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R.

KARTHIKEYAN

Objectives:

Primarily preheats the combustion air for rapid


and efficient combustion in the furnace.

Flue gas temp at APH I/L-380c & O/L -130 to


140c (0.5% sulphur).

Every 20c temp drop in flue gas improves boiler


efficiency by 1%.

Primary air is heated and used for drying the


coal .

STATIC RECUPERATIVE APH:


- In the recuperative type the flue gas in on one side
of the surface and the air is on the other side.
- The heat from the flue gas is transferred to the air
through the heat transfer surface normally in forms of tubes/
plates.
There are two types :
a) Plate type APH.
b) Tubular APH.

These comprise of parallel plates which provide


alternate passage for gas and air.
The narrow passes between platescleaning is difficult and the replacement of
plates is a major task.
As such these type of air heater is not much
using in bigger boilers.

TUBULAR AIR HEATER:


Consists large number of steel tubes of 40 to 65mm dia either
welded or expanded into the tube plates both top and bottom and
also placed in an shell.
Baffles are provided to guide air flow across the tubes entire
surface.
Generally flue gas flows through inside the tubes and air flows
over the tube surface picking the heat simultaneously.
2 to 3 stages are provided. Last stage APH is made shorter with
anti corrosion materials (corten) to facilitates easy maintenance
and replacement due to fouling & corrosion.

ADVANTAGES OF RECUPERATIVE APH:

Not having any moving parts.

Maintenance is less and no power consumption.

No possibility of fly ash carry over by the heated air.

DISADVANTAGES OF RECUPERATIVE APH:


Large heat transfer area is required .
More material cost .
Deposit on the tube surfaces reduce the heat transfer.
Pressure drop of flue gas across AH is high.
severely affected due to cold end corrosion.
Replacement of punctured tubes is a major task and requires units
shutdown.

ROTARY REGENERATIVE APH:

In the regenerative type, the flue gas flows through a


closely packed matrix (heat transfer elements) and gives up heat
to the air heater elements to raise the temperature of the matrix.

When the air heater elements passes through air, the heat
is transferred to air and raise the temperature of air.

Either the matrix or the hoods may be rotated to achieve


this heat transfer as a continuous process
There are two types :
a) Rotating Element ( LJUNGSTROM AH)
b) Rotating Hood ( DAVIDSON AH)

ROTARY REGENERATIVE APH:

Rotor assy
Rotor housing assy
Heating elements
Sealing system (Radial, Axial &
Bypass )
Guide bearing assy
Support bearing assy
Lub oil circulation system
Main Drive assy and air line
components
Cleaning device assy
Fire sensing device assy

LJUNGSTROM TYPE
APH:
Matrix of heating elements is rotating at 2 to
3 rpm and alternatively passes through FG and
air passage.

Heating elements pick up heating when they

passes through FG and release the heat to air


when they passes through air passage.

APH can be BI-Sector or Tri-Sector type.


Tri-sector APH facilitates for heating SA & PA

and cold PA system can be used.

Airpreheater Leakage:
In Air heater leakage is inherent to varying degrees.
The driving force that causes leakage is the difference in static pr. levels

between the air & gas streams.


The quantity of leakage is dependent on pressure differential, seal

clearance and the length of the seals separating the two sides.
Thermal gradients that are inherent in any heat exchanger
Structural deformation takes place resulting in clearances or gaps between

seal and sealing surfaces.

The Paragon DuraMax radial seals incorporate unique, selfadjusting bellows that ensure positive contact with the
sealing surfaces.
The Paragon DuraFlex high-performance circumferential
and bypass seals use a patented revolutionary interlocking
design which reduces the air gaps.

15

Air preheater maintenance:


Sl.

FAULT

PROBABLE CAUSES

REMEDY

01

Excessive leak
between gas and air
side

Damaged / worn out


seals.
- Due to high gas
inlet temp. & Less
air flow.

Inspect all seals and


adjust or replace if
necessary.

02.

Excessive
from rotor

Warped rotor due to


excessive expansion.

Reduce boiler load


or admit more cold
air.

noise

Foreign
rotor.

object

in
Stop
rotor
and
visually inspect it

Bad bearings
Replace Bearings.

03.

04

Rotor does not turn

Drive
overheats

unit

Defective drive unit

Ensure power is
available to drive
unit
Check pinion gear
and pin rack.

Foreign object in
rotor

Inspect rotor and


remove any foreign
object.
Lubricate drive unit
components

Inadequate
lubrication in drive
unit.
Pinion gear and pin
rack meshing too
hard due to
expansion
Hard rubbing seals
Bad bearings in gear
reducer.

Adjust drive unit to


proper clearances.
Adjust seals
Change the
bearings.

05

Noisy Bearings

Inadequate
lubrication

Check that oil is


flowing through
Flow indicator and
check oil line, if
necessary

06

Oil temperature too


high

Insufficient cooling

Check that adequate


water flow is going
into oil cooler

Improper oil
viscosity being used.
Absorption of
radiation heat due to
improper insulation.

Replace oil with


proper type of oil.
Insulate properly.

07.

Soot blower
not
functioning

Power failure

Check electrical connection.


Check the speed reducer
moveable parts for binding.

Swivel header travel


incorrect.
Incorrect
pressure
08.

Excessive
pressure
drop through
gas & air
sides

steam

Badly fouled heating


elements.
- due to improper
combustion.
Excessive plugging.

Adjust travel of nozzle pipe.


Ensure adequate steam
supply is available.
Check DA head valve.
Operate soot blower and
check soot blower steam for
proper pr. and temperature.
Investigate & remeditate the
cause.
Rectify and replace the
element baskets.

Air preheater leakage is determined by

% AL

= O2 % Gas out - O2 % Gas in x 100


(21- O2 % Gas out)
AL

= Air heater leakage (%)

O2 % Gas in = percent O2 in gas entering air heater


O2 % Gas out = percent O2 in gas leaving air heater

Advantages of APH:
Increase boiler efficiency.
More stable combustion.
Intensified combustion by using hot air.
Lower grade coals can be burnt efficiently.
Heat transfer rate is improved due to hot air.
Faster load variation is possible.