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ION EXCHANGE

WATER TREATMENT
PROCESSES
Process

Driving

force
Ion Exchange (IX)
Electrodialysis (ED)

Chemical
Electrical

Reverse Osmosis (RO)

Pressure

Distillation (MSF)

Thermal
2

WATER TREATMENT
PROCESSES
Process

Feed TDS

Product TDS

mg/I max.

mg/I

IX

1500

<1

ED

3000

5-10% of feed TDS

RO

40,000

1-10% of feed TDS

MSF

70,000

5-10

ION EXCHANGE
The feedwater to an ion exchange system
must meet the following specifications
Suspended solids

Nil

Turbidity

<5

NTU

Heavy metals

<0.05

mg/l

Organic matter

low

Fouling index

<0.05

Oil

Absent

Free chlorine

Nil
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ION EXCHANGE PROCESSES


Process

Function

Softening

Substitutes hardness with


sodium

Dealkalization

Removes hardness
Reduces alkalinity

Demineralization

Reduces TDS

SOFTENING
Service stage is represented by the following
reactions
Ca(HCO3)2(l)

2 NaR(s)

CaR2(s)

2NaHCO3(l)
MgCI2(l)

2 NaR(s)

MgR2(s)

2NaCl

Exhausted
Resin

Soft
Water

(l)
Hard
Water

Regenerated
Resin

SOFTENING
The regeneration stage is represented by the
following reactions
CaR2(s)
CaCl2(l)

2 NaC1(l)

2NaR(s)

MgR2(s)
MgCl2(l)

2 NaCl (l)

2NaR(s)

Exhausted
Waste
resin
effluent

Regenerant

Regenerated

(Common Salt)

resin
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DEALKALIZATION
The dealkalization processes are
Split stream dealkalization
Dealkalization with a weak acid
cation (WAC) resin.
Combination of WAC and softener
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SPLIT STREAM
DEALKALIZATION

SPLIT STREAM
DEALKALIZATION
Reactions during service
a) Softener
Ca(HCO3)2(l)

2 NaR(s)

CaR2(s)

2NaHCO3(l)
MgCI2(l)

2 NaR(s)

MgR2(s)

2NaCl

(l)
Hard
water

Regenerated
resin

Exhausted
resin

Soft
water

10

SPLIT STREAM
DEALKALIZATION
Reaction
during service
b) HI Unit
Ca(HCO3)2(l)
H2CO3(l)

Temporary
Carbonic
hardness
MgCl2(l)

2HR(s)

CaR2(s)

Regenerated
resin
+

2HR(s)

Exhausted
resin
MgR2(s)

acid
2 HCl

(l)
Permanent
Free
hardness
mineral acid
Na2SO4(l)

Regenerated

Exhausted

resin

resin

2HR(s)

2NaR(s)

+11

SPLIT STREAM
DEALKALIZATION
Reaction during service
c) Blend
NaHCO3(l)
2NaHCO3(l)

HCl (l)
+

NaCl (l)

H2SO4(l)

H2CO3(l)

Na2SO4(l)

2H2CO3(l)
Alkalinity

Free
mineral acid

Neutral
salt

Carbonic
acid

Carbonic acid is unstable and dissociates to carbon


dioxide.
H2CO3(l)

H2O(l)

CO2 (g)

12

SPLIT STREAM
DEALKALIZATION
Reactions during regeneration
a) Softener
CaR2(s)

2NaCl (l)

2NaR(s)

2NaR(s)

CaCl2(l)
MgR2(s)

2NaCl (l)

MgCl2(l)
Exhausted
resin
effluent

Sodium
chloride

Regenerated
resin

Waste

b) HI Unit
CaR2(s)
CaCl2(l)

2HCl (l)

2HR(s)

MgR2(s)

2HCl (l)

2HR(s)

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DEALKALIZATION WITH A
WEAK ACID CATION (WAC)
RESIN

Reactions
a)

Service

Ca(HCO3)2(l)

2HR(s)

CaR2(s)

2HR(s)

MgR2(s)

HR(s)

NaR(s)

2H2CO3(l)
Mg(HCO3)2(1)
2H2CO3(I)
NaHCO3(1)
Alkaline
Carbonic

Regenerated

H2CO3(I)

Exhausted
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...DEALKALIZATION WITH A WAC


RESIN
Reactions
b) Regeneration
CaR2(s)

2HCl (l)

2HR (s)

2HCl (l)

2HR (s)

HCl (l)

HR (s)

Hydrochloric

Regenerated 15

CaCl2(l)
MgR2(s)
MgCl2(l)
NaR (s)
NaCl (l)
Exhausted

COMBINATION OF WAC
AND SOFTENER
The WAC resin reacts with alkaline salts
only and not with neutral salts in water.
The combination of WAC and Softener is
used therefore when permanent hardness is
present in water.
The WAC efficiently removes the temporary
hardness and the downstream Softener
exchanges the permanent hardness.
16

DEMINERALIZATION
There are two basic processes
Two bed
Mixed bed (MB)
But there are several extensions and
combinations of these basic processes
which progressively improve the quality of
water and the efficiency of the processes.

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...DEMINERALIZATION
The reactions during service of the strong acid cation
(SAC) exchanger are as follows
Ca(HCO3)2(l)
H2CO3(l)

Temporary
Carbonic
hardness
MgCl2(l)

2HR(s)

CaR2(s)

Regenerated
resin
+

2HR(s)

Exhausted
resin
MgR2(s)

acid
2 HCl

(l)
Permanent
Regenerated
Exhausted
Free
hardness
resin
resin
mineral acid
Carbonic acid is unstable and dissociates to carbon dioxide.
Na2SO4(l)
+ 2HR(s)
2NaR(s) +
H2CO3(l)
H2O(l)
+
CO2 (g)
H2SO4(l)
18

...DEMINERALIZATION
The reactions during service of the strong base
anion (SBA) exchanger are as follows
H2SO4(l)

2ROH(s)

R2SO4(s)

2H2O(l)

HCl(l)

ROH (s)

RCl(S)

H2O(l)

Free
Regenerated
mineral acid resin
CO2(l)

Carbon
dioxide
SiO2(l)

Cation
slip

ROH(s)

Demineralised
water

RHCO3(s)

Regenerated
resin

Silica
NaCl(l)

Exhausted
resin

Exhausted
resin

ROH(s)

RHSiO3(s)

Regenerated
resin

Exhausted
resin

ROH(s)

RCl(s)

Regenerated
resin

Exhausted
resin

NaOH
P-Alkalinity

19

...DEMINERALIZATION
The reaction during regeneration of the strong
acid cation (SAC) exchanger are as follows
CaR2(s)

2HCl (l)

2HR(s)

2HCl (l)

2HR(s)

HCl (l)

HR(s)

Hydrochloric

Regenerated

20

CaCl2(l)
MgR2(s)
MgCl2(l)
NaR(s)

NaCl (l)
Exhausted

...DEMINERALIZATION
The reactions during regeneration of the strong
base anion (SBA) exchanger are as follows
R2SO4(s)
Na2SO4(l)

+ 2NaOH(l)

RCl(s)
NaCl(l)

+ NaOH(l)

ROH(s)

RHCO3(s) + NaOH(l)
NaHCO3(l)

ROH(s)

RHSiO3(s) + NaOH(l)
NaHSiO3(l)

ROH(s)

Exhausted

Regenerated

Sodium

2ROH(s)

21

Waste

...DEMINERALIZATION
Another two bed demineralization process
utilises a weak base anion (WBA) exchanger
after the strong acid cation (SAC) exchanger
when silica removal is not required.
The reactions of the WBA resin during service
are
HCl(l)

R .(s)

HCl (s)
H2SO4(l)

R .(s)

R H2SO4

(s)
22

...DEMINERALIZATION
The reactions of the WBA resin during regeneration
are
R HCl (s)
+ H2O(l)

+ NaOH(l)

R .(s)

+ NaCl(l)

R H2SO4(s) + 2NaOH(l)
2H2O(l)

R .(s)

Exhausted
resin

Regenerated
Waste
resin
effluent

Sodium
hydroxide

+ Na2SO4(l) +

23

...DEMINERALIZATION
A partial list of demineralization treatment
schemes.
SAC

SBA

SAC

DG

SBA

SAC

DG

SBA

MB

SAC

DG

SBA

CATPOL

SAC

DG

WBA -

SBA

WAC

SAC -

DG

WBA -

LBC

DG

LBA

MB

DG - Degasser
Cation

MB
SBA - MB

LBC - Layered Bed

24

REGENERATION TECHNIQUES
Individual units - softener, cation, anion - are
regenerated by the coflow or counterflow
method
Pair of units - WAC - SAC, WBA - SBA - are
regenerated in thoroughfare mode with the
regenerant flowing from the secondary unit to
the primary unit.
Mixed beds are regenerated sequentially or
simultaneously.

25

COFLOW/COUNTERFLOW
REGENERATION
The direction of flow of the regenerant can be
the same as that of the service flow or
opposite to it.
When the regenerant flow is in the same
direction as the service flow the regeneration
process
is
called
cocurrent
or
coflow
regeneration.
When the regenerant flow is in the direction
opposite to the service flow, the regeneration
process is called countercurrent or counterflow
26
regeneration.

FLOW DIAGRAM OF COFLOW UNIT


SERVICE

COFLOW UNIT

27

INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT OF COFLOW


UNIT

28

COFLOW REGENERATION
Coflow regeneration comprises the following
basic steps
Backwash
Regenerant injection
Rinse
The rinse step may include a slow rinse followed
by the final rinse
29

COUNTERFLOW
REGENERATION
Counterflow regeneration provides superior
quality of treated water as compared to
coflow regeneration.
Consequently
counterflow
regeneration
results in a lower consumption of chemicals
as compared to coflow regeneration.
Counterflow
regeneration
special requirements.

needs

some

30

COUNTERFLOW
REGENERATION

The key requirements for a successful counterflow


regeneration are

Use of treated water (from the unit) for dilution


and injection of regenerant and in the subsequent
rinse stage.
Maintenance of a static
regeneration process.

bed

during

the

Avoidance of backwashing of the resin bed at


every regeneration.
Provision of an additional collector for spent
regenerant and maintenance of an inert/ dead/
sacrificial resin layer above this collector.

31

FLOW DIAGRAM OF COUNTERFLOW


UNIT
SERVICE

COUNTERFLOW UNIT

32

INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT OF
COUNTERFLOW UNIT

33

COUNTERFLOW
REGENERATION

Counterflow regeneration comprises the following


basic
steps

Regenerant injection

Regenerant rinse

Final rinse

Prior to regenerant injection a flushing of the spent


acid
collector
is
done
to
facilitate
smooth
regeneration.
Counterflow units are backwashed once in seven
regenerations. After the backwash the regeneration
proceeds as above with twice the quantity of
regenerant (normally used) injected into the unit.

34

REGENERANT INJECTION
CONCENTRATIONS
The table below lists the regenerants and the
injection concentrations into various units.
Regenerant
Unit
Concentration (% w/v max.)
NaCl

Softener

15

HCl

WAC/SAC/MB

H2SO4

WAC
SAC/MB

0.8
1.5 - 5

NaOH

WBA/SBA/MB
WBA-SBA

5
2-4

35

THOROUGHFARE REGENERATION
In thoroughfare regeneration, the primary
invariably is a coflow unit while the
secondary may be a coflow or counterflow
unit.
In WAC - SAC system, the WAC is regenerated
coflow and the SAC is regenerated
counterflow always.
In WBA - SBA pair of units, the WBA is
regenerated coflow while the SBA may be
either coflow or counterflow regenerated
dependent on the silica residual desired. 36

MIXED BED REGENERATION


Mixed Bed regeneration comprises the following basic
steps.
Backwash
Regenerant injection
Regenerant rinse
Air mix
Final rinse
When the regenerants are injected and rinsed in
sequence, the regeneration is termed sequential.
When the regenerants are injected and rinsed
simultaneously, the regeneration is termed
simultaneous.
The simultaneous regeneration results in a saving of
37
time and waste water besides valving.

FLOW DIAGRAM OF MB
SEQUENTIAL
SERVICE

MIXED BED - SEQUENTIAL

38

FLOW DIAGRAM OF MB
SIMULTANEOUS
SERVICE

MIXED BED - SIMULTANEOUS

39

INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT OF MIXED BED


UNIT

40