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Training and Development

CHAPTER-6

INTRODUCTION

Training & Development


defined as :Training
------------Current
Jobs
Development ----------Future
Jobs

TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

Training is the value addition activity undertaken by the


organization to enrich the values of the core assets namely its
people.
It plays a vital role in enhancing the efficiency, productivity
& performance of the employees.
It is a learning process that helps employees to acquire new
knowledge & skills required to perform their job efficiently.
To know a difference between where the workers stands at
the present & where he will be after some point of time.
It is short term exercise for the employees either to learn a
job or to overcome their deficiency in the performance of
their present job.

TRAINING DEFINED
Training is about knowing where you
stand (no matter how good or bad the
current situation looks) at present, and
where you will be after some point of time.
Training is about the acquisition of
knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA)
through professional development.

Definition: Training
According to Edwin Flippo, Training is
the act of increasing the knowledge &
skills of the employees for doing a
particular job.
According to Michael Jucius, Training
is the process by which the attitudes,
skills & abilities of the employees to
perform the specific jobs are improved.

Definition: Development

Development is training people to acquire new horizons,


technologies, or viewpoints. It enables leaders to guide
their organizations into new expectations by being
proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create
better products, faster services, and more competitive
organizations.

Development is any learning activity, which is directed


towards future, needs rather than present needs, and
which is concerned more with career growth than
immediate performance.

Distinction between Training and


Development
Training
-Learning new things and
refreshing old one.
-Short time period &
concerned with specific field.
-TRAINING may be seen as
changed PERFORMANCE.
-Training is expected to
reward the company
immediately in terms of better
productivity of employee

Development
-Implementing the learned
session and Finding new ones.
-Long time period & concerned
all fields.
-DEVELOPMENT is definitely
changed LIVES.
-Development does not lead to
any immediate and tangible
benefits to the company.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


OBJECTIVES

1.

2.
3.
4.

In addition to that, there are four other objectives


Individual Objectives help employees in achieving their
personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual
contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives assist the organization with
its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.
Functional Objectives maintain the departments
contribution at a level suitable to the organizations needs.
Societal Objectives ensure that an organization is
ethically and socially responsible to the needs and
challenges of the society.

When does the need for training arise?

The installation of new equipment or techniques


A change in working methods or products produced
A realization that performance is inadequate, Labor
shortage, necessitating the upgrading of some
employees
A desire to reduce the amount of scrap and to improve
quality
An increase in the number of Promotion or transfer of
individual employees.
Ensures availability of necessary skills and there could
be a pool of talent .

TRAINING METHODS
TWO TYPES:1.
2.
3.
4.

ON THE JOB TRAINING


APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING
JOB ROTATION
INTERNSHIP & ASSISTANTSHIP
JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

OFF THE JOB TRAINING


PROGRAMMED LEARNING METHOD
SIMULATION METHOD
LABORATORY TRAINING
CASE STUDY METHOD
LECTURE METHOD
ROLE PLAYING METHOD
VIDEO CONFERENCING METHOD

METHODS OF TRAINING:

ON THE JOB TRAINING: - It is the method where


employee learns the job by actually doing it. This
type of training is usually practiced on day-to day
basis or as a part of the job. The basic idea behind the
adoption of this kind of training is to transfer the
skills & knowledge from a highly competent &
experienced person to new one. Almost every new
employee gets on the job training to become skilled at
his job. The various kinds of on the job training have
been explained as follows:-

Cont..
1.

2.

APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING:- Several organizations


practice this method to impart training to the people from
various crafts jobs like those of an electrician, a fitter, a
turner, a plumber, a machinist. In this method the superior
who is highly skilled person becomes the instructor &
imparts knowledge to the trainees (called as apprentice).
The motivating factor for the trainees is the awareness that
they are acquiring the exact knowledge needed to perform
their job.
JOB ROTATION:- The purpose of this method is to rotate
the employees from one job to another just to widen their
skills, knowledge & experience. It is applied to promote
effective teamwork. It helps the employees to acquire

Cont..
multi-skills & helps them to comfortably manage the jobs. It is
done mostly at the entry levels jobs in order to impart skills to
the new employees that will enable them to perform multiple
jobs.
3. INTERNSHIP & ASSISTANTSHIP: - Internship is concerned
with gaining supervised practical experience, essentially by a
medical graduate. It has been now accepted in the
organizations itself. As a training technique it helps the
trainees to combine their theory learned in the classroom with
the business practices. It is unique kind of recruitment cum
training that calls for positioning the students in temporary
jobs without any obligation for the company to hire him
permanently after training.

Cont..
The best part of the internship is that it lets the employers try
out future employees prior to making a job offer.
4. JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING:- Step wise process of
imparting training to the employees is called as Job
instruction training. In fact the execution of any job involves
a step-by-step performance of the various tasks of that job.
Under this method all necessary steps in the job, together
with the brief write ups are complied. Each step will have
note which explains what needs to be done in that step, why
it is to be done & how it is to be done.

OFF THE JOB TRAINING


METHODS

In this method workers are imparted training at


the place away from the actual work place. It
can be classrooms or training center. Main aim
is to minimize the distractions (interruption) of
the trainees. They are ideal for teaching
theoretical aspects of the jobs. The various
kinds of on the job training have been
explained as follows:-

CONT..
1.

2.

PROGRAMMED LEARNING METHOD:- This method is


called as Scheduled learning or Programmed Learning
Method. Under this method the trainees are made to reply
to the job oriented questions, problems, cases, concepts &
facts as a part of learning. As soon as this process is over the
trainees are provided with the feedback that details the
accuracy of their answers. The learning can be with paper,
pencil or computer based. Basic aim is to give sufficient
information to the learners & then test the trainees authority
over the subject matter.
SIMULATION METHOD:- It is employed when it is not
possible to provide on the job training. It is the technique
that creates the situation which as nearly as replicates the
real one.

CONT..

In this method the trainees actually get trained on the actual


machines that are employed in the firm. The trainers review the
performance, prepare the reports & make them available to the
trainees.
3. LABORATORY TRAINING:- this method is called
Sensitivity Training or T- group Training. It is organized for
the small group of trainees who are normally not familiar with
one another. Sessions are organized to let the trainees meet
personally to share their feelings, opinions, attitude, perceptions
& values.
4. CASE STUDY METHOD:- In this method the trainees are
provided the necessary information in a case study format &
they are expected to come up with decisions based on their
understanding of the cases.

CONT..
It may be related with the organizations or specific problems
faced during the course of the operations. Trainees should
evaluate the case carefully, understand the problem areas,
identify the causes & develop possible solutions & finally
choose the best ones.
5. LECTURE METHOD:- It is called as Chalk & Talk
method. It is traditional method of imparting training to large
number trainees at the same time. It is verbal form of
delivering information in the classrooms. A knowledgeable
trainer can make the whole process effective by planning &
preparing & delivering the lectures in systematic manner.
6. ROLE PLAYING METHOD:- Refers to acting out the
particular role. It is learning-by- doing technique.

CONT..
Under this method the trainees play the assigned roles of
supervisor, instructor etc under the presence of the trainer.
Typically the trainee assumes the role of the specific
personality relevant to the given situation & responds to the
problem of that situation.
7. VIDEO CONFERENCING METHOD:- This is one of the
distance learning method of training. It is best suited when
trainer & trainees are separated geographically. It allows
people to communicate live via audio- visual aids with the
people in the other city, country or groups in several cities.
It is an interactive in nature & quite flexible.

IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS.

Identifying a training needs analysis is the first step in the training


process and is critical for a successful program. The purpose of a needs
analysis is to determine that training is the best solution and identify
what training is needed to fill the skill gap.
A Training Needs Analysis is an analysis of the training, learning and
development needs of the staff, volunteers and trustees in an
organization.
It considers the skills, knowledge and behaviors of the people in the
organization and how to develop them, both to deliver the
organization's strategic objectives and support the individuals career
progression.
A training need exists when there is a gap between what is required of
a person to perform their job proficiently and what they actually know.

Cont..

The reasons for conducting a training needs analysis are:


To determine whether training is needed
To determine causes of poor performance
To determine content and scope of training
To determine desired training outcomes
To provide a basis of measurement
To gain management support
Regardless of the complexity of your analysis, there are six steps
fundamental to all effective training needs analysis.
Step One Identify Problem Needs
Determine circumstance for training request
Identify potential skill gap
Set objectives

Cont..

Step Two Determine Design of Needs Analysis


Establish method selection criteria
Assess advantages and disadvantages for methods
Step Three Collect Data
Conduct interviews
Administer surveys and questionnaires
Conduct focus groups
Observe people at work
Review documents
Step Four Analyze Data
Conduct qualitative or quantitative analysis
Determine solutions and recommendations
Step Five Provide Feedback
Write report and make oral presentation
Determine next step training needed?
Step Six Develop Action Plan
Use results as the basis for training design, development and evaluation.

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAMME

The future of an organization rests firmly on the competencies &


dynamism of its managerial people. It involves decision making that calls
for knowledge of the latest developments in the related field & excellent
analytical skills.
Management Development Programme is future oriented & more
concerned with the education than employee training or assisting a person
to become a better performer.
By education we mean, that management development activities attempt
to enhance ones ability to understand knowledge, while development
focuses more on employee personal growth.
In this regard, MDP can help firms to develop the KSA of their managers
so that they become better equipped for the existing & future positions.
Thus, it is a process of upgrading the competencies of the managers
through learning experiences.

STEPS IN MDP

Assessing the companys strategic needs :- The first step in MDP is to


evaluate the future managerial requirements of an organization on the basis of
its business strategies. i.e like new product development, market expansion,
introduction of new technology etc. However it is difficult for the firm to
determine precisely the quantity & quality of the skills needed by the
managers for the future. This is because of continuously changing external
environment.
Evaluating the skills & competencies of the managers:- In this phase the
existing skills & abilities of the managers are assessed in line with the future
strategies of the organization. At this stage key competencies like what the
managers can do at present & the behavior & competency necessary to
complete the job effectively are assessed with the help of performance
evaluation tools. The overall process tells us the need for their further growth.
Evolving Strategies for the development of the managers:- In this phase the
organization decides about how it should be proceed with the process of
developing the managers to meet its future management requirement. It
decides about the key aspects of the development

Cont..
Programmes like their objectives, mode of delivery, place & duration,
cost & benefits & assessment techniques.

Often the management development activities are influenced by the


size & nature of the organization, the prevailing environment, the
level of technology & the management philosophy. The whole
process is employee centered. They may also be unique & different
for each organization.
Thus it become imperative for the organization to access the
development requirements of the managers from the individual &
situational perspectives.

METHODS OF MDP

ON THE JOB DEVELOPMENT


Coaching- Where manager take active role in guiding another
manager.
Understudy assignments:- Potential managers are given
opportunity to relieve an experienced manager of his/her job & act
his/her substitute during this period.
Job Rotation- Job rotation refers to assigning employees to various
tasks so that they gain a wider experience. It can be either horizontal
or vertical. Horizontal job rotation would be when an employee
move to jobs of a similar status. Vertical job rotation occurs when
the new job is seen as a promotion (or demotion).
Committee assignments:- Assignment to a committee can provide
wide opportunity for the employee to share in managerial decision
making, to learn by watching others & to investigate specific or
organizational problems.

Cont..

OFF THE JOB DEVELOPMENT


Sensitivity training:- it is a training where members are brought
together in a free & open environment in which they can discuss
themselves & their interactive process loosely facilitated by
professional person.
Transactional Analysis:- it is both an approach for defining &
analyzing communication interaction between two people & a theory
of personality.
Lecture courses:- it offers an opportunity to managers to acquire
knowledge & develop their conceptual & analytical abilities.
Simulation exercises:- it was another training technique which
include case study, decision games & role plays.

Define the method of training?