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In building solution

Concept of IBS

Why IB coverage is important?

Concept of In-Building Solutions

Hi-speed wireless connectivity in workplace, airports, hotels, convention
centers, hospitals etc is becoming more prevalent. It provides todays
business executives equipped with laptops, wireless LAN, mobile sets with
seamless wireless email and Internet service. The macro coverage from out
door site is not sufficient to meet this ever-growing demand, and there will be
multi cell issue (see the picture) so deploy a robust in-building wireless
solution for creating a competitive niche and better user experience..
. For example, a building may not receive adequate
mobile coverage from outdoor cell sites. This is
because in most cases the signals present outside
the building are unable to penetrate the building
material, thus resulting in poor coverage. A typical
problem in high rises is the problem of interference.
Crowded areas like malls, airports, large commercial
complexes need a dedicated system to handle the
capacity requirements for the large number of calls
at such locations. Further with 3G quickly getting
popularity amongst these above mentioned
demographies, network strength, quality and
capacity etc are becoming a cause of major concern

interfeerence from distant bastations is a


Why In-building Coverage is Important?

There are many reasons for the mobile operator for providing a dedicated IB
But mainly these are two
lack of coverage
Improvement of service quality
Need for more capacity
Need for higher _ speed data rate

Some countries more than 50% traffic
from in building
Indoor Solutions Can Make a Great
Business Case
Maximize the revenue of the operator

The Indoor Planning Procedure

IBS Survey

IBS Planning & designing

IBS Implementation

IBS Quality Test


IBS Survey
For providing a good IB Solution first we have to do a proper survey

Tools required
Walk test tool(Net monitor, Nemo ,TEMS etc.)
Measurement tape
Still Camera

Important pages in net monitor

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based
global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that provides reliable location
and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or
near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to
four or more GPS satellites.

Camera is using to take the pictures of
BTS location, Microwave pole location,
Shafts and Line of Site etc.

Measuring Tape

The use of this in In Building survey are to measure the BTS location
.Microwave pole length. Distance between earth point to Equipment room
IF cable length etc..

Survey Procedure
Walk test
Check the BCCH ,RXL,RXQ,CID of the all cells which are present in the building

Collect the Auto card design of the Building

Check the BTS& Microwave pole location
Check the cable shaft for running the Back bone cable
Take the Photographs of Building
Take the Photographs of BTS ,cable shaft and microwave pole location
Check the Electrical supply /Point
Check the Earth point
Measure the Earth cable length
Measure the power cable length
Measure the IF cable length
Take the contact details of the building contact person

IBS Design

Design Criteria
Coverage planning

Antenna marking on floor plan

Make trunking Diagram
Calculate The EIRP of each
Calculate the BOM
The ideal distance between two
antenna is 20m
All passive materials like
spliter,coupler,cable antenna are
should be support from 850 MHz
to 2500 MHz band
Tool used for IBS Design - IB

Capacity planning

Calculate the expected foot fall in

side building
Calculate the total erlang
As per erlang calculation
calculate the number of TRX
Then plan the number of sector
Normal commercial building per
subscriber erlang is 20ME
High capacity site like Airport per
subscriber erlang is 33ME
In Sector planning try to avoid
multi sectors in single floor

Antenna marking on floor plan


Indoor coverage radius and area vs.

design level from Omni antenna

To provide full coverage, antennas need to be placed with a certain coverage over lap

Placing the Indoor Antennas

Place the hot-spot antennas and maximize data performance.

In this case of a shopping mall, the hot-spots for data and voice are typically the
food court, internet cafes and sitting areas

Place the cost-cutting antennas.

After the hot-spot antennas are placed you must place

all the antennas that will maximize the coverage per antenna

Isolate the building.

Proper planning of an antenna at the entrance area and hand over zones
will isolate the building from even very close out door sites.

Fill in the gaps.

The last placement of antennas will be filling the gaps between the
antennas just placed This will help to provide maximum coverage

Trunking Diagram

Link Budget

Bill of material

Indoor Radio planning tool

IB Wave _ The most popular in door RF planning tool
iBwave Solutions is a telecom radio planning software provider that develops
solutions for the in-building wireless industry. iBwave is best known for its
software iBwave Design, mostly used by telecom operators, system integrators
and equipment vendors. iBwave is a Canadian-based company that was
founded in 2003 and is headquartered in Montreal.
A privately-held company, iBwave focuses on integrated solutions to automate
and standardize the design of wireless communications inside buildings and
In 2010,

Traffic dimensioning
Erlang _The Traffic Measurement
An Erlang is a unit of telecommunications traffic measurement.
One Erlang is the continuous use of one voice channel. In call minutes, one Erlang is 60 min/h,
1440 call min/24 h. In practice, when doing mobile capacity calculations, an Erlang is used to
describe the total traffic volume of 1 h, for a specific cell.

Call Blocking, Grade of Service

The blocking rate (grade of service or GOS) is defined as the percentage of calls that
are rejected due to lack of channels. If the users makes 100 calls, and one call is rejected
due to lack of channels (capacity) the blocking rate is 1 in 100, or 1%. This is referred to
as 1% GOS. Operators might differentiate the GOS target for different indoor solutions,
with a strict GOS of 0.5% in an office building but allowing a GOS of 2% in shopping

The Erlang B Table

Provided that the calls are Erlang-distributed, you can use the Erlang B formula to calculate
the required number of channels at a given load rate, and a given grade of service.

Erlang Example
If a group of 20 users makes 60 calls in 1 h, and each call had an average
duration of 3 min,
then we can calculate the traffic in Erlangs:
total minutes of traffic in 1 h = duration number of calls
total minutes of traffic in 1 h = 3 60
total minutes of traffic in 1 h = 180 min
The Erlangs are defined as traffic (minutes) per hour:
Erlangs = 180/60 = 3E
Knowing the number of users (20), we can calculate the load per user:
user load = total load/number of users
user load = 3/20 = 0.150 E = 150mE per user
Then, if we have the same type of users inside a building with 350 mobile
users, we can calculate what capacity we need:
total load = number of users load per user
total load = 350 150mE= 52.5E

Typical user load in Erlang

User type Traffic load per user
Extreme user : 200 mE
Heavy user
:100 mE
Normal office user :50 mE
Private user
:20 mE

Special design considerations

Most of the design methods and considerations are the same for all building. But the below mentioned
are some of the points we need to address, in addition to all the standard RF considerations.

Make sure you prepare for more capacity or sectors for future upgrades.
Make sure you cover the executive floor 100%.
Is there a need for elevator coverage?
Are there special installation challenges (e.g. fire proofing)?
Pay attention to the service rooms or areas (e.g. IT server rooms).
Are there special EMR concerns (like in a hospital)?
What type of services might be needed in the future 3G, 3,5G?
Are there any hot-spots in the building that need special attention?

Handover Considerations Inside Buildings

The indoor DAS system implemented in the building should be prepared
for future traffic growth.
The best way to prepare this is to have a sector plan for future
sectorization of the system.
Even if the system is implemented as one sector, you need to look ahead,
especially for UMTS, in order to prepare for more sectors.
Well-defined HO zones are important for GSM and UMTS/HSDPA to avoid
ping-pong HO on GSM, extensive soft HO zones on UMTS and degraded
HSPA performance.
As a general rule you must try to avoid having the handover zones in large
open areas inside the building. Here it can be difficult to design and
control the handover zone
Try to advantage of the natural isolation provided by the building to
separate the different sectors or cells.eg. Floor separation

The typical GSM handover scenario in a building

Sec 1



Sec 2

Sec 5


Sec 2

One way hand over to all IB cells


Sec 3



Sec 1

Sec 3
Sec 4

Sec 4

Two way hand over to all IB cells

Materials For IBS

Coax Cable
coax cable is widely used in all types of distributed antenna
systems, especially in passive systems.
. Typical losses for the commonly used types of passive coaxial
Cables are mentioned Below

RF connector
coaxial RF connector is an electrical connector designed to work at radio frequencies
in the multi-megahertz range. RF connectors are typically used with coaxial cables and
are designed to maintain the shielding that the coaxial design offers. Better models also
minimize the change in transmission line impedance at the connection. Mechanically
they provide a fastening mechanism (thread, bayonet, braces, push pull) and springs for
a low holmic electric contact while sparing the gold surface thus allowing above 1000
reconnects and reducing the insertion force. Research activity in the area of radiofrequency (RF) circuit design has surged in the last decade in direct response to the
enormous market demand for inexpensive, high data rate wireless transceivers' .N and
DIN type connectors are commonly used in IBS

An antenna gives the wireless system three fundamental properties:
gain, direction and polarization. Gain is a measure of increase in power.
Gain is the amount of increase in energy that an antenna adds to a
radio frequency (RF) signal. Direction is the shape of the transmission
pattern. As the gain of a directional antenna increases, the angle of
radiation usually decreases. This provides a greater coverage distance,
but with a reduced coverage angle. The coverage area or radiation
pattern is measured in degrees. These angles are measured in degrees
and are called beam widths.

Omni Antenna

panel Antenna

Splitters and power dividers are the most commonly used passive components in
distributed antenna systems. Splitters are used for splitting one coax line into two or more lines,
and vice versa. If splitting to two ports, only half-power minus the insertion loss, typically about
0.1 dB, is available at the two ports. It is very important to terminate all ports on the splitter;
do not leave one port open. If it is unused, terminate it with a dummy load.

You can calculate the loss through the splitter:

splitter loss =10 log (number of ports)+ insertion loss
For a 1:3 splitter ,the attenuation will be:
10 log(3)+0.1dB+4.87dB

2Way splitter

4Way splitter

3Way splitter

Tapers are used like splitters, used to divide the signal/power from one into
two lines. The difference from the standard 1:2 splitter is that the power is
not equally divided among the ports.
In put

Through port

Couple port


Attenuators attenuate the signal with the value of the
Attenuators are used to bring higher power signals down to a desired range
of operation
The different ranges are 10dB,20dB,30 dB 40dB & variable attenuator

Dummy Loads or Terminators

Terminators are used as matching loads on the transmission lines,
often on one port of a circulator, or any open or unused ports on other



3 dB Coupler (90 Hybrid)

The 3 dB coupler are mostly used for combining signals from two
signal sources. At the same time the coupler will split the two combined
signals into two output ports.

At the time of using this product two things are very important
Power handling capacity of each port
Isolation between 2 ports

Hybrid Combiner
Hybrid combiner mostly used for combining signals from two different
signal sources
The insertion loss is 3 dB

IBS Implementation

For creating a good IBS site the implementation quality have a major roll
Use trained and skilled manpower for Installations
Antennas should be fixed as per the design
All the splitters ,couplers are fixed properly and easy to maintain
All connectors should be tight
Make sure cable and jumpers are not bend sharply and
no physical damage
All junctions should be covered with weather proof
Use proper tools for implementation
The VSWR should be <1.3
Use 3 pin top with proper power rating power cable for any type of
electrical power taping
All power and earth connections should be tight
Prepare and submit the proper AS Built report to the operator

Tools Required

Drilling Machine


Hack saw


Sleaving tool

Screw driver set

Cutting player

IBS Quality Test

The most important thing in the IBS is the quality test ,because
for getting a quality network we have to check the quality of all
part of the IBS
Check the product quality
Is all the products are in ETSI Standard
The VSWR is with in the threshold
The performance is as per the specifications
Implementation Quality
All the connectors should be tight
There is no sharp bending in RF cable
All the junctions are protected from moisture
The VSWR should be <1.3
Network Quality
Do the walk test
Check all the parameters are ok(DLRXL,DLRXQ,UL Level
ULRXQ,SQ, Short call ,Long call ,Cell selection and
reselection,Hand over,& no co and adjacent channel interference )


The O&M Team /Engineer should have the as built design of the site
He have a good knowledge in passive and active components
The team have proper tools
Walk test tool(Nemo or TEMS)
Tool kit (installation tools)
Site master/spectrum analyzers

Model O & M Check list

Model O & M Check list

Model O & M Check list

Model O & M Check list