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# Microwave Circuit Design

By
Professor Syed Idris Syed Hassan
Sch of Elect. & Electron Eng
Engineering Campus USM
Nibong Tebal 14300
SPS Penang

Introduction
10 weeks lecture + 4 weeks ADS simulation
Assessments :8 tests + 2 ADS assignments
+ 1 final examination
Class : 9.00- 10.30 lecture
10.30-11.00 rest (tea break)
11.00-12.30 lecture
12.30- 1.00 test

Dates

06/04/02 Morning
20/04/02 Morning
27/04/02 Morning
04/05/02 Morning
11/05/02 Morning
18/05/02 Morning
25/05/02 Morning

08/06/02 Morning
15/06/02 Morning
22/06/02 Morning
29/06/02 morning
06/07/02 Morning
20/07/02 Morning
27/07/02 Morning

Syllabus

Transmission lines
Network parameters
Matching techniques
Power dividers and combiners
Diode circuits
Microwave amplifiers
Oscillators
Filters design
Applications
Miscellaneous

References
David M Pozar ,Microwave Engineering- 2nd Ed., John
Wiley , 1998
E.H.Fooks & R.A.Zakarevicius, Microwave
Engineering using microstrip circuits, Prentice
Hall,1989.
G. D. Vendelin, A.M.Pavio &U.L.Rohde, Microwave
circuit design-using linear and Nonlinear Techniques,
John Wiley, 1990.
Design, Prentice Hall, 1982.

Transmission Line

Equivalent Circuit
R

C
G

Lossy line

R j L
Zo
G j C

Lossless line

L
Zo
C

LC

R j L G j C

Analysis
I ( z, t )

I z

R j L

V ( z, t )

G j C

dV
dI

V V
z RI z L z
dz
dt

dV
dI

z RI z L z
dz
dt
dV
dI
RI L
dz
dt

V z

dV
dz

## From Kirchoff Voltage Law

dI
dz

dI
dV

I I z GV z C
z
dz
dt

(a)

dI
dV
z GV z C
z
dz
dt

dI
dV
GV C
dz
dt

(b)

Analysis
Lets V=Voejt , I = Ioejt

then

dV
j V
dt

dI
j I
dt

Therefore
a

dV

R j L I
dz

dI
G j C V
dz

## Differentiate with respect to z

d 2V
dI
2 R j L

d 2I
dV
2 G j C
dz
dz

d 2V
R j L G j C V
2
dz
d 2V
2

V
dz 2

d 2I
R j L G j C I
2
dz

dz

dz

d 2I
2

I
2
dz

Analysis
The solution of V and I can be written in the form of

and

Ae

V Ae z Be
R j L

G j C

Zo

where

z
Be
Zo

R j L G j C

## Let say at z=0 , V=VL , I=IL and Z=ZL

VL A B
and

VL
ZL
IL

A B
IL
Zo

Therefore

Analysis
Solve simultaneous equations ( e ) and (f )

V I L Zo
B L
2

V I L Zo
A L
2

## Inserting in equations ( c) and (d) we have

e z e z
e z e z
V ( z ) VL
I L Zo

2
2

e z e z VL e z e z
I ( z) I L

2
2

Z o

Analysis
e z e z

But cosh( z )
2

and

e z e z
sinh( z )

Then, we have
V ( z ) VL cosh( z ) I L Z o sinh( z )

and

VL
**
I ( z ) I L cosh( z )
sinh( z )
Zo

V ( z ) VL cosh( z ) I L Z o sinh( z )
Z ( z)

I ( z ) I cosh( z ) VL sinh( z )
L

Z
o

Analysis
or

Z L cosh( z ) Z o sinh( z )

Z ( z ) Z o
Z o cosh( z ) Z L sinh( z )

Or further reduce

Z L Z o tanh( z )

Z ( z ) Z o
Z o Z L tanh( z )

## For lossless transmission line , = jsince

cosh( j z ) cos( z )
sinh( j z ) j sin( z )

Z L jZ o tan( z )

Z ( z ) Z o
Z o jZ L tan( z )

Analysis
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR)
node

antinode
Reflection coefficient

Be z
Ae z

Ae-z

Bez
Voltage and current in term of reflection coefficient

VL Ae z Be z Ae z 1
Ae z Be z Ae z
1
IL

Zo
Zo

VL 1
Z o
ZL

IL 1

or Z L 1
Z o 1

Analysis
For loss-less transmission line
= j
By substituting in * and ** ,voltage and current amplitude are

V ( z ) A 1 2 cos(2 z )

1/ 2

1/ 2
A
2
I ( z)
1 2 cos(2 z )
Zo
Voltage at maximum and minimum points are

Vmax A(1 )

and

Therefore VSWR s 1

g
h

Vmin A(1 )
ZL
Zo

Analysis
Other related equations
Z max

1
Vmax
sZ o

Z o

I min
1

Z min

1 Zo
Vmin

Z o

I max
1

Z L Zo

Z L Zo
From equations (g) and (h), we can find the max and min points
Maximum

2 z 0, 2 , 4 ,

Minimum

2 z , 3 ,

Zin

Zo

ZL

Z L jZ o tanh
Zin Z o
Z o jZ L tanh

Z L Zo

Z L Zo

1
SWR
1

Lines

Two wire
cable

Rectangular
waveguide

Microstripe
line

Coaxial
cable

Circular
waveguide

Stripline

C
cosh 1 d / 2a

cosh

1
Zo

d / 2a

or
ln d / a

or ln d / a

for
for

cosh 1 d / 2a

## Where a = radius of conductor

d = separation between conductors

a d
a d

Coaxial cable
b
a

2
C
ln b / a
1
Zo
ln b / a
2

L
ln b / a
2
ckc
fc
2 r
2
kc
ab

## Where a = radius of inner conductor

b = radius of outer conductor
c = 3 x 108 m/s

Micro strip
Conducted strip

he

t
r

Substrate
Ground

t=thickness of conductor

Characteristic impedance of
Microstrip line
For

60
w / h 1 Zo
ln 8h / we 0.25we / h
eff
eff

For

r 1 r 1

## 1 12h / we 0.5 0.041 we / h 2

2
2

w / h 1 Zo

eff

eff

377
we / h 1.393 0.667 ln we / h 1.444

r 1 r 1
0.5

1 12h / we
2
2

t 2he

ln

1
Where e

he h 2 t

w=width of strip
h=height and
t=thickness

Microstrip width
Zo r 1
A

60 2
60 2
B
Zo r

For A>1.52

1/ 2

r 1
0.11
0.23

r 1
r

8 exp( A)
W /h
exp(2 A) 2

For A<1.52
2
r 1
0.61
W / h B 1 ln 2 B 1
lb B 1 0.39

2 r
r

Simple Calculation
377
Zo
w

r 2
h

377
w/ h
2
r Zo

Approximation only

Microstrip components

Capacitance
Inductance
Short/Open stub
Open stub
Transformer
Resonator

Capacitance

Zoc

Zo

For

For

Zo

Z oc c1

C
sin
Z oc 2c1
2

3 108
c1
m/s
r

Inductance

ZoL

Zo

For

For

Zo

Z oL
L
c1
Z oL

L
sin

c1

3 108
c1
m/s
r

Short Stub

Zo

ZL

Zo

Zo
Z

Z sc X L jZ o tan

tan

X L / Zo

360 eff

Open stub

Zo

ZL

Zo

Zo
Z

Z oc X c jZ o cot

cot

X c / Zo

360 eff

Quarter-wave transformer

Zo

ZT

At maximum point
Z L Zo

Z L Zo

x
2

Zo

ZL

Zmx/min

1
s
1

Z ( x) max Z o s

ZT Z in Z mx Z o .Z o s Z o s

Quarter-wave transformer
at minimum point
Z L Zo

Z L Zo

x
2

1
s
1

Z ( x) min Z o / s

ZT Z in Z min Z o .Z o / s Z o / s

Resonator

## Circular microstrip disk

Circular ring
Short-circuited/2 lossy line
Open-circuited /2 lossy line
Short-circuited /4 lossy line

Circular disk/ring
feeding
a
a

1.841o
2 r

a
4
* These components usually use for resonators

Zin

R Z o
Zo
L
2 o
C

Zo

n/2
o L

R
2 2

o2 L

cct

where

Zin

Zo

n/2
R

Zo

C
2 o Z o
L

o 2C

Q o RC

2 2
where

Zin

Zo

## = parallel RLC resonant cct

/4
R

Zo

C
4 o Z o
L

o 2C

Q o RC

4 2
where

Rectangular waveguide
b

ZTE

a
Cut-off frequency of TE or TM mode
f cmn

g 2

1
2

o 2

c 2

g
o

ZTM
n

b
Conductor attenuation for TE10
c

Rs

a b g

2b 2 a3 o2

Rs

o
2

Np / m

Example
Given that a= 2.286cm , b=1.016cm and xS/m.
What are the mode and attenuation for 10GHz?

## Using this equation to calculate cutoff frequency of each mode

f cmn

1
2

Calculation
TE10
a=2.286mm, b=1.016mm, m=1 and n=0 ,thus we have
f c10

3 108

2
0
.
002286

## Similarly we can calculate for other modes

Example
Mode

fcmn

TE10

6.562 GHz

TE20

13.123GHz

TE01

14.764GHz

TE11

16.156GHz

TE10

6.562GHz

TE20 TE01

13.123GHz14.764GHz

TE11

16.156GHz

## Frequency 10Ghz is propagating in

TE10.mode since this frequency is
below the 13.123GHz (TE20) and
above 6.561GHz (TE10)

continue

o
a

Rs

or

158.05m 1

o
0.026
2
3

Rs

a b g

2b 2 a3 o2 0.0125

Np / m

## c (dB ) 20 log e c 0.11 dB / m

Evanescent mode
Mode that propagates below cutoff frequency of a wave guide is
called evanescent mode
Wave propagation constant is

kc 2 2 o2

## Where kc is referred to cutoff frequency, is referred to

propagation in waveguide and is in space
When f0< fc ,
But

2 kc 2 o2
=attenuation

## The wave guide become attenuator

=phase constant

o 2

Cylindrical waveguide
a

p'n1

p'n2

p'n3

3.832

7.016

10.174

1.841

5.331

8.536

3.054

6.706

9.97

TE mode
,
pnm
f cnm
2 a

## Dominant mode is TE11

2
nm o2 kcnm

,
g
pnm
ZTE
kcnm
o
a
2

Rs

o
kc112
c
2
a o g
p '11
1

continue
a

pn1

pn2

pn3

2.405

5.520

8.654

3.832

7.016

10.174

5.135

8.417

11.620

TM mode
pnm
f cnm
2 a
2
nm o2 kcnm

pnm

o
g
TM01 is preferable for long haul
transmission

kcnm

ZTM

Example
Find the cutoff wavelength of the first four modes of a circular waveguide
2nd mode

Refer to tables

TM modes

TE modes
n

p'n1

p'n2

p'n3

pn1

pn2

pn3

3.832

7.016

10.174

2.405

5.520

8.654

1.841

5.331

8.536

3.832

7.016

10.174

3.054

6.706

9.97

5.135

8.417

11.620

1st mode

3rd &4th
modes

Calculation
pnm
f cnm
2 a

cnm

2a
pnm

2 0.01
c11
0.0341m
1.841

2 0.01
c 01
0.0261m
2.405

nd

## 1st mode Pnm= 3.832, TE01 and TM11

c 01

c11

2 0.01
0.0164m
3.832

Stripline
b

Zo

30 b
r We 0.441b

We W

W
0.35
b

We W
0.35 W / b 2
b
b

W
0.35
b

Continue
On the other hand we can calculate the width of
stripline for a given characteristic impedance
W
30

0.441
b
r Zo

W
0.85 0.6
b

30
0.441
r Zo

r Z o 120

for

for

r Z o 120

Continue
2.7 103 Rs r Z o
A

30 b t

c
0.16 Rs B
Z ob

Where

2W
bt
2b t
A 1

ln

b t b t
t

for r Z o 120
for r Z o 120

b
0.414t 1 4 W

B 1

ln
0.5

0.5W 0.7t
W
2
t
t =thickness of the strip