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PLANE STRESS AND

PLANE STRAIN

Simplified Elasticity Formulations

The General System of Elasticity Field Equations
of 15 Equations for 15 Unknowns Is Very Difficult
to Solve for Most Meaningful Problems, and So Modified
Formulations Have Been Developed.
Displacement Formulation

Stress Formulation

Eliminate the stresses and strains

from the general system of equations.
This generates a system of three
equations for the three unknown
displacement components.

Eliminate the displacements and

strains from the general system of
equations. This generates a system of
six equations and for the six unknown
stress components.

x

F(z)
G(x,y)

Even Using Displacement and Stress Formulations

Three-Dimensional Problems Are Difficult to Solve!
So Most Solutions Are Developed for Two-Dimensional Problems

Two and Three Dimensional Problems

Three-Dimensional

Two-Dimensional

y
z

Spherical Cavity
y
x

Two-Dimensional Formulation
y

Plane Strain

Plane Stress

2h << other dimensions

x x ( x, y )
R

y y ( x, y )
xy xy ( x, y )

z xz yz 0
u u ( x, y ) , v v ( x, y ) , w 0

Examples of Plane Strain Problems

y

P
z

y
z

Long Cylinders

Semi-Infinite Regions

Thin Plate With

Central Hole
Circular Plate Under

Plane Strain Formulation

u u( x, y ) , v v ( x, y ) , w 0

Strain-Displacement

ex

u
v
1 u v
, ey
, e xy

x
y
2 y x
ez e xz e yz 0

Hookes Law

x (ex e y ) 2ex
y (ex e y ) 2e y
z ( e x e y ) ( x y )
xy 2exy , xz yz 0

Plane Strain Formulation

Stress Formulation

Displacement Formulation

x xy

Fx 0
x
y
xy y

Fy 0
x
y
1 Fx Fy

2 ( x y )

1 x
y

u v
u ( )
Fx 0
x x y
2

2 v ( )

u v
Fy 0

y x y

Si

R
S = Si + So
So
x

Plane Strain Example

Given the Following Displacements, Determine the Strains and Stresses
1 2
(1 )
u
o x , v
o y , w 0
E
E
Strains :
u
1 2
v (1 )
ex

o , ey

o , exy e yz ezx ez 0
x
E
y
E
Stresses :
x (ex e y ) 2ex
E
E 1 2
(1 )(1 2)

o 2
o

(1 )(1 2)
E
2
(
1

)
E

o
y (ex e y ) 2e y 0
z (ex e y ) ( x y ) o
xy xz yz 0

Plane Stress Formulation

x x ( x, y ) , y y ( x, y ) , xy xy ( x, y ) , z xz yz 0
Strain-Displacement
Hookes Law
1
( x y )
E
1
e y ( y x )
E

ez ( x y )
(ex e y )
E
1
1
e xy
xy , e xz e yz 0
E
ex

ex

u
v
w
, ey
, ez
x
y
z

1 u v
e xy

2 y x
1 v w

2 z y
1 u w
e xz

0
2 z x
e yz

Note plane stress theory normally neglects some of the

strain-displacement and compatibility equations.

Plane Stress Formulation

Displacement Formulation

Stress Formulation

2 u

E
u v
Fx 0

2(1 ) x x y

2 v

E
u v
Fy 0

2(1 ) y x y

x xy

Fx 0
x
y
xy y

Fy 0
x
y
Fx Fy
2

( x y ) (1 )

Si

R
S = Si + So
So
x

Plane Strain

Plane Stress

2 u ( )

u v
Fx 0

x x y

2 u

E
u v
Fx 0

2(1 ) x x y

2 v ( )

u v
Fy 0

y x y

2 v

E
u v
Fy 0

2(1 ) y x y

x xy

Fx 0
x
y
xy y

Fy 0
x
y
1 Fx Fy

2 ( x y )

1 x
y

x xy

Fx 0
x
y
xy y

Fy 0
x
y

Fx Fy

( x y ) (1 )

Elastic Moduli Transformation Relations for Conversion

Between Plane Stress and Plane Strain Problems

Plane Strain

Plane Stress

E
1 2

Plane Strain to Plane Stress

E (1 2)
(1 ) 2

Therefore the solution to one plane problem also yields the solution
to the other plane problem through this simple transformation

Airy Stress Function Method

Plane Problems with No Body Forces
Stress Formulation
x xy

0
x
y
xy y

0
x
y

Airy Representation
2
2
2
x 2 , y 2 , xy
y
x
xy

2 ( x y ) 0

Biharmonic Governing Equation

4
4
4
2 2 2 4 4 0
4
x
x y
y
(Single Equation with Single Unknown)

Polar Coordinate Formulation

r
x2

r
d

F
r

Fr
rd

Strain-Displacement
u r
1
u
, e ur
r
r

1 1 ur u u
er

2 r
r
r
er

r
dr
r

dr

Hookes Law

x1

Equilibrium Equations
r 1 r ( r )

Fr 0
r r
r
r 1 2 r

F 0
r
r
r

Airy Representation
1 1 2

r r r 2 2
2
2
r
1
r

r r

r
dr
r

Plane Strain
r ( er e ) 2er

Plane Stress
1
er ( r )
E
( er e ) 2e
z ( er e ) ( r ) e 1 ( )

r
E
r 2er , z rz 0

ez ( r )
( e r e )
E
1
1
er
r , ez erz 0
E

2 1
1 2 2 1
1 2

2
r r r 2 2 r 2 r r r 2 2
r