Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

CHAPTER II

BUSINESS PROCESSES,
INFORMATION, AND
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Our beloved Manager, DEE, could not

get very far with her project to create


a blog for the sales force unless she
got the budget approval from her
boss.

The BOSS said: “My dear, it was very


impressive. I know you the best we


can have you as our manager. But, I
need more information from you
before I could approve it.”
• Now:
–“How will this blog impact
the sales process?”
–“How will the salespeople
use it?”
–“How will it help us gain
sales?”
QUESTIONS?????
Q1 How did this stuff get here?
Q2 What is a business process?
Q3 What are the components of a
business process?
Q4 What is information?
Q5 What is the role of information in
business processes?
Q6 How do information systems support
business processes?

Q1 How Did This Stuff
Get Here?
• You are at Resto Plaza, having your
breakfast of NASI GORENG GILA.
• What is in your mind?
• Or you just keep on eating, as if it
were an obligation to have
breakfast?
Q2 What is a business
process?
A business process is a network of
activities, resources, facilities, and
information that interact to achieve
some business function.
 Exe. Inventory management
processes, manufacturing processes,
sales and support processes, and so
forth
Portion of Inventory Management Business
Process.
Figure 2-1
QuantityOnHand
Purchasing Inventory
Database

QuantityReceived QuantitySold
PurchaseOrder

ItemsReceived ItemsSold
ShippedGoods
Inventory Counter
Supplier Receiving & Stocking Sales

Order
ShippingInvoice Items
QuantityReceived CustomerPayment

SupplierPayment
Payment Customer
Q3 What are the
components of a business
process?
• ACTIVITIES
• RESOURCES
• FACILITIES
• INFORMATION

• Activitiestransform resources and
information of one type into
resources and information of another
type. Exe. SupplierPayment….
• Resources are items are value. Exe.
Supplier and customer.
• Facilities are structures used within
the business process. Exe.
Inventories, databases, factories,
pieces of equipment, trucks, file
cabinets….
• Activities use information to determine
how to transform the inputs they
• Activities transform resources and
information of one type into
resources and information of
another type.
 Exe. The Payment activity
transforms QuantityReceived and
ShippingInvoice information into a
SupplierPayment (resource).
 An activity can be manual (people
following procedures), it can be
automated (hardware directed by
software), or it can be a combination
of manual and automated.
• Resources are items of value.
 A case of milk is a resource, a
check is a resource, and the
customer’s cash is a resource.
 Both Supplier and Customer are
considered resources because they
have value to this process.
 They are not considered activities,
because they are external to the
Europe and hence are not under the
Europe’s direction and control.
• Facilities are structures used within
the business process.
 Exe. Inventories and databases
Q4 What is Information?
• Information is knowledge derived
from data, where data is defined as
recorded facts and figures.
• Information is data presented in a
meaningful context.
• Information is data processed by
summing, ordering, averaging,
grouping, comparing, or other similar
operations (or we can say that we do
something to data to produce
information)
• Information is a difference that makes
a difference (Bateson’s theory)
Characteristics of Good
Information
• Accurate, based on correct and
complete data and processed
correctly as expected.
• Timely, produced in time for its
intended use.
• Relevant, both the context and to
the subject.
• Just Barely sufficient, for the
purpose for which it is generated.
• Worth Its Cost, an appropriate
relationship must exist between the
Q5 What is The Role of
Information in Business
Processes?
• Business process generates
information by bringing together
important items or data in a given
context.
 Exe. We could use the information
to determine the cheapest, fastest,
or most reliable suppliers.
 We could use the information in
the inventory Database to assess our
inventory ordering strategy.
Q6 How Do Information
Systems support business
Processes?
• What does it mean to automate
process activity?

Figure 2.2
Hardware Software Data Procedures People

Cash register -Sales-recording Sales Data  Operate cash - Cashier


computer program on cash Inventory register
Database register database
host computer

Figure 2.3

Mostly an automated system.


Almost all work is done by computers and
software
An information system to support
counter sales
• Counter sales uses the information
system in Figure 2-3.
• Each cash register contains a
computer that communicates with
another computer that hosts the
inventory database.
• Programs in the cash register record
sales and make appropriate
changes to the inventory database
whenever the cashier rings up a
sale.
An Information System to Support
Payment
HardwSoftware Data Procedures People
are
 PC Adobe Acrobat QuantityReceived Reconcile receipt - Account
Reader ShippingInvoice documents with invoice payable
Email Issue payment

authorization, if
appropriate
Process exceptions

Figure 2.4

Mostly a manual system.


Little work is done by computers and
software.
Most work is done by the Accounts Payable
Clerk
An Information System to Support
Purchasing
Hard Software Data Procedures People
ware
PC Inventory application Inventory Issue - Purchasing clerk
Dbase host program datbase PurchaseOrder
computer Purchasing program according to
inventory
management
practices and
guidelines.

Figure 2.4 Balance between computer and human work.


THINK THIS!!!!!
• Suppose you have the perfect
information system that can predict
the future.
• Now suppose that on December 14,
1966, your perfect IS tells you that
the next day, Walt Disney will die,
any you have $50,000 to invest in
share market.
• What will do? What will happen to
the stock market of the Disney if
the founder of Disney is going to
DEE’S SOLUTION
• Dee can use the blog to publish
successful sales strategies.
• When she does that, she will be
publishing a difference (a new
strategy) that makes a difference
(it worked).
• She can also publish other
information (differences that make
a difference) from herself, from
sales management, and from
doctors and pharmacists.
USING YOUR KNOWLEDGE
• Suppose you manage the Purchasing
department for a chain department
for a chain of coffee shops like Europa
Café. Assuming that your company is
in the process of developing the
requirements for a new purchasing
application.
• You can develop a system that will
make the supplier selection
automatically, or you build one that
allows employees to make the
• Explain how this characteristic will
impact:
 a. The skill level required for your
employees
 b. The number of employees you
will need.
 c. Your criteria for hiring
employees.
 d. Your management practices
 e. The degree of autonomy for
your
 employees