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Microwave Circuit Design

By
Professor Syed Idris Syed Hassan
Sch of Elect. & Electron Eng
Engineering Campus USM
Nibong Tebal 14300
SPS Penang

Introduction
10 weeks lecture + 4 weeks ADS simulation
Assessments :8 tests + 2 ADS assignments
+ 1 final examination
Class : 9.00- 10.30 lecture
10.30-11.00 rest (tea break)
11.00-12.30 lecture
12.30- 1.00 test

Dates

06/04/02 Morning
20/04/02 Morning
27/04/02 Morning
04/05/02 Morning
11/05/02 Morning
18/05/02 Morning
25/05/02 Morning

08/06/02 Morning
15/06/02 Morning
22/06/02 Morning
29/06/02 morning
06/07/02 Morning
20/07/02 Morning
27/07/02 Morning

Syllabus

Transmission lines
Network parameters
Matching techniques
Power dividers and combiners
Diode circuits
Microwave amplifiers
Oscillators
Filters design
Applications
Miscellaneous

References
David M Pozar ,Microwave Engineering- 2nd Ed., John
Wiley , 1998
E.H.Fooks & R.A.Zakarevicius, Microwave
Engineering using microstrip circuits, Prentice
Hall,1989.
G. D. Vendelin, A.M.Pavio &U.L.Rohde, Microwave
circuit design-using linear and Nonlinear Techniques,
John Wiley, 1990.
W.H.Hayward, Introduction to Radio Frequency
Design, Prentice Hall, 1982.

Transmission Line

Equivalent Circuit
R

C
G

Lossy line

R j L
Zo
G j C

Lossless line

L
Zo
C

LC

R j L G j C

Analysis
I ( z, t )

I z

R j L

V ( z, t )

G j C

dV
dI

V V
z RI z L z
dz
dt

dV
dI

z RI z L z
dz
dt
dV
dI
RI L
dz
dt

V z

dV
dz

Kirchoff current law

From Kirchoff Voltage Law

dI
dz

dI
dV

I I z GV z C
z
dz
dt

(a)

dI
dV
z GV z C
z
dz
dt

dI
dV
GV C
dz
dt

(b)

Analysis
Lets V=Voejt , I = Ioejt

then

dV
j V
dt

dI
j I
dt

Therefore
a

dV

R j L I
dz

dI
G j C V
dz

Differentiate with respect to z


d 2V
dI
2 R j L

d 2I
dV
2 G j C
dz
dz

d 2V
R j L G j C V
2
dz
d 2V
2

V
dz 2

d 2I
R j L G j C I
2
dz

dz

dz

d 2I
2

I
2
dz

Analysis
The solution of V and I can be written in the form of

and

Ae

V Ae z Be
R j L

G j C

Zo

where

z
Be
Zo

R j L G j C

Let say at z=0 , V=VL , I=IL and Z=ZL

VL A B
and

VL
ZL
IL

A B
IL
Zo

Therefore

Analysis
Solve simultaneous equations ( e ) and (f )

V I L Zo
B L
2

V I L Zo
A L
2

Inserting in equations ( c) and (d) we have


e z e z
e z e z
V ( z ) VL
I L Zo

2
2

e z e z VL e z e z
I ( z) I L

2
2

Z o

Analysis
e z e z

But cosh( z )
2

and

e z e z
sinh( z )

Then, we have
V ( z ) VL cosh( z ) I L Z o sinh( z )

and

VL
**
I ( z ) I L cosh( z )
sinh( z )
Zo

V ( z ) VL cosh( z ) I L Z o sinh( z )
Z ( z)

I ( z ) I cosh( z ) VL sinh( z )
L

Z
o

Analysis
or

Z L cosh( z ) Z o sinh( z )

Z ( z ) Z o
Z o cosh( z ) Z L sinh( z )

Or further reduce

Z L Z o tanh( z )

Z ( z ) Z o
Z o Z L tanh( z )

For lossless transmission line , = jsince


cosh( j z ) cos( z )
sinh( j z ) j sin( z )

Z L jZ o tan( z )

Z ( z ) Z o
Z o jZ L tan( z )

Analysis
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR)
node

antinode
Reflection coefficient

Be z
Ae z

Ae-z

Bez
Voltage and current in term of reflection coefficient

VL Ae z Be z Ae z 1
Ae z Be z Ae z
1
IL

Zo
Zo

VL 1
Z o
ZL

IL 1

or Z L 1
Z o 1

Analysis
For loss-less transmission line
= j
By substituting in * and ** ,voltage and current amplitude are

V ( z ) A 1 2 cos(2 z )

1/ 2

1/ 2
A
2
I ( z)
1 2 cos(2 z )
Zo
Voltage at maximum and minimum points are

Vmax A(1 )

and

Therefore VSWR s 1

g
h

Vmin A(1 )
ZL
For purely resistive load s
Zo

Analysis
Other related equations
Z max

1
Vmax
sZ o

Z o

I min
1

Z min

1 Zo
Vmin

Z o

I max
1

Z L Zo


Z L Zo
From equations (g) and (h), we can find the max and min points
Maximum

2 z 0, 2 , 4 ,

Minimum

2 z , 3 ,

Important Transmission line equations


Zin

Zo

ZL

Z L jZ o tanh
Zin Z o
Z o jZ L tanh

Z L Zo

Z L Zo

1
SWR
1

Various forms of Transmission


Lines

Two wire
cable

Rectangular
waveguide

Microstripe
line

Coaxial
cable

Circular
waveguide

Stripline

Parallel wire cable

C
cosh 1 d / 2a

cosh

1
Zo

d / 2a

or
ln d / a

or ln d / a

for
for

cosh 1 d / 2a

Where a = radius of conductor


d = separation between conductors

a d
a d

Coaxial cable
b
a

2
C
ln b / a
1
Zo
ln b / a
2

L
ln b / a
2
ckc
fc
2 r
2
kc
ab

Where a = radius of inner conductor


b = radius of outer conductor
c = 3 x 108 m/s

Micro strip
Conducted strip

he

t
r

Substrate
Ground

t=thickness of conductor

Characteristic impedance of
Microstrip line
For

60
w / h 1 Zo
ln 8h / we 0.25we / h
eff
eff

For

r 1 r 1

1 12h / we 0.5 0.041 we / h 2


2
2

w / h 1 Zo

eff

eff

377
we / h 1.393 0.667 ln we / h 1.444

r 1 r 1
0.5

1 12h / we
2
2

t 2he

ln

1
Where e

he h 2 t

w=width of strip
h=height and
t=thickness

Microstrip width
Zo r 1
A

60 2
60 2
B
Zo r

For A>1.52

1/ 2

r 1
0.11
0.23

r 1
r

8 exp( A)
W /h
exp(2 A) 2

For A<1.52
2
r 1
0.61
W / h B 1 ln 2 B 1
lb B 1 0.39

2 r
r

Simple Calculation
377
Zo
w

r 2
h

377
w/ h
2
r Zo

Approximation only

Microstrip components

Capacitance
Inductance
Short/Open stub
Open stub
Transformer
Resonator

Capacitance

Zoc

Zo

For

For

Zo

Z oc c1

C
sin
Z oc 2c1
2

3 108
c1
m/s
r

Inductance

ZoL

Zo

For

For

Zo

Z oL
L
c1
Z oL

L
sin

c1

3 108
c1
m/s
r

Short Stub

Zo

ZL

Zo

Zo
Z

Z sc X L jZ o tan

tan

X L / Zo

360 eff

Open stub

Zo

ZL

Zo

Zo
Z

Z oc X c jZ o cot

cot

X c / Zo

360 eff

Quarter-wave transformer

Zo

ZT

At maximum point
Z L Zo


Z L Zo

x
2

in radian

Zo

ZL

Zmx/min

1
s
1

Z ( x) max Z o s

ZT Z in Z mx Z o .Z o s Z o s

Quarter-wave transformer
at minimum point
Z L Zo


Z L Zo


x
2

in radian

1
s
1

Z ( x) min Z o / s

ZT Z in Z min Z o .Z o / s Z o / s

Resonator

Circular microstrip disk


Circular ring
Short-circuited/2 lossy line
Open-circuited /2 lossy line
Short-circuited /4 lossy line

Circular disk/ring
feeding
a
a

1.841o
2 r

a
4
* These components usually use for resonators

Short-circuited/2 lossy line


Zin

R Z o
Zo
L
2 o
C

Zo

n/2
o L

R
2 2

o2 L

= series RLC resonant


cct

where

Open-circuited /2 lossy line


Zin

Zo

= parallel RLC resonant cct

n/2
R

Zo

C
2 o Z o
L

o 2C

Q o RC

2 2
where

Short-circuited /4 lossy line


Zin

Zo

= parallel RLC resonant cct

/4
R

Zo

C
4 o Z o
L

o 2C

Q o RC

4 2
where

Rectangular waveguide
b

ZTE

a
Cut-off frequency of TE or TM mode
f cmn

g 2

1
2

o 2

c 2

g
o

ZTM
n

b
Conductor attenuation for TE10
c

Rs

a b g

2b 2 a3 o2

Rs

o
2

Np / m

Example
Given that a= 2.286cm , b=1.016cm and xS/m.
What are the mode and attenuation for 10GHz?

Using this equation to calculate cutoff frequency of each mode


f cmn

1
2

Calculation
TE10
a=2.286mm, b=1.016mm, m=1 and n=0 ,thus we have
f c10

3 108

2
0
.
002286

6.562 109 GHz

Similarly we can calculate for other modes

Example
Mode

fcmn

TE10

6.562 GHz

TE20

13.123GHz

TE01

14.764GHz

TE11

16.156GHz

TE10

6.562GHz

TE20 TE01

13.123GHz14.764GHz

TE11

16.156GHz

Frequency 10Ghz is propagating in


TE10.mode since this frequency is
below the 13.123GHz (TE20) and
above 6.561GHz (TE10)

continue

o
a

Rs

or

158.05m 1

o
0.026
2
3

Rs

a b g

2b 2 a3 o2 0.0125

Np / m

c (dB ) 20 log e c 0.11 dB / m

Evanescent mode
Mode that propagates below cutoff frequency of a wave guide is
called evanescent mode
Wave propagation constant is

kc 2 2 o2

Where kc is referred to cutoff frequency, is referred to


propagation in waveguide and is in space
When f0< fc ,
But

2 kc 2 o2
=attenuation

Since no propagation then

The wave guide become attenuator

=phase constant

o 2

Cylindrical waveguide
a

p'n1

p'n2

p'n3

3.832

7.016

10.174

1.841

5.331

8.536

3.054

6.706

9.97

TE mode
,
pnm
f cnm
2 a

Dominant mode is TE11

2
nm o2 kcnm

,
g
pnm
ZTE
kcnm
o
a
2

Rs

o
kc112
c
2
a o g
p '11
1

continue
a

pn1

pn2

pn3

2.405

5.520

8.654

3.832

7.016

10.174

5.135

8.417

11.620

TM mode
pnm
f cnm
2 a
2
nm o2 kcnm

pnm

o
g
TM01 is preferable for long haul
transmission

kcnm

ZTM

Example
Find the cutoff wavelength of the first four modes of a circular waveguide
of radius 1cm
2nd mode

Refer to tables

TM modes

TE modes
n

p'n1

p'n2

p'n3

pn1

pn2

pn3

3.832

7.016

10.174

2.405

5.520

8.654

1.841

5.331

8.536

3.832

7.016

10.174

3.054

6.706

9.97

5.135

8.417

11.620

1st mode

3rd &4th
modes

Calculation
pnm
f cnm
2 a

cnm

2a
pnm

1st mode Pnm= 1.841, TE11

2 0.01
c11
0.0341m
1.841

2 mode Pnm= 2.405, TM01

2 0.01
c 01
0.0261m
2.405

nd

1st mode Pnm= 3.832, TE01 and TM11

c 01

c11

2 0.01
0.0164m
3.832

Stripline
b

Zo

30 b
r We 0.441b

We W

W
0.35
b

We W
0.35 W / b 2
b
b

W
0.35
b

Continue
On the other hand we can calculate the width of
stripline for a given characteristic impedance
W
30

0.441
b
r Zo

W
0.85 0.6
b

30
0.441
r Zo

r Z o 120

for

for

r Z o 120

Continue
2.7 103 Rs r Z o
A

30 b t

c
0.16 Rs B
Z ob

Where

2W
bt
2b t
A 1

ln

b t b t
t

for r Z o 120
for r Z o 120

b
0.414t 1 4 W

B 1

ln
0.5

0.5W 0.7t
W
2
t
t =thickness of the strip