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BASIC INTRODUCTION OF

BIOPROCESS
Fundamental of Biochemical Eng,
2008, Dutta, R., Springer
Principles of Fermentation Tech.,
1999, Stanbury, et al.,
Butterworth Heineman

BIOPROCESS

any processes/applications/methods/techniques that uses complete


living cells or their components (e.g., cell, enzymes, chloroplasts) to
obtain/produce desired products
Application of biology science in industrial processes
Chemical engineers & biological scientists need to work together:
1. to obtain the best biological catalyst (microorganism, animal cell,
plant cell, or enzyme) for a desired process
2. to create the best possible environment for the catalyst to perform by
designing the bioreactor and operating it in the most efficient way
3. to separate the desired products from the reaction mixture in the
most economical way
involve process design & development

setiap proses / aplikasi / metode / teknik yang menggunakan sel-sel


hidup lengkap atau komponen mereka ( misalnya , sel , enzim ,
kloroplas ) untuk mendapatkan / menghasilkan produk yang diinginkan
Penerapan ilmu biologi dalam proses industri Insinyur kimia & biologis
ilmuwan harus bekerja sama : 1. untuk mendapatkan katalis terbaik
biologis ( mikroorganisme , sel hewan , sel tumbuhan , atau enzim )
untuk proses yang diinginkan 2. untuk menciptakan lingkungan yang
terbaik bagi katalis untuk melakukan dengan merancang bioreaktor dan
beroperasi dalam cara yang paling efisien 3. untuk memisahkan produk
yang diinginkan dari campuran reaksi dengan cara yang paling
ekonomis Desain proses involve & pengembangan

Typical bioprocess

the questions..

What change can be expected to occur?


understanding of the basic sciences for the process involved
How fast will the process take place?
Kinetics deals with rate of a reaction and how it is affected by various
chemic'al and physical conditions.
How can the system be operated and controlled for the maximum yield?
reliable on-line sensing devices need to be developed to enhance the
operability of and to ensure that these processes are operated at the most
economical points
How can the products be separated with maximum purity and minimum
costs?
various downstream process: such as distillation, absorption, extraction,
adsorption, drying, filtration, precipitation, and leaching etc

Apa perubahan dapat diharapkan terjadi ? pemahaman ilmu-ilmu dasar untuk


proses yang terlibat Seberapa cepat proses akan berlangsung ? Kinetics
berkaitan dengan laju reaksi dan bagaimana hal itu dipengaruhi oleh berbagai
kondisi chemic'al dan fisik . Bagaimana sistem dioperasikan dan dikendalikan
untuk hasil maksimum ? diandalkan on-line perangkat penginderaan perlu
dikembangkan untuk meningkatkan operabilitas dan untuk memastikan bahwa
proses tersebut dioperasikan pada titik-titik yang paling ekonomis Bagaimana
produk dipisahkan dengan kemurnian maksimum dan minimum biaya ?
berbagai proses hilir : seperti distilasi , penyerapan , ekstraksi , adsorpsi ,
pengeringan , filtrasi , curah hujan , dan pencucian dll

The advantages of bioprocess


1. Mild reaction condition:
room temperature, atmospheric pressure, and fairly neutral
medium pH the operation is less hazardous, manufacturing
facilities are less complex
2. Specificity:
An enzyme catalyst highly specific and catalyzes only one or
a small number of chemical reactions. A great variety of
enzymes exist that can catalyze a very wide range of reactions.
3. Effectiveness:
A small amount of enzyme is required to produce the desired
effect. The rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction much
faster.
A small amount of enzyme is required
4. Renewable resources:
The major raw material for bioprocesses is biomass which
provides both the carbon skeletons and the energy required for
synthesis for organic chemical manufacture.

Disadvantages of bioprocess:
1. Complex product mixtures:
substrate is a mixture; multiple enzyme reactions are occurring in sequence or in
parallel. mixed final product cell mass, many metabolic by-products, rest of
original nutrients.
2. Dilute aqueous environments:
small amounts in an aqueous medium (SmF) separation is very expensive.
Products heat sensitive; traditional separation techniques cannot be employed,
develop the novel technique
3. Contamination:
The fermenter system can be easily contaminated bacteria and molds grow well
in most media.
more difficult with the cultivation of plant or animal cells their growth rates are
much slower than those of bacteria or molds.
4. Variability:
Cells tend to mutate due to the changing environment
Enzymes are comparatively sensitive or unstable molecules and require care in their
use.

1. Kondisi reaksi ringan : suhu kamar , tekanan atmosfer , dan pH media


cukup netral operasi kurang berbahaya , fasilitas manufaktur kurang
kompleks 2. Kekhususan : Katalis enzim sangat spesifik dan mengkatalisis
hanya satu atau sejumlah kecil reaksi kimia . Berbagai macam enzim ada
yang dapat mengkatalisis rentang yang sangat luas dari reaksi . 3. Efektivitas
: Sejumlah kecil enzim yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan efek yang
diinginkan . Laju reaksi enzim - dikatalisasi lebih cepat . Sejumlah kecil
enzim yang diperlukan 4. Sumber daya terbarukan : Bahan baku utama untuk
bioprocesses adalah biomassa yang menyediakan kerangka karbon dan

Bioprocess products
3

categories:
biomass
cell products, &
modified
compounds
(biotransformation)

3 kategori : biomassa,
produk sel , & Senyawa
dimodifikasi
(biotransformasi )