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Photosynthesis

LIGHT AND
DARK
REACTION
By:

Khairunisa
Khairunnisa Nasution

THE LIGHT-DEPENDENT
REACTIONS
In the light-dependent reactions, the radiant
energy from sunlight phosphorylates ADP,
producing ATP, and reduces NADP+,
forming NADPH. The light energy that
chlorophyll captures is temporarily stored in
these two compounds. The light-dependent
reactions are summarized as follows:
12 H2O + NADP+ + 18 ADP + 18 PI 6 O2 + 12
NADPH + 18 ATP

THE LIGHT-DEPENDENT
REACTIONS
The light-dependent reactions of
photosynthesis begin when chlorophyll a
and/or accessory pigments absorb light.
Chlorophylls a and b and accessory pigment
molecules are organized in the thylakoid
membrane into units called antenna
complexes.
Each antenna complex absorbs light energy
and transfers it to the reaction center that
participate directly in photosynthesis.

Photosystem

Two types of photosynthetic units, designated


photosystem I and photosystem II, are involved
in photosynthesis. he reaction center of
photosystem I consists of a pair of chlorophyll a
molecules with an absorption peak at 700 nm
and is referred to as P700. h e reaction center
of photosystem II is made up of a pair of
chlorophyll a molecules with an absorption peak

The Noncyclic Pathway


Thylakoid membranes contain two
kinds of photosystems, type I and type
II, which were named in the order of
their discovery. They work together in
a set of reactions called the noncyclic
pathway of photosynthesis.

1. Light energy ejects electrons from a photosystem II.


2. The photosystem pulls replacement electrons from water molecules, which break apart into
oxygen and hydrogen ions. The oxygen leaves the cell as O2.
3. The electrons enter an electron transfer chain in the thylakoid membrane.
4. Energy lost by the electrons as they move through the transfer chain causes hydrogen ions to
be pumped from the stroma into the thylakoid compartment. A hydrogen ion gradient forms
across the thylakoid membrane.
5. Light energy ejects electrons from a photosystem I. Replacement electrons come from an
electron transfer chain.
6. The electrons move through a second electron transfer chain, then combine with NADP+ and
H+, so NADPH forms.
7. Hydrogen ions in the thylakoid compartment are propelled through the interior of ATP

The Cyclic Pathway


Only photosystem I is involved in cyclic
electron transport, the simplest lightdependent reaction. The pathway is
cyclic because energized electrons
that originate from P700 at the
reaction center eventually return to
P700. In the presence of light,
electrons flow continuously through an
electron transport chain within the

Photoexcited electrons from PS I are


occasionally shunted back from
ferredoxin
(Fd) to chlorophyll via the cytochrome
complex and plastocyanin (Pc). This
electron
shunt supplements the supply of ATP
(via
chemiosmosis) but produces no
NADPH.

LIGHT-INDEPENDENT
REACTION
The light-independent reactions of
photosynthesis run on the bond
energy of
ATP and the energy of electrons
donated by NADPH. Both
molecules formed

The steps shown are


a summary of six
cycles of the Calvin
Benson reactions.
Black balls signify
carbon atoms.
1 Six CO2 diffuse
into a photosynthetic
cell, and then into a
chloroplast. Rubisco
attaches each to a
RuBP molecule. The
resulting
intermediates split,
so twelve molecules
of PGA form.
2 Each PGA
molecule gets a
phosphate group
from ATP, plus
hydrogen and
electrons from
NADPH. Twelve PGAL
form.
3 Two PGAL combine
to form one glucose
molecule.
4 The remaining ten
PGAL receive
phosphate groups

C3 plant Type of plant that uses only


the CalvinBenson cycle to fix
carbon.
C4 plant Type of plant that minimizes
photorespiration by fixing carbon
twice, in two cell types.
CAM plant Type of C4 plant that
conserves water by fixing carbon
twice, at different times of day.

C4 Plants

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