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EARTHING PRACTICES &

Basics of HV Protection
Don't be afraid to give your best to what seemingly are
small jobs. Every time you conquer one it makes you that
much stronger. If you do the little jobs well, the big ones
tend to take care of themselves.

M.Arunachalam,M.E.,
Former Chief
Engineer/TNEB

WHAT IS EARTHING?
Earthing means an Electrical connection
to the general mass of earth to provide safe
passage to fault current to enable to operate
protective devices and provide safety to personnel.

Objectives of Earthing
To ensure that no part of equipments, other
than live parts, assume dangerous potential.
To allow sufficient current to flow safely for
proper operation of protective devices.
To suppress dangerous potential gradients on
the earth surface which may cause incorrect
operation of control & protective devices and
also may cause shock or injury to personnel.
Provide stability of voltage, prevent excessive
voltage peaks during disturbances and
protect against lightning surges.
3

Basic Objectives

It should stabilize circuit potential with respect


to ground and limit the overall potential rise.
It should protect men and materials from injury
or damage due to over voltage or touching
It should provide a low impedance path to fault
currents to ensure prompt and consistent
operation of protective devices.
It should keep the maximum voltage gradient
along the surface inside around the substation
within safe limits during ground fault.
It should protect under ground cables from
over all ground potential and voltage gradient
during ground fault in the system.
4

Classification of Earthing

Grounding is defined as a conducting


connection, whether intentional or accidental
between an electrical circuit or equipment
and the earth; or to some conducting body
that serves in the place of earth
Earthing can be broadly classified as
1. System Earthing
System earthing
associated
with the electrical circuit
2. Equipment Earthing
Equipment earthing is
connecting the non-current carrying metal
parts of equipment to the ground
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Classification of Earthing
1. Neutral grounding
Solidly grounded system
Resistance/Reactance grounding

2. Equipment earthing
3. Reference grounding
4. Discharge grounding

Discharge grounding
For a 22 KV system the BIL is a 150 kv
Suppose a lightning discharge 10 KA
Resistance shall be < 150 / 10 ohms
= 15 ohms
General rule is Tower foot resistance shall
be less than 0.02 *E ,where E is the
system voltage in KV
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Resistance to Earth
Earth resistance of an electrode is made-up of:
Resistance of the (metal) Electrode
Contact resistance between electrode and the soil,
and
Resistance of the soil from the electrode surface
outward in the geometry setup for the flow of
current from the electrode to the infinite earth.

Soil resistively is the single factor, which


dominates in the arrival of earth resistance of
an electrode.
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Soil Resistivity
Soil resistivity is largely depends upon
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

Type of Soil
Moisture Content
Chemical Composition of Salt dissolved
in the contained water.
Concentration of Salts
Temperature of Materials
Grain size and distribution of grain size
Closeness of packing
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Type of Soil - Resistivity


1. Loamy Garden Soil
2. Clay
3. Clay, Sand and Gravel

500 5,00
800 5,000
4,000 25,000

4. Sand and Gravel


6,000 10,000
5. Slates, Slab Sand Stone 1,000 50,000
6. Crystalline Rocks
20,000 1,00,000
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THREE MAIN TYPES OF EARTH


RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
Measurement of Soil resistivity
Measurement of Ground Resistance
Measurement of Earth Surface
Potentials
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Typical values of resistivity for


various types of soils
Sl.
No.
1

Red loamy soil

Range of
Resistivity
40-200 -m

Red sandy soil

200-2000 -m

Laterite soil

300-2600 -m

Shallow black soil

20-100 -m

Medium black soil

50-300 -m

Deep black soil

50-250 -m

Mixed red & black soil

50-250 -m

Coastal alluvium

300-1300 -m

Laterite gravelly

200-1000 -m

Nature of soil

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Resistance of Rods Embedded


Grounding Resis.exhibits
drooping trend due to
changing climatic
condition (Restvty200/169/35.18).
Resist.of rod embedded in
bentonite falls more
rapidly with increase in
size from 250 to 300mm.
The degree of variation of
resis.is drastically reduced
or almost nullified during
rainy & flood season.
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Effects of Electrical Current* on the Body

Current
1 milliamp
5 milliamps

Reaction
Just a faint tingle.
Slight shock felt. Disturbing, but not
painful Most people can let go. however
strong involuntary movements can cause
injuries.
625 milliamps (women) Painful shock. Muscular control is
lost. This is the range where
freezing currents start
930 milliamps (men).
It may not be possible to let go.
50150 milliamps
Extremely painful shock, respiratory
arrest (breathing stops), severe muscle
contractions . Flexor muscles may cause
holding on; extensor muscles may cause
intense pushing away. Death is possible. Contd..
14

Effects of Electrical Current* on the


Body
Current

Reaction

1,0004,300 milliamps
(14.3 amps)

Ventricular fibrillation (heart pumping action


not rhythmic) occurs. Muscles contract;
nerve damage occurs. Death is likely.

10,000 milliamps
(10 amps)
15,000 milliamps
(15amps)

Cardiac arrest and severe burns occur. Death is


probable
Lowest over current at which a typical fuse
circuit breaker opens a circuit

*Effects are for voltages less than about 600 volts.


Higher voltages also cause severe burns.
Differences in muscle and fat content affect the severity of shock.

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Effect of Magnitude of Current:


dc current in
mA

ac current in
mA

Men

Women

Men

Women

0.6

0.4

0.3

Slight
tingling-perception
threshold

5.2

3.5

1.1

0.7

Shock-not
painful
and
muscular control not lost

1.8

1.2

62

41

76

51

16.0

10.5

90

60

23

15

EFFECT
No sensation on hand

Painful shock-painful but


muscular control not lost
Painful shock let - go
threshold
Painful and severe shockmuscular
contractions,
breathing difficult

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Effect of duration of Current


IB= 0.116/t Current which can be tolerated by a person of
50 Kg. Wt.
IB= 0.157/t Current which can be tolerated by a person of
70 Kg. Wt.
Valid for 0.03 < t < 3 seconds.

Effect of frequency
The tolerable currents mentioned above are for 50 60 Hz.
At high frequencies (3000 10000 Hz) still higher currents
can be tolerated.
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Protective distances
kV
11
22
33
44
66
88
132
275
400

maxdistance
ontrsftank
ontrsftank
3m
5m
6m
6m
7m
18m
24m
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19

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Which low voltage network


configuration is adequate?

TN-C (terre neutre commune):


Good enough for old loads, too poor for IT

21

Which low voltage network


configuration is adequate?
Y

TN-S (terre neutre spar):


Good for IT, if not absolutely necessary
22

Which low voltage network


configuration is adequate?
Y

TN-C-S (terre neutre commune spar):


Insufficient compromise
23

Which low voltage network


configuration is adequate?
Y

Remember:
Copper wire 1 m long, 1 mm thick:

17.5 m
(10-3)

Wire of garden soil 1 m long, 1 mm thick:

17.5 M
(106)

TT (terre terre):

Expensive copper savings

24

Which low voltage network


configuration is adequate?
Y

IT (isol terre):
Advantage: No failure after first earth fault.
But is IT good for IT?

25

In a TN-C system, problems arise because data


streams and working currents mix!

Others who have


drawn attention to
this source of
data transmission
errors include
NKL ...

... insurance companies, experts,


consultants and
many others besides

26

Working currents have


no place in earthing
systems and
protective conductors

WRONG!
RIGHT!

27

The Electric Utility Basic Protection

Power Evacuation Substation


Transmission Substation
Switching Substation
Distribution Substation

28

Faults can be the result of external or internal


influences (e.g., lightning strikes, resulting in
an overload.)
Since the damage a fault can cause is mainly
dependent on its duration, it is necessary for
the protection device to operate as quickly as
possible.
Protection engineering is thus an extremely
important part of the secondary electrical
plant and of decisive significance for the
reliable operation of electrical power system 29

Among the most important


consequences of a fault are:
- damage to plant due to the
dynamic effects of the fault
current
- damage to plant due to the
thermal effects of the current
- loss of system stability
- loss of supply to loads, also during
downtime for repairs
- danger to life
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Among the most important


consequences of a fault are:
- damage to plant due to the
dynamic effects of the fault
current
- damage to plant due to the
thermal effects of the current
- loss of system stability
- loss of supply to loads, also during
downtime for repairs
- danger to life
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SELECTIVITY:
Ability to isolate only the defective
plant from the rest of the system. The
methods of isolations are:
Time grading, i.e. the protection device
nearest the fault trips the fastest and
all the others between it and the power
source successively slower
HOW ?
32

By a definite minimum time or a time


inversely proportional to the level of
fault current e.g., Over current &
distance protection amplitude and/ or
phase comparison of the currents at
both sides of the protected unit e.g.,
pilot wire and differential protection

33

SelectivityBy Amplitude and/or Phase


comparison of the currents on both sides of the
protected unit. Application Pilot wire and
Differential protection
Determination of direction of fault power flow
On both sides of the protected unit by comparing
derived signals.
Application Directional comparison and Distance
Protection with a communication channel called
as unit protection since detect faults between the
C.Ts on both sides of the protected units and
don't provide backup for the neighboring plant.
34

Reliability :
Ability of the protection device to
fulfill its purpose throughout its operational life.
The distinction made on Reliability are :
- dependability, the assurance that the
protection device will perform its designated
function and selectively trip the protected
item
of primary plant in the event of a fault.
- security, the assurance that the protection
device will not trip unless there is a fault on
the protected item of primary plant.
-availability, the ratio of the time that a
protection device is actually serviceable to 35
the total time it is in operation.

High availability of protection equipment can


be achieved by:
-High technical quality of all components in the
protection chain
-Optimum design of the protection scheme
-Continuous self monitoring of protection
devices
-Carefully carried out acceptance and
commissioning tests, periodic testing,
automatic testing routines etc.,
36

A simple protection scheme


for an HV line
CB = circuit breaker

PLC

CT = current transformer
PT = Voltage transformer

PD
Battery
TC

CB
CT

PD = protection device
B = battery

FU

PLC = power line carrier


FU = fuses

PT

TC circuit breaker trip coil

37

Operating speed:
The time between the incidence of a fault
and the trip command being issued to the
circuit- breaker by the protection is
determined by the power system
configuration and in the case of modern
protection devices is typically one period of
the power system frequency or fractions of
a period. The total fault clearance time is
the sum of protection tripping time and the
rupture time of the Circuit-breaker.
38

Operating speed:
The time between the incidence of a fault
and the trip command being issued to the
circuit- breaker by the protection is
determined by the power system
configuration and in the case of modern
protection devices is typically one period of
the power system frequency or fractions of
a period. The total fault clearance time is
the sum of protection tripping time and the
rupture time of the Circuit-breaker.
39

Basic structure of a
Protection system
PROTECTED UNIT

IT

IT = Instrument Transformer

PD

CC

AS

D&R

PD = Protection Device
CC = Control Circuit
AS = Auxiliary supply

Continuously monitoring of the


auxiliary supply voltages is
recommended and monitors to
do this are installed in modern
protection devices

D&R = Display and Recording devices


40

110/33-11kV Substation Schematic Diagram

2NOs16MVA
110/33KV%Z 10%

33KV Bus

GC Bkr.
CTR 400/1A
1.3secDMT
PMS 0.75 TLS 0.35

2NOs16MVA
110/11KV %Z10%

11KV Bus

41

Fault MVA Calculations of the Substation


Fault MVA level at 110 Kv Bus:
Source Impedance:

1371 MVA

110*110/1371 = 8.82 Ohms

Impedance of one 16MVA Transformer with 10% Impedance drop


= 0.1*110*110 / 16
= 75.63 Ohms
If Two Transformers in Parallel
Transformers in service
One Transformer in service
Two Transformers in service

total Imp,
84.45
46.64

37.82 Ohms

Imp. On Voltage base Fault Current


33Kv
11Kv
33Kv
11Kv
7.605
0.8445
2507A
7523A
4.1976
0.4664
4122A 13630A

Maximum Fault Current on


33kV Bus

4122amps

11kV Bus

13360amps
42

ARRANGEMENTS OF
A FEEDER PROTECTION
Current
Transformers

Isolator

Circuit
Breaker

TO
LOAD

BUS

Over Current Relay

Earth fault Relay

43

SUBSTATION TRANSFORMER
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
Zone of protection
CT2
I2

CT1
I1

I1

Iop

I2

Ires=I1 + I2

Iop=I1- I2
Comparator

The difference between the current entering and leaving the power plant equipment, a
transformer, is compared, to restraint for faults outside the zone and trips for faults inside
the zone

44

Trip circuit supervision

+ve
- ve

Fuse

Trip contacts

External resistor

52a

S /T coil

link

52a

Status input (50V)


52b

R1

C.B.

R7

Output relay matrix

External resistor = 2K7 ohms for 110V DC supply


If the trip circuit is not healthy the relay LCD displays
TRIP CCT FAIL

45

Relay Coordination Study


1. With the calculations of fault MVA level on 33-11kV
buses the time of operation of the relays on minimum
operating setting is to be arrived for the feeder of
maximum load, with the help of IDMT characteristics
of relays and tabulated from the pickup level to the
maximum fault current ,tabulated and plotted in a graph
paper.
2. With the IDMT graph of the relay in tracing paper at
various Time lever setting, the graph is to be placed on
the plotted curve of the feeder, by giving a minimum
time delay of 3oomsec. The TLS of the LV breaker is
to be arrived and plotted which will give the
coordinated curve for the LV O/C relay.
3. Similarly the time for 110 kV side for the 110kV side
corresponding fault current is to be arrived.

46

Relay Coordination Study Contd.,


The arrival of coordinated curve with the help
of standard curve is the method being adopted
by giving the standard time grading of 300msec.
The same coordinated time gradation can also be
arrived with the help of actual calculation of
time and tabulations.
The main requirement is to have coordinated
tripping of feeders and incomer breakers for
the required isolation of fault
47

THE BASIC TYPE OF MEASURIMNG


PRINCIPLES USED FOR THE LINE
PROTECTION RELAYS.
OVER CURRENT PROTECTION RELAYS ARE
UNDIRECTIONAL, OR DIRECTIONAL, CURRENT
MEASURING RELAYS WITH A BACKUP FEATURE
DUE TO THE CURRENT MEASURING PRINCIPLE
OTHER TYPES ARE PILOT WIRE, OPTICAL LINE
DIFFERENTIAL AND PHASE COMPARISON
MEASURING PRINCIPLE.
DISTANCE AND DIRECTIONAL IMPEDANCE
MEASURING PRINCIPLE.
48
TRAVELLING WAVE PROTECTION

OVER CURRENT RELAYS ARE NORMALY USED


IN NETWORKS WITH SYSTEM VOLTAGE BELOW
70 KV WHERE FAULT INFEED IS FROM ONE
DIRECTION ONLY AND WHERE RELATIVELY
LONG OPERATING TIME IS ACCEPTABLE

THE BASIC PRINCIPLE ADOPTED IS


INDUCTION DISC ,
49

CONVENTIONAL ELECTROMECHANICAL
OVER CURRENT RELAY
Simple cost effective
inverse time over
current and earth
fault relays
High accuracy
Proven long life
reliability
Modern materials
Zero battery drain
50

Protection

Metering

Control

Condition
Monitoring

51

THANKING YOU
ALL
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