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COMPUTER GRAPHICS

Presented by:

Guided by:
Mr. P.K.SAHU

Sunanda yadav
Biswajit panda
Shasi bhusan
Beena kumari
Sanjeet kumar
Neha sahay
SEC-C

GRAPHICS
APPLICATION

GRAPHICS APPLICATION

COMPUTER GRAPHICS ARE GRAPHICS


CREATED USING COMPUTER AND MORE
GENERALLY THE REPRESENTATION AND
MANIPULATION OF PICTORIAL DATA BY A
COMPUTER
IT GENERALLY MEANS CREATION
STORAGE AND MANIPULATION OF MODELS
AND IMAGES .
The phrase Computer Graphics was
coined in 1960 by William Fetter.

PIXEL - A pixel is the smallest piece of


information in an image. Pixels are
normally arranged in a regular 2dimensional grid, and are often
represented using dots or squares.
IMAGE - image or picture is an artifact,
usually two-dimensional, that has a similar
appearance to some subjectusually a
physical object or a person. Images may
be two-dimensional, such as a photograph
, screen display, and as well as a threedimensional, such as a statue.

RENDERING - Rendering is the process of


generating an image from a model, by
means of computer programs. The model
is a description of three dimensional
objects in a strictly defined language or
data structure .
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES GUI
A program interface that takes advantage
of the computer's graphics capabilities to
make the program easier to use. Welldesigned graphical user interfaces can free
the user from learning complex command
languages. Eg. Microsoft windows .

The art or the science of drawing; esp. of drawing


according to mathematical rules, as in perspective,
projection
WHAT IS GRAPHICS DESIGN?
The term graphic design can refer to a number of
artistic and professional disciplines which focus on visual
communication and presentation. Various methods are
used to create and combine symbols, images and/or
words to create a visual representation of ideas and
messages .

We want images on computers to not


just look more realistic, but also to BE
more realistic in their colors, the way
objects and rooms are lighted, and the
way different materials appear. We call
this work "realistic image synthesis", and
the following series of pictures will show
some of our techniques in stages from
very simple pictures through very realistic
ones

Computer graphics goes back to the


earliest days of computing
Strip charts
Pen plotters
Simple displays using A/D converters to go
from computer to calligraphic CRT
Computers slow, expensive, unreliable

Wire frame graphics


- draw only lines.
Display processor

Raster graphics;

Image produced as an array (the raster) of picture


elements (pixels) in the frame buffer.

Photorealism comes to computer graphics.


Graphics cards for PCs dominate market:
Nvidia, ATI, 3DLabs
Game boxes and game players determine
direction of market.
Computer graphics routine in movie industry:
Maya, Lightwave
Programmable pipelines.

IN BUSINESS:
Campaigns
Banners
Brochures
Internet websites &
Advertisements

IN Entertainment:
Modern games
Morphing
Animations
Music videos

Graphics are needed in order to


better train medical students and
doctors .
Allow errors to be made on virtual
rather than real patients
Alleviate the animal rights
controversy and the shortage of
cadavers problem
Permit efficacious treatment for
patients.
Allow reduction in medical costs
(less liability suits, cheaper
training - emergency response).

Concerned with analysis and


manipulation of images by
computers.
It improves picture quality.
Machine perception of visual
information, as used in robotics.
IN COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN:
Buildings
Automobiles
Aircraft , spacecraft , watercraft .
Textiles
COMPUTERS

LCD display devices

CRT displays

LED displays

PLASMA displays

CRT DISPLAY

LED DISPLAY

LCD DISPLAY

PLASMA DISPLAY

Two general classification:

GENERAL PROGRAMMING PACKAGES

SPECIAL-PURPOSE APPLICATIONS PACKAGES

Extensive set of graphics functions used in high


programming language such as C or FORTRAN.
FUNCTIONS:
Generating picture components(straightline,circles,polygon)
Setting color and intensity values
Selecting views and applying transformations.
Examples:
Graphics library system on silicon graphics equipment.

Designed for nonprogrammers so they can generate


displays without worrying about how graphics work.
FUNCTIONS:
Allow users to communicate with the programs in their own
terms
EXAMPLES:
Artists painting programs
Various business,medical,CADsystems

Corel
Adobe PhotoShop
Adobe Photo Deluxe
Paint Shop Pro
Windows Paint
Microsoft Image Composer

2D computer graphics
-2D graphics started in the 1950s, based on
vector graphics devices .
It is the computer-based generation of
digital imagesmostly from twodimensional models, such as
2D geometric models .
These are mainly used in applications that
were originally developed upon traditional
printing and drawing technologies, such as
typography, cartography, technical drawing,
advertising, etc.
Dimention consist of length and width

-3D graphics are graphics that use a


three-dimensional representation of
geometric data (often Cartesian) that is
stored in the computer for the
purposes of performing calculations
and rendering 2D images.
-These are often referred to as 3D models
. Apart from the rendered graphic, the
model is contained within the graphical
data file .
-A model can be displayed visually as a
two-dimensional image through a
process called 3D rendering, or used in
non-graphical computer simulations
and calculations.
-Basics phases:
3D modeling
3D rendering
-Dimention consist of length , width and
depth

MODELLING
It describes the process
of forming the shape
of an object.

RENDERING
It produces an image
of an object.

RASTER - A raster graphics image or


bitmap is a data structure representing a
generally rectangular grid of pixels, or
points of color, viewable via a monitor,
paper, or other display medium.

VECTOR - Vector graphics formats are


complementary to raster graphics, which
is the representation of images as an array
of pixels, as it is typically used for the
representation of photographic images.

Vector diagrams

Raster diagrams

OUTLINEPRIMITIVES

FILLEDPRIMITIVES

VECTOR GRAPHICS
It is generated using drawing or
illustration programs.
Image is represented by
continuous geometric objects.
Geometric transformation
without loss of information.
Conversion from vector to raster
is easy.

RASTER GRAPHICS
They are produced by digital images
capture devices such as digital
camera.
Image is represented as an
rectangular grid of coloured squares.
Geometric transformation with loss of
information
conversion of raster to vector is
difficult.

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