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Substance

Abuse

Children of alcoholics are 4x


more likely than the general
to develop problems
with alcohol.
Adults had reported that
their first drink of alcohol
was younger than 10.

Using a drug in
a way that is
inconsistent
with medical or
social norms
and despite
negative
consequences.

Substances
- can be used and abused.

Polysubstance abuse

Intoxication
- use of substance that results in
maladaptive behavior.

Withdrawal syndrome
- negative psychological and physical
reactions.

Detoxification
- process of safely withdrawing from a
substance.

Etiology
The exact cause of drug
use, dependence and
addiction are NOT known
but various factors are
thought to contribute to
the development of
substance related
disorders.
Biologic and Genetic
Psychological
Social and Environmental

BIOLOGIC & GENETIC


FACTORS
Children of alcoholic parents are
at higher risk for developing
alcoholism and drug dependence
than are children of nonalcoholic
parents.

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
Some theorists believe that
inconsistency in the parents
behavior, poor role modeling,
and lack of nurturing pave
the way for the child to adopt
a similar style of maladaptive
coping, stormy relationships
and substance abuse.

SOCIAL & ENVIRONMENTAL


FACTORS
Cultural factors
Social attitudes
Peer behavior
Laws
Cost
Availability

Cultural
Consideration
Muslim
Native American
Asian ancestry
People of Japanese descent
Alaska natives

Seven Classes of
Substances and
the Effects of
Intoxication,
Overdose,
Withdrawal and
Detoxification

Alcohol
Intoxication- slurred speech, unsteady gait, lack
of coordination, impaired attention, concentration,
memory and judgment.
Overdose- vomiting, unconscious, and respiratory
depression.
Withdrawal- usually begins 4 to 12 hours. Symptoms
include hand tremors, sweating, elevated and blood
pressure, insomnia, anxiety and nausea or vomiting.

Transient hallucinations, seizures &


delirium.

SEDATIVES, HYPNOTICS,
& ANXIOLYTICS

Treatment includes:
gastric lavage
followed by
ingestion of
activated charcoal
and saline cathartic.
dialysis

Benzodiazepinesmost frequently
abused drugs in
this category.
Intoxication and
Withdrawal
symptoms are
similar to those of

Withdrawal

Detoxification
Managed
Symptoms
medically by
include
pulse,
tapering the
blood pressure, amount of the
respirations and drug the client
receives over a
temperature.
period of days or
weeks.

Lorazepam which
actions last for
about 10 hours.

Stimulants
(Amphetamines, Cocaine)
Drugs that stimulate or excite
the CNS.
Amphetamines were popular
in the past, they were used by
people who wanted to lose
weight or to stay awake.
Cocaine, an illegal drug with
no clinical use in medicine.
Methamphetamine is
particularly dangerous and
highly addictive and causes

Intoxication
Effects include high or
euphoric feeling,
hyperactivity,
hypervigilance,
talkativeness, anxiety,
hallucinations,
perspiration or chills,
dilated pupils, nause
and chest pain.

Overdose
Can result in
seizures,
coma and
deaths are

rare.

Withdrawal
Not life-threatening
Marked dysphoria is
the primary symptom
Crashing
Stimulant withdrawal
is not treated
pharmacologically.

Cannabis
(Marijuana)
Cannabis sativa is the hemp
plant that is widely
cultivated for its fiber to
make rope and cloth and for
oil from its seeds.
It is the most widely used
illicit substance in the U.S.
Research has shown that
it has short effects of
lowering intraocular
pressure, but is not
approved for the
treatment for glaucoma.

Intoxication
Impaired motor
coordination
Inappropriate laughter
Impaired judgment
and short term
memory
Distortions of time and
perceptions
Dry mouth
Hypotension
Tachycardia

Overdoses
It does
NOT

Withdrawal
Muscle
aches
Sweating
Anxiet
y
Tremors

Withdra
wal
Nausea

Intoxicat
Apathy
ion
Lethargy
Listlessness
Impaired
judgment
Drowsiness
Slurred speech
Unconsciousness

Opioi
ds

Vomiting
Dysphoria
Lacrimation
Rhinorrhea
Sweating
Diarrhea
Yawning
Fever
insomnia

HALLUCINOGENS
Are substances that distort
the users perception of
reality and produce symptoms
similar to psychosis including
hallucinations and
depersonalization.
Examples of Hallucinogens are:
Mescaline
Psilocybin
Lysergic acid diethylamide

Salvia
divinoru

Designer drugs such as ECSTASY

Intoxication
Muscle aches