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The data, after collection, has to be

processed and analyzed in accordance with


the outline laid down for the purpose at the
time of developing the research plan.
Processing
implies
editing,
coding,
classification and tabulation of collected
data so that they are amenable to analysis.
The term analysis refers
to the
computation of certain measures along with
searching for patterns of relationship that
exist among data-groups.

Coding is a process in which the data is


divided in to a limited number of classes. In
this process all the answers are assigned in
any symbol or numeral order this is done
with the help of set rules.

Coding process assigns numerals or


other symbols to the several responses of
the data set.

At the time of response the volume of


data is very large. And for efficient analysis
it is necessary to concise the data in some
alphabetic or numeric code

Numeric Coding :
Coding need not necessarily be
numeric. It can also be alphabetic. Coding
has to be compulsorily numeric, when the
variable is to be subject to further
parametric analysis.

Alphabetic Coding
A mere tabulation or frequency count
or graphical representation of the variable
may be given an alphabetic coding.

Zero Coding :

A coding of zero has to be assigned


carefully to a variable. In many instances,
when manual analysis is done, a code of 0
would imply a no response from the
respondent. Hence, if a value of 0 is to given
to a specific response in the data sheet, it
should not lead to the same interpretation of
on response for instance, there will be a
tendency to given a code of 0 to a no
answer. However, if the respondent had not
chosen Yes or No. Then a different coding

Than 0 should be given in it the data sheet.


illustration of the coding process of some of
the demographic variables is given in the
following table.

Question No.

Variable/
Observation

Response
categories

Code

1.1

Organization

Private
Public
Government

Pt
Pb
Go

3.4

Owner of vehicle

Yes
No

2
1

4.2

Vehicle performance

Excellent
Good
Adequate
Bad
Worst

5
4
3
2
1

5.1

Age

Up to 20 years
21-40 years
40-60 years
Above-60 years

1
2
3
4

Question No.

Variable/
Observation

Response
categories

Code

5.2

Occupation

Salaried
Professional
Technical
Business
Retired
Housewife
others

S
P
T
B
R
H
*

They must also possess the


characteristic of exhaustiveness (i.e. there
must be a class for every data item) and
also that of mutual exclusively which means
that a specific answer can be placed in one
and only one cell in a given category set.
Another rule to be observed is that of
unidimensionality by which is meant that
every class is defined in terms of only one
concept.

Before

collection data:

Coding decision should usually be


taken at the designing state of the
questionnaire. This makes it possible to
precode the questionnaire choices and
which in turn is helpful for computer
tabulation as one can straight forward key
punch from the original questionnaires.

After collection data:


But in case of hand coding some
standard method may be used. On such
standard method is to code in the margin
with colored pencil . The other method can
be to transcribe the data from the
questionnaire to a coding sheet.

The coding sheet needs to be prepared carefully


if the data recording is not done by the researcher,
but is outsourced to a data entry firm or individual.
In orders to enter the data in the same perspective,
as the researcher would like to view it, the data
coding sheet is to be prepared first and a copy of
the data coding sheet should be given to the
outsources to help in the data entry procedure,
sometime, the researcher might not be able to code
the data from the primary instrument itself. He may
need to classify the responses and then code them.
Form this purpose, classification of data of also
necessary at the data entry stage