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M. Syed Amirsha Hakani, B.E.

Precommissioning activities:

Air and gas tight test

Chemical cleaning

Thermal flow test

Steam blowing

Safety valve setting

Clean air flow test of pulverisers

Testing of protection and interlock

Calibration of instruments

AIR & GAS TIGHTNESS TEST


Gas Tightness Test:

To detect the source of leakages in the system, before

applying the insulation.

Before this test ensure access doors, observation

ports and other openings are to be closed securely.

Run F.D fan and open all dampers in air & flue gas

path except I.D fan discharge damper.

Pressurize the flue gas path to 50mm of W.C. The

furnace pr. should be 100mm of W.C.


4

Air Tightness Test:


Run F.D fan keeping all dampers in air path open

except dampers in wind box.


System is pressurized to 100mm of W.C.
Bubble test method (or) candle flame method are

carried out to detect leakages and rectified.

CHEMICAL CLEANING OF THE BOILER


( only for drainable portion)
DM rinse

water washing

alkali boil out


soda ash washing
rinsing (or) water flushing

passivation
preservation
acid washing
DM rinse
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Chemical cleaning
1. Alkali boil out
2. Acid cleaning
1. Alkali boil out
Remove sand loose mill scale during erection

Sodium sulphite added to reduce o2 corrosion ,sodium


nitrate to prevent caustic embrittlement

Boilout process followed by hot and cold water flushing

Boiler filled with water to normal level chemicals added


through man hole door in drum, ensure natural
circulation

Firing rate minimum, check uniform expansion while


raising pressure to 1/5 times operating pressure

Every 2 to 4 hrs drains in ring header blow down for 2


min after putting out fire

Process terminated oil content reduces to 1ppm

Boiler boxed up for slow cooling

2. Acid Cleaning:
For low pressure boilers ( < 60kg/cm2) alkali boil out alone is adequate.
Two methods of acid cleaning are:
i.

Soaking method internal surfaces of the boiler are


soaked in inhibited acid for 4 to 6 hrs
after firing the unit to raise the temp.

ii.

Circulation method inhibited acid is under circulation


for 4 to 5 hrs by acid circulation
pump. Temp. is maintained by
adding steam from external source
in dissolving tank.

Passivation coating:

Coating (protection layer) created after acid cleaning.


This magnetic coating is done to avoid corrosion of
material surface.

Passivation is done at 250C & 40 kg/cm2 with


adequate Hydrazine as prime chemical.

This passivation coating (magnetic coating) is called


Anti corrosive Layer.
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STEAM BLOWING

To remove mill-scales, welding slag, debris or foreign


material left in SH, RH and steam piping.

It is to create momentum equal to (or) preferably greater


than that during normal operation.

1. Continuous Blowing Method constant purge steam rate is


maintained by firing the unit for
few mins.

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2. Puffing method

thermal shock is created to

dislodge scales from internal surfaces. Fire is quenched & pr.


is allowed to decay durig steam blowing.

Boiler is filled upto NWL with D.M water & steam pressure
is raised to 40 atmosphere and firing discontinued.

Valves in steam line are opened, venting out steam to


atmosphere at velocity greater than normal.

When Pr. drops to 25 atmosphere, the valves are closed &


firing restarted to raise pr. again for next blow.

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Thermal flow test:


1.
2.

3.
4.

Thermal flow test is done to detect passage


obstruction in WW,ECO,SH
choked tube is identified with help of thermal
flow meter using principle the rate of cooling of
heated tube depend upon fluid flow inside the
tube
Measure Time taken for heated tube to drop
10 c temp
Flow maintained a minimum velocity of 0.1
m/sec

Safety Valve Floating:


To ensure the availability of safety valves for pressure
release in times of necessity & adequacy of venting system.

Gradually raise the boiler pr. at lower rate (93C/hr).

All safety valves are to be gagged (arrested) except the


testing valve.

Hand pop the valve at lower pr. (i.e.) 10% below the set
pressure.

Raise the pressure to set pressure and put off the fire.

Ensure proper operation of safety valve to release excess pr

BOILER START-UP:
1.
2.
3.

Cold Start-up below 150C


Warm Start-up 150C to 350C
Hot Start-up greater than 350C

03/12/15 09:02 PM

Metal temp. of
H.P turbine
casing in
regular zone

14

BOILER COLD START UP SEQUENCE


1. Boiler filling using BFP
Keep all vents and drains and ECO recirculation
valves in open
ECO, WW,Drum vents and drain valves closed
1.
Fill the dearator with dm water using BFP
2.
Open hydrazine dosing valve in BF suction line
3.
Turn on FW heating system
4.
Run BFP on recirculation
5.
Crack open BFP discharge valve bypass valve and
slowly charge FW line
6.
Open low load feed control valve charge line upto eco
7.
Open BFP discharge valve and close bypass valve
8.
Maintain moderate feeding 40 t/hr add make up water
when level goes down
9.
Drum metal temp rise rate must be less than 110c
10. Ensure BFP recirculation valve opens when flow is
reduced to 100 t/hr
11. Boiler is filled up

Draft system starting:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Line up APH guide and support bearing oil circulating system


Line up flue gas path
Line up secondary air path
Take both APH in service
Start one ID fan
Start one FD fan
Start ignitor air fan
Start scanner air fan
Start second ID fan (equalise load on both)
Start second FD fan (equalise load on both)
Stablise furnace draft
Put furnace draft on auto

APH STARTING

I/L and O/L dampers in the gas path, secondary air path,
primary air path are in full open conditions.
One Electric Motor and one Air Motor have been provided
Sump oil temp of support/guide bearing of AH is < 600C.
Impulse shall be given for closing of the I/L and O/L dampers
of other AH which is OFF

Starting ID Fan:

ID Fan outlet gates closed , inlet regulating damper minimum


Close inlet and outlet gates of second fan
Fan 2 started following the same procedure

Starting FD Fan:

ID Fan A or B is ON
Fan regulating vane in the min position& O/L damper closed

Starting of Warm up OIL(W.O) & Heavy fuel oil(H.O) Guns


Permisive

Igniter trip valve open

No boiler trip command

Air flow b/w 30 to 40 % of full load air flow

Burner tilt in Horizondal position


Igniter start (oil supply pr 13 kg/cm2)
1.
1st Igniter ON , corner 1,3
2.
if flame not proved trip valve closes after 10 sec
3.
25 sec later corner 2,4 started
W.O gun start( oil supply pr 4.5 kg/cm2, oil/air dp 1 to 1.5 kg/cm2)
1.
Light oil gun advances to firing position,
2.
open atomising air trip valve then light oil trip valve
H.O gun start (oil pr 7.5 kg/cm2 , oil/steam dp 1 to 1.5 kg/cm2,
Heavy oil temp above 100 c)
1.
HO is placed in place of LO, atomising steam in place of air
2.
igniters removed -min 2 out of 4 flame scanner proven
3.
igniters removed -3 out of 4 guns open

Pulveriser Start up:


Permisive
1.
Pulveriser discharge valve open
2.
Seal air valve open.cold air shut off gate open
3.
Pulveriser outlet temp less than 90 c
4.
Feed inlet gate open
5.
Primary air adequate
Pulveriser start ( start push button)
1.
Coal flow proven by coal flow detector within 5 sec after
feeder start
2.
15 sec after feeder is started , feeder is put on auto, fuel
air damper is open
3.
When min 2 feeders are I operation for 50 sec ,oil gun of
that elevation can be withdrawn

Start up sequence:
sequence

M.S pr

M.S temp

W.O

5 kg/cm2

195 c

H.O

6 kg/cm2

275 c

Coal 1st mill 65 kg/cm2

Load

430 c

30 MW

2nd mill

105 kg/cm2 500 c

70 MW

3rd mill

120 kg/cm2 530 c

120 MW

4th mill

130 kg/cm2 540 c

Full load

Boiler purging and light up


1.
2.
3.

4.

Furnace purge 30% airflow for 5min


Start ignitor 1,3 then 2,4
Warm up oil firing (L.O)
When boiler starts steaming (40 45 min) throttle S.H vents
and drains ,control FOT 538 c
When drum pr raises 2 kg/cm2 close drum vents ,keep CBD
fully open
Ensure M.S line drain is opened ,close RH vents and drain
before vacuum raising
Heavy oil firing
Check HO recirculation pr heater tracing,
Check atomising steam is charged
Take SCAPH corresponding to running FD fan
Take HP and LP bypass when condenser vacuum is 540 mm
hg ensure BFP and condensate pumps in service
After synchronisation check furnace probe is retracted at
FOT 540 c

4.

a.

b.

Pulveriser operation
Start scraper conveyor and slag crusher,Maintain
cold end temp using SCAP, check CBD open
Start one pa fan
Charge ESP fields
Make SH , RH spray system ready
Close eco recirculation valves ,sh header drains
take main feed control valve in service isolate low
load valve
Start 1st mill preferably lowest ,put mill outlet
65 -75 c and flow on auto ,
Increase load in generator as boiler output
increases
Start 2nd mill when first mill is loaded to 80 %
check mill air temp 75-80 c
Ensure HP heaters in service at MS pr 105 kg/cm2

c.

d.

Start 2nd ID fan


Start 2nd FD fan
Start 2nd PA fan
Start 2nd condensate pump and boiler feed pump
Dearator pr raised to 6 kg /cm2
Start 3rd mill increase load on generator
Put MS and RH steam temp ,BFP, main feed control
valve, both ID, FD fan on auto
Start 4th mill
Flame support HO guns can be removed once
boiler loading is 60%
SCAPH can be cut out or put in auto
Increase load on generator check boiler parameters
Drum pr 145 kg/cm2 , Feed water temp 245 c
MS pr 138 kg/cm2 temp 540 c RH steam pr 24
kg/cm temp 540 c
Check MS temp low trip interlock comes in service
when MS temp 520 c

Boiler Shut Down Procedure


(From Normal Operating to Cooling the Boiler)
1.

Gradually reduce the load by reducing firing rate. Allow boiler


pr & temp drop, acceptable to turbine limitation.

2.

Introduce Supporting fuel when load is reduced Remove mill


one by one from top in stages after emptying feeder and bowl.

3.

Change operation from auto mode to manual control at


appropriate condition.

4.

Operate soot blowers at part load. Operation of APH soot


blowers is very essential.

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5.

Saturation temperature drop rate should not exceed the limit (83 C / hr)

6.

When air flow reaches 30 % of MCR, keep it constant.

7.

Close DESH isolation valves in SH & RH system.

8.

Open start up vent and RH vent before shutting down steam to turbine.
Take out oil burners after scavenging.
Kill the fire & purging for 5 mins with 30% air flow.
Stop PA fan, seal air fan & ignitor fan.

9.

Open other vents and drains of SH outlet & RH outlet


atmosphere.
Pressure reduction rate should not exceed the limit.
HP & LP by pass can be kept in service.
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9.

Stop FD,ID fan, and APH when flue gas temperature is 200C

10.

Still keep scanner fans in service.

11.

Continue feed water so that drum water level is maintained to


NWL.

12.

Open drum vents to allow drum pressure decayed to about


2kg/cm2.

13.

Boiler can be drained if necessary when water temperature


reduced to 85C.

14.

Shut down F.D, I.D & scanner fans.

15.

Boiler pressure parts are to be preserved during long shut down to


avoid corrosion.Boiler preservation method has to be followed.
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Emergency operation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

High/low furnace pr
High/low Drum level
Flame failure at an elevation
One Fan trips
One Feeder trips
One Mill trips
Coal Hang up in mill
Water tube leakage
RH SH Eco tube failure
Master fuel trip
Furnace explosion