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March1,2004

Examssofarsogood!Examswillbereturnedand
discussedafterallmakeupsarecompleted.

Minerals,PlummerChapter2
Whatisamineral?
Silicateminerals
Gemstones
Testyourdiamondbuyingskills

Whatisamineral?Thetraditionaldefinition
Naturallyoccurringsubstance

Solid
Inorganic
NOTE:manymineralsareproducedbyBOTHinorganicAND
biologicalprocesses(biomineralization).
Calciteshellsofmarineorganisms
Magnetitebacteria
Apatitebonesandteeth
Hasaspecificchemicalcomposition
Hasaspecificcrystalstructure,consistingofarepeating,
orderlypattern.
Hasasetofphysicalpropertiesthatarethesameforanyand
allsamplesofagivenmineral.

MineralorNotaMineral

Halite,NaCl?
Mineral

MineralorNotaMineral

Ice,H2O?

Mineral

LiquidH2O?

MineralorNotaMineral

Amber(C10H16O)?

MineralorNotaMineral

Pearls?

CrystalStructureisusuallythestickingpointformineral/notamineral
Crystallinityaregularlyrepeatingpattern
Basicelementofthepattern

Linearpattern(1dimensional)

1dimensionalpattern

WhatdoIgetifIputseveralchainssidebysideonthefloor?

2dimensionalpattern
MapView

WhatdoIgetifIstackthis2Dpatternoneontopoftheother
fromtheflooruptotheceiling?

3dimensionalpattern

Connectthecentersofthebluecirclescubicstructure

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Fig2.02

NaCltablesalt
Sodium(Na)

Chlorine(Cl)

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Fig2.02

NaClheldtogetherbyionicbond,whichiseasytobreak>cleavage
andhardness

Thebuildingblocksofminerals
A(paraphrased)questionfromSuperMillionaire
WhatisthemostabundantelementintheEarthscrust?

Element symbol
Oxygen
Silicon

O
Si

Aluminum
Iron

Al
Fe

Calcium

Ca
Na

Sodium
Potassium
Magnesium

8elementsmakeup
98.6%oftheEarthscrust.

Mg

Mainrockformingmineralgroups
Silicates
makeupthemajorityofcrustalrocks
buildingblockisSiO4tetrahedron
Oxides
composedonmetal+oxygen
Carbonates
importantcomponentofsedimentaryrocks
buildingblockisCO3ion

SiO44complexion
Agroupofionsthatissotightlyboundtogether
thattheyactlikeasingleunit.
Buildingblockofsilicateminerals
1siliconion+4oxygenions
arrangedinatriangularpyramid
Electricalchargeof4

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Fig2.07

Silicatetetrahedron
SiO44

TetrahedronViewing
Toppoint

base
Viewfromthetop,
lookingdown.
Toppointof
tetrahedron
facingyou

Flatbaseoftetrahedron
facingyou.Toppoint
oftetrahedronpointing
awayfromyou.

Sideview

Nesosilicates(islandsilicates)
SiO44tetrahedronformsionicbondswithcationssuchasMg2+,Fe2+
Example:Olivine
Mg2SiO4Fosterite

2+
Mg2+orFe

Fe2SiO4Fayalite

(Mg,Fe)SiO4
Solidsolution

Olivine:nesosilicatestructure(islandsilicate)
WhyMgORFe?

Viewfromtheside(wallofstructure)

Samesize
Sameelectrical
charge

Peridot

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Fig2.10

CornerSharingBasetoBase
sideview
O2
Si4+

3DSideView

S.Brachfeld2003

Inosilicicates:SingleChains(Pyroxene)
SiO3Chainformsionicbondswithcationsabovethetip
andbelowthebase
Boxedregionwhenviewfrom

HowmanySi
HowmanyO
2Si
6O

Standhere
lookupthechain

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Fig2.11

Yellowtetrahedroninfront
Graybehindandtotheside
Cation,formingionic
bondwithtetrahedron
chain

Extraslide.Notshowninclass.Notforexams.Foryourinterest.
CornerSharingTiptoTip

O2
Si4+

FigurecourtesyofDonnaWhitney,UniversityofMinnesotaDept.Geology

Facesharing

Extraslide.Notshowninclass.Notforexams.Foryourinterest.
AssemblingaSingleChainSilicate(Pyroxene)

Buildxlinthisdirection

S.Brachfeld2003

Extraslide.Notshowninclass.Notforexams.Foryourinterest.
PyroxeneWheresthecleavage?
breakingatthemolecularscale
Whathumaneyes
seeatthemacroscale
90cleavage

S.Brachfeld2003

Extraslide.Notshowninclass.Notforexams.Foryourinterest.
Noroomtosubstitutelargecations

Thiswontwork.
Nogold,silver,oruranium
foundwithpyroxens.

Au

S.Brachfeld2003

DoubleChainSilicates(Amphibole)
PAIRofSiO4chainsthatlinkbycornersharingin2directions

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Fig2.11

Extraslide.Notshowninclass.Notforexams.Foryourinterest.

Amphiboleformulaislong:lotsofspaceforsmall
andmediumcations

CationsincludeNa+,K+,Ca2+,Mn2+,
Fe2+,Mg2+,Fe3+,Al3+,Ti4+
Standhere
lookupthechain

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Fig2.11

Extraslide.Notshowninclass.Notforexams.Foryourinterest.
60120CleavageinDoubleChainSilicates(Amphibole)(actually56124)
breakingatthemolecularscale
Whathumaneyessee
atthemacroscale

120

S.Brachfeld2003

WhatisJade?
Bothpryoxene
ANDamphibole
areJade.
Jadeite = NaAlSi2O6
Nephrite = Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2

Jadeitebeads.Photoby
ShaneF.McClure,
1994,GemologicalInstituteofAmerica(GIA)

Other Jades
African jade: Green garnet
Amazon jade: Green K-feldspar
Indian jade: Green quartz

Asbestosgenericnameforfibrousamphibole

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Box02.03.f1,photobyC.C.Plummer

RingSilicatesBeryl

Goldenberyl
heliordor

StackofSiO4rings,built
upoutoftheplaneofscreen

Emerald from Muzo, Colombia, oval shape, 3.97 ct.


Courtesy of Precious Gem Resources, Inc. Photo by
Robert Weldon. 2002 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

Aquamarine

Golden beryl. Photo by Mike Havstad.


2002 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

SheetSilicatesMicaGroup(Muscovite,Biotite)andClayminerals
Everytetrahedronsharesallofitsbasalcorners.
SharinginONEPLANEONLY.TipsareNOTshared.

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,redrawnafterFigure2.9

Muscovite

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Fig.2.14

Clayminerals:talc,kaolinite,illite,chlorite,montmorillonite
Youknowthembetteras:babypowder,kaopectate/nondairycreamer,
facialmask,soapstone,andkittylitter.
Maindifferenceionsthatmakeupthemiddleofthesandwich

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Fig.2.19b

Catlitterinaction

Plummeretal.,PhysicalGeology9thedition,McGrawHillInc,Box02.04.f1

Quartz

Alloxygensareshared
Nocleavage.Covalentbonds
areequallystronginalldirections
Hardnessof7onMohsscale,
alsoduetocrystalstructure.
veryroomystructure.
Canaccommodatelargecations.
Gold,silveralwaysfoundwithquartz

ImagebySteveDutch,UniversityWisconsinGreenBay

Whatmakesamineralagem?
Gemstonesbeautiful,rare,durable
Fluoritegemornotagem?
www.mineralgalleries.com/fluorite

BirthstonesGemnames
Garnet
Amethyst
Turquoise
Topaz

Aquamarine
Diamond

Opal
Sapphire

Emerald

Peridot

Pearl
Ruby

Birthstones,2000GemologicalInstituteofAmerica,(GIA)

BirthstonesTherealnames!
Garnet
Quartz
Hydrous
copperphosphate
AlFsilicate

Beryl

Amorphous
quartz

Diamond

Corrundum

Beryl

Olivine
Pearl

Corrundum

Birthstones,2000GemologicalInstituteofAmerica,(GIA)

RubyandSapphireformsofCorundumAl2O3

RubyfromBurma,4.49ct.
CourtesyofPreciousGemResources,Inc.
PhotobyRobertWeldon.2002Gemological
InstituteofAmerica(GIA).

The 0.27 ct faceted sapphire stone was cut from a piece of rough from
deposit in the Ural Mountains of Russia. Photo by Maha Tannous.
1998 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

Rubycorundumwithchromium
Sapphirecorundumwithironandtitanium

Aquickguidetobuyingdiamonds

Color
Cut
Clarity
Carat
Roughdiamonds.PhotobyRobertKane.GemologicalInstituteof
America(GIA).

One diamond solitaire ring in platinum, 1.68 ct, J, I1.


Courtesy of Rogel & Co., Inc. Photo by Robert Weldon.
2002 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

Gemrare,beautiful,durable

Diamond mine. Open pit of International Pipe in Yakutia, Siberia.


Both photos by Jim Shigley. 1995 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

Atypicaldiamonddeposityields~5gramsofdiamond
per1000kgofrockmined.

1.ColorWhichoneisthemostvaluable?

One round brilliant cut diamond, 2.78 ct, D, IF. Courtesy


of Rogel & Co., Inc. Photo by Robert Weldon.
2002 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

Near
colorless
Faint
yellow

VeryLight
yellow
Light
yellow
Fancy
yellow

creas
in

Colorless

Cost
in

Colored diamonds, rough to cut. Top row (L-R): 1.19 ct,


1.73 ct, 2.57 ct, 3.41 ct. Bottom row (L-R): 0.62 ct, 0.89 ct,
0.72 ct, 0.54 ct. 2002 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

TheHopeDiamond
45carats

Possiblytherecut(4times)TavernierBlueDiamond,
whichwasreportedat112caratsintheyear1668.

2.Cut
Uppergirdlefacet
Bezelfacet

Table

Starfacet

One round brilliant cut diamond, 2.78 ct, D, IF. Courtesy


of Rogel & Co., Inc. Photo by Robert Weldon.
2002 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

Girdle
Lower
girdlefacet

Crown

Mainpavillion
CourtesyofJillianBanfield,UCBerkely,
Socrates.berkley.edu.eps2.wisc

CuttingDiamonds

Marshak,S.Earth,PortraitofaPlanet,W.W.Norton,Fig.5.26

Whyarediamondscutthisway?
Facetscontrolthepatoflighttravelingthroughthediamond.
Themorelightthatexitsthetop(crown),themoreitsparkles.

Patoflightinaroundbrilliantdiamond

ShallowCut
IdealCut

DeepCut

Imperfectionsinthecut

Othercommoncuts

GemologicalInstituteofAmerica(GIA)

Diamond Five diamond cuts: Round, 2.78 ct, D, IF;


Radiant, 5.20 ct G, VS2; Oval, 4.45 ct, H, VS2;
Emerald, 6.08 ct, H, VS1; Pear, 5.25 ct, G, SI1.
Courtesy of Rogel & Co., Inc. Photo by Robert Weldon.
2002 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

3.Clarity
Arethereblemishesonthesurface,orinclusionsinside
thediamond?

4.Caratweight
1carat(ct.)=200milligrams

Bigdiamondsaremorerarethanlittlediamonds.
A2ctdiamondcostsmorethan2timesa1ct.diamond.
Note:caratweightNOTTHESAMEasgoldkarats.Goldismadeof24parts.
Karatsindicateshowmanyofthose24partsaregold.
14karatgold=14partsgold+10partsalloyingmetal(copper,nickel,silver)
18karatgold=18partsgold+6partsalloyingmetal.

Ismydiamondafake?!
SiliconCarbide(SiC)
Moissanite

Photo by Maha Tannous.


1997 Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

ZirconiumOxide(ZrO2)
CubicZirconia

Extracreditforexam2:
Howcanyoutellthedifferencebetween
arealdiamondandoneofthesesubstitutes
Usingphysicalproperties?
Noteyouwillnotbeallowedtoleavethe
roomduringexam2toconsultanappraiser.