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Political System

GPWES

Political Parties
Single Party System: China,
Cuba, North Korea,
Dual Party System: USA, UK,
Zimbabwe, Ghana,
Multi-Party System: France,
Germany,
India,
Canada,
Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Poland,
Portugal, Brazil, Russia, Mexico

Political Ideology
Political ideologies have two
dimensions:
Goals: How society should be
organized.
Methods: The most
appropriate way to achieve
this goal.

Types of Political
Ideologies
Ideologies are the sets of basic beliefs about the political, economic,
social and cultural affairs held by the majority of people within as
society.
Absolutism.System where the rulers have unlimited control.
Anarchism.Society without government, laws, police or other
authority. System of self-control.
Aristocracy.The privilege of social class whose members possess
disproportionately large percentage of society's wealth, prestige
and political influence.
Autocracy.Supreme political power is in the hands of one person
whose decision are unregulated..
Capitalism. Right-wing political system where the principle means
of production and distribution are in private hands.
Communism. Extreme left-wing ideology based on the
revolutionary socialist teachings of Marx. Collective ownership and
a planned economy. Each should work to their capability and
receive according to their needs.

Types of Political
Ideologies
Conservatism.Governmental system where the existing
Conti..

institution are maintained, emphasizing free-enterprise and


minimal governmental intervention.
Democracy.Government by the people usually through elected
representatives.
Dictatorship.Government by a single person with absolute
control over the resources of the state.
Egalitaranism.Belief where all citizens have equal rights and
privileges.
fascism. Extreme right-wing ideology where the existing social
order is protected by the forcible suppression of the working class.
Imperialism.The extension of power and rule beyond established
geographical boundaries.
Liberalism.Representative government, free-speech, abolition of
class privilege and state protection of the individual.
Marxism.Developed by Marx and Engles, it proposes that all is
subject to change and resistance to change necessitates the
overthrow of the system through class struggle.

Conti..

Types of Political
Ideologies

Monarchy.A form of rule in which the head of state is a King or Queen.


Nationalism.The unification of the state and release from foreign rule.
Oligarchy.A system of government in which virtually all power is held a
small number of wealthy people who shape policy to benefit themselves.
Populism.Collective noun for the ideologies which demand the
redistribution of political power and economic leadership to the 'common
people'.
Socialism. Left-wing political system where the principle means of
production, distribution and exchange are in common ownership.
Theocracy.Rule by the church.
Totalitarianism.Government control of all activities.
Trotskyism.Form of Marxism incorporating the concept of permanent
revolution.
THE LEFT
Liberty. The freedom of speech and the right to dissent.
Equality. A classless society with the redistribution of wealth through a
welfare state.
Fraternity. The communal brotherhood, working and living as one.
THE RIGHT
Authority. The preservation of order through an evolved authority.

Ideologies of Political
Parties
Ideologies and specific worldviews
are of particular relevance for
political
parties.
Ideologies
are
comprehensive visions of societies
and social developments, which
contain explanations, values, and
goals for past, present and future
developments.
Ideologies
inspire
and justify political and social
action.

Ideologies of Political
Parties

Ideologies focused on the individual person:


Liberalism, Neo-liberalism, Conservatism, Christian Democracy
Egalitarian ideologies :
Socialism, Communism, Marxism, Euro-communism, Neo-Marxism
Ideologies focused on the collective :
Socialism, Democratic Socialism, Social Democracy, Communism, Marxism,
National Socialism
Ideologies focused on ethnicity or nationality:
Nationalism, Zionism, Regionalism, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Slavism, Fascism, NeoFascism, Clerical-Fascism, National-Socialism, Racism, Imperialism, Colonialism,
Social-Darwinism
Ideologies focused on tradition :
Conservatism, Christian Democracy, Neo-Conservatism
Ideologies based on religions :
Christian Socialism, Christian Democracy, Clerical-Fascism, Islamism, Neo-Hinduism
Totalitarian ideologies :
National Socialism, Communism, Islamism, Marxism-Leninism, Stalinism, Maoism,
Other ideologies :
Green Politics, Ecologism, Internationalism, Cosmopolites, Pacifism, Republicanism,
Humanism, Feminism

Political System
Some of the five more common
political systems around the
world include:

Democracy
Republic
Monarchy
Communism
Dictatorship

Democracy
In a democracy, every citizen can participate in
this process by freely acceding information
about political issues, by openly expressing the
own opinion on public affairs, by formulating
expectations, proposals or requirements without
fear of repression, by voting in elections, by
engaging in civil society organisations or political
parties, or by standing up as a candidate in
democratic elections. In this way, democracy is
the government of the people, by the
people, for the people, in the a famous
words of Abraham Lincoln, President of the
United States of America from 1861-65

Democracy
There are two rather popular types of democracy:
Direct Democracy: Many scholars point to Athens as an example
of direct democrary. Technically, every citizen has an equal say in
the workings of government. (The qualifications for being
considered a citizen are completely different.) Citizens could show
up at a meeting, and then directly participate in the governing
process, and the process of making laws.
Representative Democracy: citizens elect representatives who
actually make the law. The United States operates similarly to this
principle. Citizens elect legislators who, in turn, make laws. In the
U.S., even the president isnt elected directly; representatives
called electors make the decision (although designated electors
usually vote according to the wishes of the citizens in their states).
Other types of democracy include versions known as deliberative
democracy, in which citizens approach decision making by
considering
different
viewpoints
and
options,
as
well
asdemocratic socialism, in which citizens help make decisions
or vote for policies that are socialistic in nature. There are other
types of democracy as well. The defining characteristic is some

Republic
In theory, a republic is a political system in
which the government remains mostly
subject to those governed. Some of the types
of republics that you might see include:
Crowned (a constitutional monarchy might
be considered a Crowned republic)
Single Party
Capitalist
Federal (the United States is often referred
to as a federal republic)
Parliamentary

Monarchy
When most of us think of a monarchy, we think of the
political systems of medieval European countries. In a
monarchy, a ruler is not usually chosen by the voice of the
people or their representatives. Often a monarch is the
head of state until he or she abdicates or until death. In
many cases a monarch is the final word in government.
There may be functionaries to make decisions and run the
political system, but the monarch has discretion with the
laws,
and
how
they
are
enforced.
Constitutional monarchies fall into this category (and are
sometimes considered republics as well). In this type of
monarchy, the ruler is the head of state, but a constitution
limits the power, and others make laws. The U.K., Denmark,
Kuwait, Spain, Sweden, and many more are examples of
constitutional
monarchies.

Communism
In most cases, a communist state is based on the
ideology of communism as taught byMarx . Communist
states are often dominated by a single party, or a group
of people. A planned economy is often part of the
governing class, and in many cases resources are taken
and then redistributed to others, at the top of the
system. Sometimes communists call themselves
workers states or socialist, but there are very real
differences in their operation. In a lot of cases, citizens
are required to do certain jobs, or have some of their
life decisions especially concerning where they can
live and what jobs they can do. Communism is often
considered an authoritarian political system.
Socialism is a bi-product of Communism

Dictatorship

Normally, a dictator is the main individual ruling the country.


He or she makes most of the decisions, and usually has
enforcers. In some cases, the political system is run by a small
group of people. Dictators are not restricted by constitutions or
parliaments. The governed are usually not consented in any
way. Elections held are usually affairs in which the dictator is
the
only
candidate.
One of the more common types of dictatorship is the military
dictatorship, in which a military organization governs, running
the political system. Sometimes, the military just exerts a
great deal of pressure on the government, running the country
de facto. In many cases, very few benefit from the decisions
made
in
a
dictatorship.
While authoritarian political systems have the advantage of
quick decisions being made, many citizens prefer other forms
of government those that allow them greater participation
in the political process.