

mvap vap
m

mliq
mvap
liq
vap

m
m

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## 3.3.1 Specific Volume

The specific volume of a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture
can be determined by using the saturation tables and
the definition of quality.

mliqliq
m

mvap vap
m

mliq
mvap
liq
vap

m
m

(1 x) f x g f x( g f )
f x fg

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## 3.3.2 Specific Internal Energy

The specific internal energy of a two-phase liquid-vapor
mixture can be determined by using the saturation
tables and the definition of quality.
u

mliq uliq
m

mvap uvap
m

mliq
mvap
uliq
uvap

m
m

u (1 x)u f xu g u f x(u g u f )
u u f xu fg

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## 3.3.2 Specific Enthalpy

In many thermodynamic
analyses the sum of the
internal energy U and the
product of pressure p and
volume V appears.
Because the sum U + pV
appears so frequently, we
give this combination a
name, enthalpy, and a
distinct symbol, H.

H U pV

h u p
h u p
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## 3.3.2 Specific Enthalpy

The specific internal energy of a two-phase liquid-vapor
mixture can be determined by using the saturation
tables and the definition of quality.
h

mliq hliq
m

mvap hvap
m

mliq
mvap
hliq
hvap

m
m

## h (1 x)h f xhg h f x(hg h f )

h h f xh fg

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Examples
For water at the following conditions, determine
the phase or phases present:

4.

## T = 40C, P = 0.09593 bar

T = 250C, P = 39.73 bar, = 0.04 m3/kg
T = 250C, P = 39.73 bar, = 0.0012512 m3/kg
T = 90F, = 500 ft3/lbm

5.

## P = 50 psi, = 0.01727 ft3/lbm

6.

P = 50 psi, m = 10 kg

1.
2.
3.

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## 3.3.5 Evaluating specific heats

The intensive properties cv and cp are
defined for pure, simple
compressible substances as partial
derivatives of the functions u(T,v)
and h(T,p) respectively.

u
cv

h
cp

cp
cv

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## 3.3.6 Incompressible substance model

Approximations for liquids using saturated liquid data:

v(T , p ) v f (T )
u (T , p ) u f (T )
h(T , p ) h f (T ) v f (T ) p psat (T )
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## 3.3.6 Incompressible substance model

For a substance modeled as incompressible, the specific
heats cv and cp are equal.

c p cv

T2

u2 u1 c(T )dT
T1

h2 h1 u2 u1 v( p2 p1 )
T2

c(T )dt v( p2 p1 )
T1

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## 3.3.6 Incompressible substance model

Assuming the specific heats are constant (not a function
of temperature)

u2 u1 c(T2 T1 )

h2 h1 c(T2 T1 ) v( p2 p1 )
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## 3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

The ideal gas law:

molar basis
pv R T
pV nR T
Where:

R
R
M

mass basis
pv RT
pV mRT

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For ideal gases:
molar basis
pv RM T

pV n RM T

mass basis
R
pv
M

R
T
pV m
M

Where:

R
R
M

temperatures!!!

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## 3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

Universal gas constant:

pv
lim
R
p 0 T
R 8.314 kJ/kmol K
1.986 Btu/lbmol R
1545 ft lbf/lbmol R
Compressibility factor:

Figure 3.10

pv
Z
RT
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## 3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

For compressible gases:

molar basis

mass basis

pv ZR T

pv ZRT
pV ZmRT

pV ZnR T

Where:

R
R
M

temperatures!!!

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## 3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

For compressible gases:
molar basis
pv Z RM T

pV Zn RM T

mass basis
R
pv Z
M

R
pV Zm
M

Where:

R
R
M

temperatures!!!

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## Z values from Figures A-1,

A-2, and A-3 in appendices.

Figure 3.11

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## 3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

The principle of corresponding states:

Reduced pressure:

p
pR
pc

Reduced temperature:

T
TR
Tc
Figure 3.2

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## 3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

The principle of corresponding states:

Figure 3.12

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## 3.5 Ideal gas model properties

pv RT
u u (T )
h h(T ) RT
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Examples
For water at 374.15 C and 219.9 bar (gage),
determine:
1.

PR

2.

TR

3.

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Chapter 3

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## 3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

Compressibility factor:

pv
Z
RT

Reduced pressured:

p
pR
pc

Reduced temperature:

T
TR
Tc
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## 3.4 Generalized compressibility chart

The principle of corresponding states:

Figure 3.12

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Figure 3.3

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pv RT
u u (T )
h u (T ) RT
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## 3.5 Ideal gas model properties

h u RT
dh du

R
dT dT
c p (T ) cv (T ) R
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## 3.5 Ideal gas model properties

c p (T ) cv (T ) R

cp in Table A-19
Note: cv not given
For monatomic
gases, cp=(5/2)R

c p (T )
cv (T )

kR
c p (T )
k 1
R
cv (T )
k 1

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T2

T1

T2

T1

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cp
R

T T T T
2

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## 3.7 Specific heats simplified

Using ideal gas tables (A-22 and A-23)

Evaluate the change in specific enthalpy for air from a state where
T1=400 K to a state where T2=900 K.

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## 3.7 Specific heats simplified

Assuming constant specific heats (A-20)

Evaluate the change in specific enthalpy for air from a state where
T1=400 K to a state where T2=900 K.

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## 3.8 Polytropic processes of an Ideal Gas

For a polytropic process of a closed system

pV n constant
n 1
n0
n 1 0
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## 3.8 Polytropic processes of an Ideal Gas

For a polytropic process of a closed system

pV n constant
Isobaric

n0

Isothermal

n 1
n 1 0

Also, when specific heats are constant, the value of the exponent
n corresponding to an adiabatic polytropic process of an ideal gas
is the specific heat ratio, k.
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## 3.8 Polytropic processes of an Ideal Gas

Remember from Chapter 2

p2 V1

p1 V2

p2V2 p1V1
pdV
1 n
2

V2
pdV p1V1 ln
V1
Valid for any gas.

for (n 1)

for (n 1)
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Using pV=mRT

T2 p2

T1 p1
2

V1

V2

mR(T2 T1 )
pdV
1 n

n 1

V2
pdV mRT ln
V1

n 1

for (n 1)

for (n 1)

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