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A PowerPoint-based guide to assist in

choosing the suitable statistical test.

NOTE: This presentation has the main purpose to


assist researchers and students in choosing the
appropriate statistical test for studies that
examine one variable (Univariate). Some
multivariates analyses are also included.
Please proceed to the next page ...

What do you want to do?


For an answer, click on the button
1) I want to assess whether my data
have a Normal distribution
2) I want to compare groups
(Looking for differences between samples)
3) I want to make correlation or regression
analysis between variables.
4) I want to check the replicability of data
(analysis of random and systematic error)
5) I would choose the appropriate graph
to my data.

Tests for Data Analysis Distribution- Normality


Normal distribution is requested when using continuos data and n<30

You may choose the test according to


sample size.
Use DAgostino, if n10
Use DAgostino-Pearson, if

n20

Use Lilliefors or Shapiro-Wilk,


for any n value
Back to beginning

Comparing groups (samples)


What kind of data you have?
(Click on the button).
Parametric
(mean)

NUMERICAL
Continuous

Ex: height / length / weight


(Assuming a normal distribution on n>30)
How to check Normality ?

Ordinal
Nonparametric
Categorical data

Nominal

Ex: Middle (1) / Moderate(2) Severe (3)


Ex: Frequency: Yes / No
Race
Gender
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Numerical Data (parametric)


If the distribution is not Normal,
skip to "Abnormal"

ABNORMAL

How many groups (samples) do you have?

1
2
>2

Numerical Data (parametric)


If the distribution is not Normal, skip to "Abnormal"

ABNORMAL

Are your samples paired or dependent?

No
Yes
Not sure?
Dependent Samples mean:
Before X After
Left Side X Right Side
T1 x T 2 x T3

Numerical Data (parametric)


If the distribution is not Normal,
skip to "Abnormal"

ABNORMAL

Answer: one sample t test

Back to beginning

Numerical Data (parametric)


If the distribution is not Normal,
skip to "Abnormal"

ABNORMAL

Answer: Independent t test


or ANOVA.

Back to beginning

Numerical Data (parametric)


If the distribution is not Normal,
skip to "Abnormal"

ABNORMAL

Answer: Paired t test or


ANOVA for repeated measurements.
.

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Numerical Data (parametric)


If the distribution is not Normal,
skip to "Abnormal"

ABNORMAL

Answer: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)


or MANOVA (Multiple Analysis of Variance),
if you have >1 variable.

Back to beginning

Ordinal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)
How many groups (samples) do you have ?

2
>2

Ordinal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)
Are your samples paired or dependent?

No
Yes
Not sure?
Dependent Samples mean:
Before X After
Left Side X Right Side
T1 x T 2 x T3

Ordinal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)
Are your samples paired or dependent?

No
Yes
Not sure?
Dependent Samples mean:
Before X After
Left Side X Right Side
T1 x T 2 x T3

Ordinal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)

Answer: Mann-Whitney test

Back to beginning

Ordinal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)

Answer: Wilcoxon (signed rank test)


or Signal test.

Back to beginning

Ordinal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)

Answer: Kruskal-Wallis Test

Back to beginning

Ordinal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)

Answer: Friedmans Test

Back to beginning

Nominal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)
How many groups (samples) do you have ?

2
>2

Nominal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)
Are your samples paired or dependent?

No
Yes
Not sure?
Dependent Samples mean:
Before X After
Left Side X Right Side
T1 x T 2 x T3

Nominal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)
Is there any expected value <5 ?

No
Yes
Not sure?
If some of the cells in the contingency table give
values (expected) lower than 5.

Nominal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)
Are your samples paired or dependent?

No
Yes
Not sure?
Dependent Samples mean:
Before X After
Left Side X Right Side
T1 x T 2 x T3

Nominal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)

Answer: Chi-square (x) test or


Binomial Test, if using 2 samples and
proportion (%)

Back to beginning

Nominal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)

Answer: Cochrans test


(absolute or relative frequence: %)

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Nominal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)

Answer: McNemars test

Back to beginning

Nominal Categorical Data


(Nonparametric)

Answer: Exact Fishers test

Back to beginning

Correlation or Regression Analysis


What kind of data you have?
(Click on the button).
Parametric
(mean)

Nonparametric
Categorical data

Numerical

Ex: height / length / weight


(Assuming a normal distribution)
How to check Normality ?

Ordinals

Ex: Middle (1) / Moderate(2) Severe (3)

Nominal

Ex: Frequency: Yes / No


Race
Gender

Numerical Data (parametric)


If the distribution is not Normal,
skip to "Abnormal"

ABNORMAL

How many variables do you have?

2
>2

Correlation tests or regression


analysis to Continuos data
If the distribution is not Normal, skip to "Abnormal"

ABNORMAL

Answer: Pearsons Correlation


Simple Linear Regression

Back to beginning

Correlation tests or regression


analysis to Continuos data
If the distribution is not Normal, skip to "Abnormal"

ABNORMAL

Answer: Pearsons Correlation (parcial) or


Canonical Correlation
Multiple Linear Regression
NOTE: For Correlation all variables examined must have a Normal Distribution.
For Linear Regression dependent variable must have a Normal Distribution
How to check Normality ?

Back to beginning

Correlation test to Ordinal data


(nonparametric)

Answer : Spearman or Kendal Correlation

Back to beginning

Correlation and Regression Analysis


to Nominal data (nonparametric)
How many variables do you have?

2
>2

Correlation test to Nominal data


(nonparametric)

Answer: Contingency coefficient C


Simple Logistic Regression

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Correlation test to Nominal data


(nonparametric)

Answer: Contingency coefficient C


Multiple Logistic Regression

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Replicability or Reproducibility
(Systematic error)
What kind of data you have?
(Click on the button).
Parametric
(mean)

Nonparametric
Categorical data

Numerical

Ex: height / length / weight


(Assuming a normal distribution)
How to check Normality ?

Ordinal
Nominal

Ex: Middle (1) / Moderate(2) Severe (3)


Ex: Frequency: Yes / No
Race
Gender

Replicability or Reproducibility
(Systematic error for numerical data)

ABNORMAL

Answer: Parametric test for dependent data


2 samples

>2 samples

Note: Intraclass correlation can be used, if


you would like to check the association between 2
or more measurements.
For random or casual error , you may use
TEM (technical error measurement):
D= difference between repeated measures
n=number of individuals

Back to beginning

Replicability or Reproducibility
(Systematic error for ordinal data)

Answer: Weighted Kappa


NOTE: in case of an ordinal variable, nonparametric tests
for paired or dependent data can also be used

2 sample

> 2 samples

Back to beginning

Replicability or Reproducibility
(Systematic error for Nominal data)

Answer: Kappa

Back to beginning

Graph Selection
What kind of data you have?
(Click on the button).
Parametric
(mean)

Nonparametric
Categorical data

Numerical

Ordinal
Nominal

Ex: height / length / weight


(Assuming a normal distribution)

Ex: Middle (1) / Moderate(2) Severe (3)

Ex: Frequency: Yes / No


Race
Gender
Back to beginning

Graph Selection

Comparing Independent Samples


Comparing Dependent Samples (paired)
Making Data Correlation or regression
Not sure?
Dependent Samples mean:
Before X After
Left Side X Right Side
T1 x T 2 x T3

BOX-PLOT - Comparing Groups.


Continuous or Ordinal Data (Score)
This chart describes the measure of central tendency (MEAN for continuos data or MEDIAN for Ordinal
data), measures of dispersion (Standard deviation for parametric data or interquartiles deviation for
Ordinal data) and the whiskers (maximum and minimum values )

Outlier: an observation that


is numerically distant
from the rest of the data.

Back

Line graph for longitudinal data


This chart describes the measure of central tendency (mean for Continuos data or median
for Ordinal data) longitudinally

Back

Graphic for Correlation Tests


or Regression Analysis

Back

Bar/Column Graphic
Nominal data (frequency)

Back