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# Summary of Sampling,

## Line Codes and PCM

Prepared for ELE 745
Xavier Fernando
Ryerson Communications Lab

Signal Sampling
Sampling is converting a continuous
time signal into a discrete time signal
Categories:
Impulse (ideal) sampling
Natural Sampling
Sample and Hold operation

Impulse Sampling

Impulse Sampling
Impulse train spaced at Ts multiplies the
signal x(t) in time domain, creating
discrete time,
continuous amplitude signal xs(t)

## Impulse train spaced at fs convolutes the

signal X(f) in frequency domain, creating
Repeating spectrum Xs(f)
spaced at fs

## The Aliasing Effect

fs > 2fm

fs < 2fm
Aliasing happens

Aliasing
Under sampling will result in
aliasing that will create spectral overlap

## Ideal Sampling and

Aliasing
Sampled signal is discrete in time
domain with spacing Ts
Spectrum will repeat for every fs Hz
Aliasing (spectral overlapping) if fs is
too small (fs < 2fm)
Nyquist sampling rate fs = 2fm
Generally oversampling is done fs
> 2fm

Natural Sampling

Natural Sampling
Sampling pulse train has a finite width
Sampled spectrum will repeat itself with
a Sinc envelope
More realistic modeling
Distortion after recovery depends on
/Ts

Different Sampling
Models

Quantization
Quantization is done to make the
signal amplitude discrete

Analog
Signal

Discrete
Time
Cont.
Ampl.
Signal

Discrete
Time &
Discrete
Ampl
Signal

Binary
Sequence

Linear Quantization
L levels
(L-1)q = 2Vp
= Vpp

For large L
Lq Vpp

PCM Mapping

Linear Quantization
Summary

## Mean Squared Error (MSE) = q2/12

Mean signal power = E[m2(t)]
Mean SNR = 12 E[m2(t)]/q2
For binary PCM, L = 2n n bits/sample
Let signal bandwidth = B Hz
If Nyquist sampling 2B samples/sec
If 20% oversampling 1.2(2B) samples/sec

## Bit rate = 2nB bits/sec

Required channel bandwidth = nB Hz

Non-Uniform
Quantization
In speech signals, very low speech
volumes predominates
Only 15% of the time, the voltage exceeds
the RMS value

## These low level signals are under

represented with uniform quantization
Same noise power (q2/12) but low signal
power

## The answer is non uniform quantization

Uniform

Non-Uniform

Non-uniform Quantization
Compress the signal first
Then perform linear quantization
Result in nonlinear quantization

## -law and A-law

Widely used compression algorithms

Line Coding
Digital output of the PCM coder is
converted to an appropriate waveform
for transmission over channel line
coding or transmission coding
Different line codes have different
attributes
Best line code has to be selected for a
given application and channel condition

## Line Coded Waveforms I

NRZ Non Return to Zero
-Level
NRZ Non Return to Zero
-Mark (0no change,
1 change)
NRZ Non Return to Zero
-Space (1no change,
0 change)
Bipolar Return to Zero
AMI Alternate Mark Inversion
(zero zero,
1 alternating pulse)

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
Bi-Phase level
(1 +v-v, 0 -v+v)
Bi Phase Mark
Bi-Phase Space
Delay Modulation
Dicode NRZ
Dicode RZ

Line Coding
Requirements

## Favorable power spectral density (PSD)

Low bandwidth (multilevel codes better)
No/little DC power

## Error detection and/or correction capability

Self clocking (Ex. Manchester)
Transparency in generating the codes
(dependency on the previous bit?)
Differential encoding (polarity reversion)
Noise immunity (BER for a given SNR)

Densities

## Polar Signalling {p(t) or

p(t)}
Polar signalling is not bandwidth efficient
(best case BW = Rb . Theoretical min is Rb/2)

Non-zero DC
No error detection (each bit is
independent)
Efficient in power requirement
Transparent
Clock can be recovered by rectifying the
received signal

On-Off Signalling
On-off is a sum of polar signal and periodic
clock signal (Fig. 7.2) spectrum has
discrete freq. Components
Polar amplitude is A/2 PSD is scaled by
No error detection
Excessive zeros cause error in timing
extraction
Excessive BW
Excessive DC

## AMI (bipolar) Signalling

DC null
Single error detection (violation)
capability
Clock extraction possible
Twice as much power as polar signalling
Not transparent
Excessive zeros cause timing extraction
error HDB or B8ZS schemes used to
overcome this issue

## Bipolar with 8 Zeros

Substitution
B8ZS uses violations of the Alternate
Mark Inversion (AMI) rule to replace a
pattern of eight zeros in a row.
00000000000V10V1
Example:
(-) 0 0 0 - + 0 + - OR

(+) 0 0 0 + - 0 - +
B8ZS is used in the North American
telephone systems at the T1 rate

## High Density Bipolar 3 code

HDB3 encodes any pattern of more
than four bits as B00V (or 100V; 1B
(Bit))
Ex: The pattern of bits
11000011000000
+ - 0 0 0 0 + - 0 0 0 0 0 0 (AMI)
Encoded in HDB3 is:
+ - B 0 0 V - + B 0 0 V 0 0, which is:
+-+00+-+-00-00

## M-Ary Coding (Signaling)

In binary coding:
Data bit 1 has waveform 1
Data bit 0 has waveform 2
Data rate = bit rate = symbol rate

## In M-ary coding, take M bits at a time (M

= 2k) and create a waveform (or symbol).

00 waveform (symbol)
01 waveform (symbol)
10 waveform (symbol)
11 waveform (symbol)
Symbol rate = bit rate/k

1
2
3
2

M-Ary Coding
Advantages:
Required transmission rate is low (bit
rate/M)
Low bandwidth

Disadvantages:
Low signal to noise ratio (due to multiple
amplitude pulses)

M-ary Signaling
8-level signaling

2-level signaling

M-ary (Multilevel)
Signaling

## M-ary signals reduce required bandwidth

Instead of transmitting one pulse for each
bit (binary PCM), we transmit one
multilevel pulse a group of k-bits (M=2k)
Bit rate = Rb bits/s min BW = Rb/2
Symbol rate = R/k sym/s min BW = Rb/2k
Needed bandwidth goes down by k
Trade-off is relatively high bit error rate
(BER)

Inter Symbol
Interference (ISI)
Unwanted interference from adjacent
(usually previous) symbols

## Nyquist's First Criterion

for Zero lSI
In the first method Nyquist achieves zero lSI
by choosing a pulse shape that has a
nonzero amplitude at its center (t=0) and
zero amplitudes at (t=nT" (n = I. 2. 3 .... )).

criteria

## Zero ISI Pulse

Vestigial Spectrum

r=0 (fx=0)
r=0.5 (fx=Rb/4)
r=1 (fx=Rb/2)

Function
in the f domain

## Raised Cosine Filter Impulse

Response (time domain)
Note pulse
rapidly decays
for r = 1

Equalization
The residual ISI can be
removed by equalization
Estimate the amount of
ISI at each sampling
instance and subtract it

Eye Diagram
Ideal (perfect)
signal

Real (average)
signal
Bad signal

Eye Diagram
Run the oscilloscope in
the storage mode for
overlapping pulses
X-scale = pulse width
Y-Scale = Amplitude
Close Eye bad ISI
Open Eye good ISI

Time Division
Multiplexing (TDM)
TDM is widely used in digital communication
systems to maximum use the channel
capacity

Digit Interleaving

## TDM Word Interleaving

TDM
When each channel has Rb bits/sec bit
rate and N such channels are
multiplexed, total bit rate = NRb
(assuming no added bits)
Before Multiplexing the bit period = Tb
After Multiplexing the bit period = Tb/N
Timing and bit rate would change if you
have any added bits

## North American PCM

Telephony
Twenty four T1 carriers (64kb/s) are multiplexed
to generate one DS1 carrier (1.544 Mb/s)

Channels

## Each frame has 24 X 8 = 192 information bits

Frame time = 1/8000 = 125 s.

## T1 System Signalling Format

193 framing bits plus more signalling bits final bit rate = 1.544 Mb/s

Hierarchy

Delta Modulation

## Why transmit every sample?

You know the next amplitude will differ by only delta

Delta Modulation

## Why transmit every sample?

You know the next amplitude will differ by only delta
Only transmit the error

LPC Coding

In modern
communicati
on system,
the voice is
artificially
generated at
the receiver
mimicking
the original
voice using
the
appropriate
Transmit only few gain coefficients!
coefficients

Example -1
Sklar 3.8: (a) What is the theoretical
minimum system bandwidth needed for a 10
Mb/s signal using 16-level PAM without ISI?
(b) How large can the filter roll-off factor (r)
be if the applicable system bandwidth is
1.375 MHz?

Solution

Example - 2
Sklar 3.10: Binary data at 9600 bits/s are transmitted using 8-ary PAM
modulation with a system using a raised cosine roll-off filter characteristics.
The system has a frequency response out to 2.4 kHz.
(a) What is the symbol rate
(b) What is the roll o factor r

Example 3
Sklar 3.11: A voice signal in the range 300 to 3300 Hz is sampled at 8000
samples/s. We may transmit these samples directly as PAM pulses or we
may first convert each sample to a PCM format and use binary (PCM)
waveform for transmission.
(a)What is the minimum system bandwidth required for the detection of PAM
with no ISI and with a filter roll-off factor of 1.
(b) Using the same roll-off, what is the minimum bandwidth required for the
detection of binary PCM waveform if the samples are quantized to 8-levels
(c) Repeat part (b) using 128 quantization levels.