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All about genetics .

:D

BLAME YOUR PARENTS


Genetics are what makes up look different from other people
The Male determining gene is in the y chromosome and the female determining gene is in the x
chromosome.
Blue eyed people carry the same mutation in their OCA2 gene. The first blue eyed person
originated from the Black Sea around 600 000 10 000 years ago.
EYCL1 determines blue vs. green eye colour and EYCL2 determines blue vs brown eye colour.
This is why blue eyed couples rarely have brown eyed children. There are over 50 genes that
contribute to the variation in eye colour and pattern.
There is less genetic variation in 7 billion humans than there are in 300,000 chimps. To explain
this, we need to look at the recent evolutionary history and migration patterns. Genetic
evidence suggests that some of the brown eyed ancestors left Africa) around 100,000 years ago
and began to travel in 2 main directions, Asia and Europe. Human migration started around
74,000 years ago with the eruption of the Toba super-volcano. Scientists believe that this
catastrophic effect reduced the human population into 10,000 breeding individuals.
The genetic bottleneck may explain why humans have similar genetics today and could also
explain why 90% of living human variations are the same in each population and must have
originated from Africa. Only 10% of variation in human DNA is population specific, i.e. Africanonly, Asian-only or European-only, if to do with eye colour.
You might wonder why chimpanzees were less affected than the humans , it is because chimps
were exclusively in Africa whilst human were in Asia as well and therefor more affected.

Genetics and their functions


Genetics are what makes up look different from other people
The male determining gene is in the y chromosome and the
female determining gene is in the x chromosome.
So for females, there would be XX chromosomes and for males,
there would be XY chromosomes.
Blue eyed people carry the same mutation in their OCA2 gene.
The first blue eyed person originated from the Black Sea around
600 000 10 000 years ago.
EYCL1 determines blue vs. green eye colour and EYCL2
determines blue vs brown eye colour; this is why blue eyed
couples rarely have brown eyed children. There are over 50 genes
that contribute to the variation in eye colour and pattern.

Nature vs. nurture


Variation in genes will affect how muscles and
nerves are built and function. Sprinting is a good
example of this; researchers have found that small
genetic differences in several genes have
contributed to our sprinting ability. But each of these
variation genes contributes less than 1% to our
speed. Clearly diet and training are critical;
environment contributes to our sprinting ability.
(Show video). Today 74 men have run 100m in under
10 seconds. Those nine are from Jamaica. 12.2% of
the fastest men on Earth are from a country that
comprises 0.04% of the worlds population.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jm
vtwjqYZcY

Genetics in twins
Twins usually share the same genes, but there are
two types of twins
Monozygotic twins who share their entire DNA would
be expected to look very similar
Dizygotic twins who share 50% of their DNA will be
less similar in appearance.
Alternatively, if characteristics were primarily
environmental; the differences between twins will
be the same for both sets of twins. Rare instances of
twins in the adoption system, who grew up with
difference families in different environments are
even more informative