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Past and present in
English literature

The novel

(50% of men are literate)
 ROMANTICISM –1798 – 1832
 MODERN- 1900-1930
 POSTMODERN- 1930-1980

Structure in the NOVEL  1. THE BODY . THE TITLE  2. THE PREFACE  3.

THE TITLE  FUNCTIONS: to inform the reader .1.to summarize the story’s main topic -  FORM - Short Catchy Coherent - .

Pamela. The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. 1769 Samuel Richardson. Gentleman. First a Surgeon. Shamela. Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. of York.18th centuryENLIGHTENMENT       Daniel Defoe. By Lemuel Gulliver. Mariner 1719 Jonathan Swift. 1740 Henry Fielding. The Castle of Otranto. and then a Captain of Several Ships. 1735 Lawrence Sterne. 1741 Horace Walpole. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. 1764 . in Four Parts.

David Copperfield. 1849  Charles Dickens. 1847  Charles Dickens. Jane Eyre. 1865  . VICTORIAN PERIOD Charlotte Bronte. A Tale of Two Cities. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.19th century. 1847  Emily Bronte. 1891  Lewis Carroll. Wuthering Heights. 1859  Thomas Hardy. Tess of the d’Urbervilles.ROMANTICISM.

POSTMODERN        A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.MODERN. James Joyce (1916) Ulysses. Joseph Heller (1961) . William Faulkner (1929) Lolita. James Joyce (1922) The Great Gatsby. F. Vladimir Nabokov (1958) Catch-22. Aldous Huxley (1932) The Sound and the Fury. Scott Fitzgerald (1925) Brave New World.

John Steinbeck (1939) Under the Volcano. POSTMODERN         Darkness at Noon. Lawrence (1913) The Grapes of Wrath. George Orwell (1949) The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor Hoffman. D. Theodore Dreiser (1925) . Arthur Koestler (1941) Sons and Lovers. Malcolm Lowry (1947) 1984.MODERN. Virginia Woolf (1927) An American Tragedy. published in the United States as The War of Dreams (1972) Angela Carter To the Lighthouse. H.

THE PREFACE  FORM & FUNCTIONS:  It appears BEFORE the story begins  The writer addresses the readers  to give information on the writer and the circumstances of writing  to give indications of the genre  to offer additional details on characters .2.

neither is there any appearance of fiction in it. Defoe If ever the story of any private man's adventures in the world were worth making public. D.NOVEL OF TRAVELS AND ADVENTURES 18TH CENTURY-   ROBINSON CRUSOE. . The story is told with modesty. with seriousness. and with a religious application of events to the uses to which wise men always apply them…The editor believes the thing to be a just history of fact. the editor of this account thinks this will be so. and were acceptable when published.

that you may have. and give me at least leave. Your most obliged.Obedient. Fielding. with the highest respect and gratitude. it is owing that this history was ever begun. 1749 To you.18TH CENTURY. to declare that I am. HENRY FIELDING. It was by your desire that I first thought of such a composition. humble servant. Sir. H.-Sir. So many years have since past.BILDUNGSROMAN  TOM JONES. in this public manner. .

L. I'll not say a word about it. ---.and to the world I leave it .in publishing it. .18TH CENTURY ANTINOVEL TRISTRAM SHANDY. ---I have appealed to the world.it must speak for itself. -here it is . Sterne Volume 3 ch 21 THE A U T H O R ' S  P R E F A C E. N O. ---. ---.

THE BODY Exposition Introduces protagonists and their main traits Introduces general setting It hooks the reader Main plot has not started. The conflict begins with an event known as the ‘inciting” incident .3.

and suspense over time . excitement.3. THE BODY Rising action Establishes the conflict and characters’ motivations The conflict .internal & external Several mini-adventures within the main plot Longest act of the story Builds tension.

3. Storylines come together . THE BODY Climax Most intense. exciting moment of the story.

THE BODY Falling action or resolution a short but vital part of the story that resolves the climax.3. Shows the outcome of the climax Tells the reader the status of the main characters .

.3. showing effect of the story’s conflict A great dénouement shows how the characters have changed. THE BODY Dénouemont The characters are back in a similar setting as in the exposition The protagonist behaves differently.


18 TH CENTURY  TOM JONES. Fielding  Introduction to the Work. H. and Some Examples. Deborah is Introduced Into the Parish Containing Matters Which Will Surprize the Reader The Hospitality of Allworthy Containing Many Rules. Concerning Falling in Love       . or Bill of Fare to t he Feast A Short Description of Squire Allworthy The Reader’s Neck Brought Into Danger by a Description Mrs.

And low stole o'er the stillness the heartbeats of sleep. White fogbow spans. Hark! Tolv two elf kater ten (it can't be) sax. The nose of the man who was nought like the nasoes. James Joyce. It is self tinted. Hork! Pedwar pemp foify tray (it must be) twelve. Mark as capsules. His kep is a gorsecone . ruddled . The arch embattled.20 TH  FINNEGAN’S 1939 CENTURY WAKE. He am Gascon . wrinkling .

sir. Jones.20 TH  CENTURY A MAGGOT. Q. I know it. and bound in honour to protect him if I could. Q. A. sir. sir. I have been at great cost to find you. sir. But you denied it to him I sent to fetch you hither? A. I cannot. John Fowles. No. 1985 Q. I have. I knew him not. in what passed last April. You have read this summary of Mr Francis Lacy's deposition? A. He said at first nothing of Mr Lacy. . Q. For I knew him as innocent as Jones. and I consider myself with respect that worthy gentleman's friend. You do not deny you are he Mr Lacy speaks of? A. sir. and am most sorry.


D. . with some very surprising incidents in some new adventures of my own. for ten years more. Defoe All these things.ENDING 18TH CENTURY  ROBINSON CRUSOE. I shall give a farther account of in the Second Part of my Story.

 CENTURY James Joyce. .20 TH  ULYSSES. 1922 O that awful deep down torrent O and the sea the sea crimson sometimes like fire and the glorious sunsets and the figtrees in the Alameda gardens yes and all the queer little streets and pink and blue and yellow houses and the rose gardens and the jessamine and geraniums and cactuses and Gibraltar as a girl where I was a Flower of the mountain yes when I put the rose in my hair like the Andalusian girls used or shall I wear a red yes and how he kissed me under the Moorish wall and I thought well as well him as another and then I asked him with my eyes to ask again yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down Jo me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.

from swerve of shore to bend of bay. James Joyce riverrun. past Eve and Adam's.20 century th  FINNEGAN’S WAKE. brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth Castle and Environs (A way a lone a last a loved along the) beginning of the novel .

20 century th  THE COMPANY OF WOLVES. 1979 See! sweet and sound she sleeps in granny's bed. . between the paws of the tender wolf. Angela Carter.