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Vibration

Any motion which repeats itself


after an interval of time is called
vibration.
Vibration is simply the motion of a
machine part back and forth from
its position of rest.

Balancing By Three Point Method

Method of Balancing by Three Point


Method
1. Fix the

Thumb Rule for Trial Wt

Why Importance of Vibration ?


All Rotating parts , machines vibrate.
Machines Vibrate because of imperfections
when imperfection is more, it becomes a
defect.
Different defects produce vibrations of
different characteristics
Vibration Parameters to measured .
1. Displacement
2. Velocity
3. Acceleration
4. Frequency
5. Phase

Parameter

Description

Unit of
measurement

Displacement

Total distance of
movement of the
part

Microns

Velocity

The velocity with


which part is
moving changes
continuously

mm/sec

Acceleration

Rate of change of
velocity withg
respect to time

Mm/sec2

Frequency

No of cycles of the
movement for
given period

Hz

Phase

Phas anglle is the


Angle deg.
position of vibrating
part at a given
instant.

Vibration Measurement locations on


Overhang Rotor.

BALANCING OF ROTOR AT WORKS

Balancing of Shaft at works

Alignment

Parallel Misalignment

Angular Misalignment

Combination of both Parallel and angular


Misalignment.

Good Alignment

Dynamic Unbalance

Sources of Vibration contd.

Aerodynamic Vibration
Aerodynamic vibration, also referred to as
aerodynamic
pulsation, is one cause of fan-system vibration.
It occurs when a fan operates to the left of its
peak static pressure point. The vibration
frequency, when checked with instruments, is at
a frequency other than the wheel rotation
speed.
Mechanical Vibration
Mechanical vibration is the most common type
of fan Vibration.It is caused by unbalanced
wheels or other rotating fan components. Its
negative impact is increased
with loose
fasteners and poor structural support.
Electrical Vibration

Aerodynamic Vibration

Three Axis of Measurement

Balance Quality Grade G 6.3 or G 2.5


of ANSI S2.19-1975.

CHECK LIST FOR EXCESSIVE VIBRATION


_____Fan unit dropped during shipment bent shaft or bearing damage
_____Loose anchor bolts, bearing bolts, or motor bolts
_____Foundation structure is not adequate
_____Fan is not shimmed and grouted properly
_____Material build-up on impeller
_____Fan wheel set-screws are loose
_____Inlet orifice rubbing fan wheel
_____Wear on wheel or bearings
_____Duct work binding fan housing, or duct work not properly separated from fan housing
with flexible
inlet or discharge connections.
_____Aerodynamic pulsation caused by system design.
_____Fan out of balance It is common for assembled units to require trim balancing to
reduce vibration
levels after installation. Qualified balance personnel should be made available at start-up
for
possible trim balancing of equipment.
_____Improper alignment of coupling couplings have been aligned at the factory, however
provisions
should be made at start-up to check coupling alignment after shipment and installation.
_____Improper alignment of V-belt drive Sheaves have been aligned at the factory,
however provisions
should be made at start-up to check alignment after shipment and installation.
_____Improper V-belt tension V-belt tension should be checked at start-up, and after the
first few hours
of rotation.
_____Improper wheel rotation insure that motor is wired for correct wheel rotation as
indicated by

Balancing as a Correction Tool


Benefits of Balancing
Minimize noise
Increase bearing life
Decrease operating stresses
Consume less energy
Improve product quality
Decrease operator fatigue
Eliminate fatigue of support
structures
Satisfy customers.

Processes of Balancing
1. Detection
2. Analysis
3. Correction

Instruments used for Vibration


Analysis
1.IRD 308
2.IRD 350
3.IRD 880
4.FFT analyser

Vibration Standards Salient Features


VDI 2056/1964 [5,6]
It is a German standard developed on the basis of Rathboness [3]
work. It is intended for use with overall level measuring equipment,
which allows only these components of the signal within the
frequency range 10 Hz to 1000 Hz to pass.
BS 4675[7],
ISO 2372 [8,9],
ISO/IS3945 [6]
These standards are identical to VDI 2056.
Indian Standard 4729
[5]
These are applicable to rotating electrical machines with power
ranging from 0.15 kW to over 1000 kW.
In all the above standards measurements are expected to have been carried out by
seismic
transducers [5] on the bearing caps or structures of the rotating machines
IRD Mechanalysis
[4,6]
The standard is laid on the peak to peak velocity in mm/sec for all
categories of machines and does not give standards that can
encompass the entire range of speeds and loads.
ISO 3945 [5]
It is based on ISO 2372 and defines the rules for evaluating the
vibration performance of large prime movers and other large
machines.
CANADIAN
Government
Specification. [8,10]
Canadian government specification [5,7] covers frequency range of
10 Hz to 10kHz but here the standards are defined for gas turbines,
pumps, electric motors and so on.