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DR. drh.

Hapsari Mahatmi, MP

Chlamydiosis, Psittacosis, Ornithosis

An infection of turkeys, ducks, psittacines, pigeons, man, rarely
chickens, caused by Chlamydia psittaci, a bacterium of highly
variable pathogenicity. It is a 'Scheduled Disease' rarely diagnosed
in UK, but occurring probably worldwide. Morbidity is 50-80%,
mortality 5-40%.
It is transmitted by contact, faecal dust and wild bird carriers,
especially pigeons and robins. Egg transmission does not occur.
Elementary bodies are highly resistant and can survive in dried
faeces for many months.
Iodophores and formaldehyde are effective disinfecting agents,
phenolics are less so. Intercurrent salmonellosis and, perhaps,
other infections may be predisposing factors.

DR. drh. Hapsari Mahatmi, MP.

Staff Laboratorium Mikrobiologi
I. Penyakit Infeksius I

Respiratory signs.
Greenish-yellow diarrhoea.
Weight loss.
Nasal discharge.
Occasional transient ataxia in pigeons.
Production drops in naive laying flocks

Post-mortem lesions
Vascular congestion.
Fibrinous pericarditis.

Spleen enlarged and congested, may rupture in pigeons.
Necrotic foci in liver.
Fibrinous pneumonia.
Congested lungs and air sacs in the turkey.

History, signs, lesions. Intracytoplasmic inclusions are
helpful but confirmation requires demonstration of causal
organisms (Giemsa stain, IFA).
Serology: complement fixation, Elisa and gel diffusion.
Differentiate from Duck viral hepatitis, Duck septicaemia.

Tetracycline (200-800 ppm in feed for 3-4 weeks) and/or quinolone
medication and supervised slaughter.

Biosecurity, exclusion of wild birds.
Live and inactivated vaccines are protective although the former
result in carriers and the latter require several applications

Infectious coryza
Etiologic agent: Hemophilus paragallinarum bacteria
- Qualitative detection of Infectious coryza (Hemophilus
paragallinarum bacteria) by polymerase chain reaction
Infectious coryza (IC) is an infectious respiratory disease found in
many avian species worldwide. The causative agent of IC is
Hemophilus paragallinarum. The disease can be acute to subacute
at onset but typically progresses to a chronic state, with infected
birds becoming carriers of the bacteria. Common names for the
disease include roup, cold and coryza. In the United States, it is
predominantly found in small noncommercial, or hobby flocks.
While chickens are the primary host of infectious coryza, pheasants,
guinea fowl and turkeys are also susceptible.

Chronically ill or inapparent healthy carrier birds : reservoir

The source of the disease : carrier birds to the flock.
Recovered birds remain carriers and shedders for life.
Transmission occurs by direct bird to bird contact, inhalation of
infectious aerosols coughed into the air, or by ingestion of
contaminated feed and water.
The organism can be transferred on contaminated clothing,
equipment and other fomites.
Coryza usually occurs in juvenile and mature birds 14 weeks of
age or older.
Incubation period is 1 to 3 days and the course of the acute
disease stage is 4 to 12 weeks.
Symptoms include nasal discharge, facial swelling, sneezing,
labored breathing and fetid odor of the exudates.
The infection mainly involves the upper respiratory tract--trachea,
sinuses and air passages of the head.

Morphology :
H. paragallinarum bacteria have a polar staining and pleomorphic
rod morphology. The bacterium is non-motile and gram negative.
There are three antigenic types (A, B, and C) which all share
certain antigens. H. paragallinarum requires both X and V
factors in the media to grow.
Culture identification has traditionally been used to identify this
bacterium. However, the stringent requirements for sample
handling for culture for this bacterium, long incubation time and
the occurrence of numerous variants of the bacteria have made
culture difficult to perform and not optimally sensitive.
Serological detection of H. paragallinarum is limited by
availability of good monoclonal antibodies and the sensitivity of
the individual assay protocol. Molecular detection by PCR has
been confirmed to be the most sensitive, specific and rapid way
of identifying this bacterium (Blackall, 1999).

Mycoplasmosis (CRD, Air sac, Sinusitis)

Genus Mycoplasma are a significant cause of respiratory disease in poultry.
Of the numerous species of Mycoplasma that have been isolated from
domestic poultry, three are of known significance.
Mycoplasma gallisepticum is associated with chronic respiratory disease
(CRD)/air sac syndrome in chickens and turkeys and infectious sinusitis of
Mycoplasma meleagridis is associated with airsacculitis in turkeys; and
Mycoplasma synoviae is the cause of infectious synovitis in chickens and
turkeys. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD), air sac syndrome and
infectious sinusitis of turkeys have a common cause. CRD was first
recognized as a chronic but mild respiratory disease of adult chickens. It
reduced egg production but caused little or no mortality. Afterward, a
condition known as "air sac disease" became a problem in young birds. It
caused high mortality in some flocks. Many birds became stunted, feed
efficiency was reduced, and many fowl were rejected as unfit for human
consumption when processed.

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is widespread and affects many

species of birds. Eradication programs have reduced the
incidence in recent years. It is primarily spread through the egg.
Infected hens transmit organisms and the chick or poult is
infected when it hatches. Organisms may also be transmitted by
direct contact with infected or carrier birds.

Respiratory symptoms such as coughing, sneezing and a nasal
In the air sac syndrome there is an extensive involvement of the
entire respiratory system. The air sacs are often cloudy and
contain large amounts of exudate. Affected birds become
droopy, feed consumption decreases and there is a rapid loss of
body weight.

Infectious sinusitis in turkeys occurs in two forms. When

the "upper" form is present, there is only a swelling of the
sinus under the eye. In the "lower" form, the lungs and air sacs
are involved. The air sacs become cloudy and may contain large
amounts of exudate. Both forms of the disease are usually
present in the flock and frequently are present in the same bird.

Diagnosis of either condition must be based on flock history,

symptoms and lesions. Blood tests are useful in determining
whether a flock is infected.

Therapy :
high levels of one of the broad spectrum antibiotics (Tylosin,
aureomycin, terramycin, gallimycin) either in feed, drinking
water or by injections. The "upper"; form of infectious
sinusitis can be treated with success by injecting antibiotics
into the swollen sinus cavity.